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ESTABLISHED BY EDWARD L. YOUMANS. 



THE 



POPULAR SCIENCE 



MONTHLY. 



KIEV VCM 




EDITED BY WILLIAM JAY YOUMANS. 



VOL. XLI. 

MAY TO OCTOBER, 1892. 

MERCANTftE LIBRARY 

MEW YORK. 



NEW YORK : 

D. A PPL ETON AND COMPANY, 

1, 3, and 5 BOND STREET. 

1892. 



R 



C'OPYRUiHT, 1892, 
Eft I) API'I.ETON AND COMPANY. 




VLESSAKDRO VOLTA. 




R 



M I ' 



THE 

POPULAR SCIENCE 
MONTHLY. 



MAY, 1892. 




HERBERT SPENCER AND THE SYNTHETIC 

PHILOSOPHY.* 

By WILLIAM H. HUDSON. 

ASSISTANT LIBRARIAN, CORNELL UNIVERSITY. 

THE present paper aims at furnishing an introduction to the 
study of Mr. Spencer's philosophic system ; but, to avoid all 
possibility of misconception, it may be well to state at the outset 
in what sense the word introduction is here employed. Let it be 
understood, then, that by it we mean neither an exposition nor 
a criticism ; in other words, we do not now undertake either to 
summarize the arguments and conclusions of the Synthetic Phi- 
losophy, or to pass judgment upon them. Popular introductions 
to abstruse and voluminous works too often confine themselves to 
one or both of these methods ; our course, on the other hand, will 
be a humbler, but, we may trust, not less useful one. Assuming 
that the student of any great epoch-making work will feel himself 
the better prepared to grapple with that work if he knows some- 
thing of its genetic history I mean, of its inception, formulation, 
and growth ; and will be placed in a more advantageous position 
for judging of its essential merits if he understands its relation to 
the thought and speculation of the time, we purpose to approach 
Mr. Spencer's philosophy by way of its evolution ; to consider, not 
what it is to-day, but rather how it came to be what it is to-day. 
In a brief outline of the gradual unfolding and consolidation of 
Mr. Spencer's thought, and in some appreciation of the historic 
significance of his writings, will, we believe, be found the best 
kind of introduction for those who would prepare themselves for 
the direct and personal study of his works. 



* Read before the Unity Club, Ithaca, New York. 

YOL. XLI. 1 



31770 



2 THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

In the first place, then, we have to review the growth and solidi- 
fication of Mr. Spencer's thought-in other words, the elaboration, 
as exhibited in his earlier writings, of that conception of evolution 
which was to find its definite expression in the majestic series of 
works of which the Synthetic Philosophy is composed. Let us 

rin by making ourselves acquainted with the starting-point of 
his mental development that is, with the general theory of things 
which was current during his early years, and under the influ- 
ence of which, in common with all his contemporaries, he grew to 

man's estate. 

The period of Spencer's youth and ripening manhood was a 
period of transition in scientific and philosophic thought. On the 
ushering in of the present century the old cosmology still held 
sway with unabated vigor, along with all those time-worn dogmas 
concerning human life and destiny which had grown up with it 
during ages of ignorance and superstition, and with which its own 
existence was now inextricably bound up. What that cosmology 
and what those dogmas meant is a matter of such common his- 
tory that we need not linger over them here. Suffice it to say 
that the unquestioned doctrines of special creation, fixed types, 
and a recent origin of the universe, lay at the bottom of them all, 
and that it was in the light of those doctrines that the world and 
life and man were one and all interpreted. 

But before the century had got far upon its way, signs began 
to manifest themselves of an approaching change in the higher 
regions of thought. The special-creation hypothesis and the post- 
ulate of the world's recent origin and rapid manufacture had 
served well enough so long as their field had remained uninvaded 
by the results of investigation so long as they had not been con- 
fronted with definite facts. In perfect keeping with the little that 
had been known of the universe in the darkness of the middle ages, 
they required that no jot or tittle should be added to that knowl- 
<'<lge, to hold their place secure. But this could no longer be. 
The time came when investigation grew active, and definite facts 
angular, awkward, unpleasant facts, which (after their repre- 
hensible manner) were irreverent enough to refuse to fit into the 
most sacred and deeply cherished theory began to accumulate 
witli startling rapidity. The result was that the old conception 
of things began, little by little, to fall into disrepute, and the 
theological edifice of ages was shaken at its very foundations. 
Science showed, with a conclusiveness which remained untouched 
by all the special pleading with which her arguments and revela- 
3 were assailed, that the popular assumptions about the age of 
the world were absolutely untenable ; that the commencement of 
life, and even of human life upon our globe, so far from taking us 
back only a few paltry thousands of years, lay countless millions 



SPENCER AND THE SYNTHETIC PHILOSOPHY. 3 

of ages behind us ; and that such vague vestiges of our race as 
have been handed down to us in sacred book and popular legend 
are as nothing compared with that tremendous mass of human 
experiences which will never find their historian. Worse than all, 
turning full upon the doctrine of special manufacture, she opened 
up the grand geologic record, and read thence, as from the pages 
of a mighty volume, the long, stupendous story of those vast 
cosmic changes which, through aeons of unreckoned time, have 
slowly molded and fashioned the world into the condition in 
which we find it to-day. 

That these revelations were of the most vital interest to all 
thinking men needs hardly be said; nor is it necessary here to 
dwell on the feverish panic of the theologians, who hurried into 
the field with all their heavy artillery, prominent amid which was 
the great-gun argument, which had already done yeoman service 
on many another such occasion, that the very existence of Chris- 
tianity was bound up with the story of creation as narrated in the 
first chapters of the Hebrew Scriptures.* What is here of 
moment is to notice the general effect of the new discoveries upon 
the scientific mind. That effect was at the outset almost entirely 
a negative one. The old theories had been destroyed, but as yet 
there was nothing to take their place ; the theological interpre- 
tation of the world's history was seen to be absurdly insufficient 
and unreasonable, but for the time being no scientific interpreta- 
tion in lieu thereof appeared to be forthcoming. Hence followed 
a kind of intellectual interregnum, during which everything was 
vague, shifting, tentative. Meanwhile, however, things were not 
by any means standing still. The unceasing activity of inves- 
tigators in the special sciences resulted in vast accumulations 
of well-established facts, and thus yielded the materials in the 
absence of which nothing of real or permanent value could have 
been accomplished. And at the same time (largely, indeed, as a 
consequence of this extension upon all sides of the scientific 
domain) there was ever growing and deepening a conception of 
unbroken causation in cosmic changes, of the universality of law, 
and the unity of Nature and of natural processes a conception 
in no small degree led up to by such discoveries as those of the 
undulatory theory of light and heat, and of the correlation of all 
the forces known to exact science. Thus, in spite of the tempo- 
rary suspense and hesitation, no time was being lost. As we can 
now see, the way was being slowly prepared for a great scientific 
generalization a generalization which, overthrowing all the old 

* How fierce and obstinate was the opposition offered to the doctrine of evolution from 
this standpoint, we of the present day find it no easy matter to imagine. Even such a 
man as Hugh Miller went so far as to declare that acceptance of evolution meant nullifica- 
tion of the central truths of Christianity. 



4 THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

-ions once and for all, was in the sequel to alter absolutely 
and fundamentally the whole trend and current of thought, not 
only as regards the outer organic world and the phenomena pre- 
sented by it, bnt as regards also the countless practical problems 
in life and s.-cidy, in morality and religion, which are forever 
pressing on as for solution. 

Such, in the brief est possible summary, was the general intel- 
lectual character of the period at which Mr. Spencer began the 
Labors of his life. Even the sketch just given, crude and imperfect 
as il arily is, will help us to understand the growth of his 

own ideas, and their relation to the changing thought of the day. 

During the year 1842 Spencer, then in his twenty-second year, 
had contributed to a weekly newspaper, called The Nonconformist, 
- of letters which were afterward republished in pamphlet 
form under the title of The Proper Sphere of Government. "With 
the political doctrines of this production we have here no special 
concern, though it may be worth while to mention that the key- 
note is there struck of that famous doctrine of governmental non- 
Interference, since so fully worked out and so frequently insisted 
on by the author. The pamphlet is significant for us from quite 
another point of view. In the attempt which is made in it to 

kblish the nature, scope, and limits that is, the fundamental 
principles of civil government, there is everywhere implied a 
belief in the ultimate dependence of social organization upon 
natural causes and natural laws. In other words, society is from 
first to last regarded, not as a manufacture but as a growth a 
view which, it maybe remarked incidentally, though familiar 
enough in our own day, at all events in its theoretic aspects, was 
then little known, even as a matter of mere speculation. Through- 
out the entire argument there run the conceptions of gradual 
changes naturally necessitated, and of the possibility of a better 
and lutter adjustment of man, physically, intellectually, and 
morally, to the needs imposed by the conditions of social life. As 
Mr. Spencer himself wrote, many years later, "In these letters 
will be found, along with many crude ideas," a " belief in the 
conformity of social phenomena to invariable laws," and "in hu- 
man progression as determined by such laws."* All this revealed, 
even at bo early a Btage of mental growth, a marked tendency to 

.card the complicated and entangled phenomena of society from 

rictly scientific point of view as phenomena exhibiting rela- 

and effect, and thus to be included in the realm of 

iral law. But it meant something more than this. The dis- 

ad conscious acceptance of the doctrine that society is a 

thing, not artificially pieced together, but of slow and natural 



* Reasons for Dissenting from the Philosophy of M. Comte. 



SPENCER AND THE SYNTHETIC PHILOSOPHY. 5 

growth, implied dissatisfaction with, the current ideas of progress 
as an irregular and fortuitous process, and bore testimony to at 
least a vague germinal belief in a social development or evo- 
lution. 

The momentous questions thus raised and briefly dealt with 
by Mr. Spencer in this youthful production came in for more 
thorough and extended treatment a few years later in his first con- 
siderable work, Social Statics, which was published in 1850, when 
the author was just thirty years of age. The conception of this 
work had entered his mind not long after the appearance of the 
just-mentioned pamphlet; for, owing to the rapid growth and ex- 
pansion of his ideas at the time, Spencer soon became aware of 
the inadequacy of his handling of the various problems there 
opened up. " The writing of Social Statics," he has since said, 
" arose from a dissatisfaction with the basis on which the doc- 
trines set forth in those letters were placed." * Even the briefest 
comparison of the earlier and later books is sufficient to show the 
enormous strides which his mind had taken during the seven 
critical years which divide them one from the other. In Social 
Statics almost everything is made to turn upon the doctrine pre- 
viously hardly more than hinted at that from the very begin- 
ning of social life down to the present time there has been going 
on, and that there still is going on, a process of slow but none the 
less certain adjustment of the natures of men to society, and of 
the social organization to the natures of its constituent units : 
this adjustment being the result of a perpetual interaction be- 
tween units and aggregate which ever tends to bring them into 
more perfect adaptation the one to the other. Such adaptation, 
it is further shown, is produced by the direct action of circum- 
stances upon the natures of men, and by the preservation and 
accumulation by inheritance from generation to generation of 
the modifications thus initiated ; though another process comes 
in for passing recognition the process of the dying out of those 
individuals who fail to adapt themselves to the changing con- 
ditions of their environment : which process may be conversely 
stated as the survival of those only who so far change as to fit 
themselves to the necessities imposed upon them by the totality 
of their surroundings. Here, it will be seen, is a faint and partial 
adumbration of the doctrine of the survival of the fittest in the 
struggle for existence. Moreover, another important point is em- 
phasized the point that all our social evils and imperfections are 
due to want of complete adjustment between men and the con- 
ditions of social life are, indeed, nothing more than the tempo- 
rary jarring and wrenching of a machine the parts of which are 

* Reasons for Dissenting from the Philosophy of M. Comte 



6 THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

u ,,t v ,t brought into thorough working order. Yet, as the pro- 
of adaptation is still continuing, and is in the nature of things 
7eI to produce between units and aggregate a state of 
.,. wrfecl equilibrium, the inevitable if optimistic corollary 
thai the evil which we deplore will in the end work itself out 

alt ,ther, and that eventually all friction will entirely disap- 

a prophecy which seems to point to a realization of the 

,ua dreams of speculators like Godwin and Condorcet, far 

^omenta upon which it is based are seen to differ from 

own. Finally, all these special changes in man and in 

sietyare regarded as phases only of a process of universal 

jpment or unfolding, which is everywhere conducing, in 

ace to an inherent metaphysical tendency, to the produc- 

q in man, as throughout the whole of the animate creation, of 

more complete individuation and higher and higher types. 

We thus see that, unlike Darwin and Wallace, Mr. Spencer 
appn (ached the question of general evolution not from the organic 
but from the super-organic point of view by the way of ethical 
and sociological investigations. His first conception of develop- 
ment was in the limited shape of progress of development, that 
is, of man individually and in society. But Mr. Spencer's was not 
the mind to rest content with these vague and partial glimpses of 
1 1 1 tendons truth. Before long he began to work his way round 
thr< mgh researches of quite a different character, toward the affili- 
bion of these special and disjointed facts and inferences upon 
other facts and inferences of wider sweep and meaning. 

His labors upon Social Statics had led him up to a realization 
of the important truth that beneath all the much-debated ques- 
tions of morality and society lay the fundamental doctrines of 
biology and psychology; and that any really scientific or efficient 
treatment of man as a moral being or social unit must depend upon 
a thorough study of the problems of life and mind. Full of these 
ideas he turned with increased enthusiasm to biological and psy- 
ehologica] Btndies, and to the prosecution of various lines of re- 
urch in connection with these two subjects a large part, though 
by no means the whole, of his energies was for some time de- 
voted. 

The ten years which followed the years between 1850 and 
I860 (it is well to notice the dates, because, as we shall presently 
hey have their own importance) were years of great ac- 
tivity an activity to be measured not so much by their produc- 
tiveness, though that was sufficiently remarkable, as by the amaz- 
growth and organization of ideas which took place in them. 
1'. g this period some twenty-five exhaustive articles from 
acer's pen were published in the leading organs of liberal 
t; and in these articles, if we take them in the order of 



SPENCER AND THE SYNTHETIC PHILOSOPHY. 7 

their appearance, we can trace a gradual closing in from all sides, 
as it were, upon the great generalizations which were by and by 
to fall into their places as integral parts of a coherent system 
of thought. As a matter of fact, these years may be regarded, 
from the point of view of subsequent achievement, as years of 
special and methodical training ; and these essays, diverse as they 
are in form and matter, as separate and tentative contributions 
toward the treatment of various isolated phenomena which were 
ultimately to be taken up in their interrelations and dealt with 
in the mass. It would be impossible here to subject these essays 
one by one to anything like close analysis, even if it would mate- 
rially further our present purpose to do so. But a few words 
must be devoted to their general drift and character ; and, should 
one or two of them be made the subjects of special mention, it 
will not be because these are to be considered the most important 
in themselves, but simply because they are the most important 
for the object which at the moment I have in view. 

Probably the points whioh would most strike any one reading 
these essays casually and for the first time would be their strong 
grasp upon deep-lying principles, and their extraordinary origi- 
nality. On every page they reveal, be the subject what it may, 
an astonishing independence of thought, and an absolute freedom 
from all trace of traditional methods and ideas. It was this fresh- 
ness of treatment and firmness of touch which perhaps most at- 
tracted the attention of thoughtful readers when they were first 
published for the most part anonymously in the pages of the 
various English magazines and reviews. But, turning back to 
them to-day and regarding them in their mutual relations (as we 
are able to do now that they have long since been available in a 
collected and permanent form), we are impressed by something 
beyond the depth, clearness, and vigor of mind to which they 
everywhere bear witness. And that something is the essential 
unity of their thought, the oneness of idea which is throughout 
seen to underlie and inform the extraordinary diversity of mate- 
rials with which they deal. It matters not whether the author is 
concerned with the moot questions of physiology and psychology ; 
or with the intrinsic principles of a correct literary style ; or with 
the changes of the sidereal system ; or with ill-timed and hasty 
political panaceas ; or with curiosities of social manners and be- 
havior : all these subjects are systematically approached from one 
point of view ; all are made to cluster about and find interpreta- 
tion in one dominant hypothesis. And what is this hypothesis ? 
What is this great cardinal doctrine which is thus made to weld 
together subjects so diverse and even so incongruous that on any 
merely superficial examination they would never be supposed to 
possess anything in common ? It need hardly be said that it is 



THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

the doctrine of development or evolution a doctrine which mani- 

itsrir in every essay with continually increasing distinct- 

uhirh is* thus shown to be taking year after year a 

rand Btronger hold upon the author's mind and a deeper 

and deeper place in all his speculations. 

Aj early as the year 1852 he had published in a periodical en- 
t it 1. .1 The Leader a short but pithy paper on the Development 
Hypothesis, which was afterward referred to by Darwin, in the 
historical sketch prefixed to the Origin of Species, as presenting 
the general argument for the developmental as against the spe- 
cial-creation interpretation of the universe with remarkable co- 

y and skill. But, while reasons were here briefly but clearly 
stated for a belief in the gradual development of all organisms, 
not excluding man, it must be remembered that the essay does 
not contain any indication of factors adequate to the production 
of the alleged effects. One process only is recognized the pro- 
cess of direct modification by the conditions of life ; and, as with 
tli is process alone it is obviously impossible to account for all the 
fa^ts of organic creation, the way was left open to the uniformi- 
tarians to make good a temporary escape. 

But this noteworthy little paper, though it contained a kind 
of systematized confession of faith, was only, after all, a start- 
ing-point for a long and thorough investigation of various aspects 
of the subject with which it dealt. Its leading ideas, as I have 
said, came little by little to suffuse all his work, and in the years 
which followed they underwent consolidation and reached an ex- 
pressit >n at once more definite and more complete. Was it a ques- 
tion of deducing a theory of population from the general law of 
animal fertility? Then we find distinct recognition of an ad- 
vance from lower to higher brought about by excessive reproduc- 
tion and the continual pressure of rapidly multiplying organisms 

i the slowly increasing means of support (a statement in re- 
gard to which we shall have a word to say further on). Did the 
discussion turn upon the elaboration on a scientific basis of a true 
philosophy of stylo? Then, along with the application to the 

ia] phenomena of expression of the general law of " the line 
of ] ' mce," there is further reached the generalization 

down as applying to all products both of man and of Nature 
of those two fundamental processes of evolution the process of 
differentiation and the process of integration; since it is shown that 
a highly developed Btyle "will be, not a series of like parts simply 
in juxtaposition, but one whole made up of unlike parts 
that are mutually dependent."* Are the right and wrong ob- 
jects and methods of education brought up for consideration? 



The Philosophy of Style. First published in the Westminster Review, October, 1852. 



SPENCER AND THE SYNTHETIC PHILOSOPHY. 9 

Then the answer given is firmly established npon the doctrine 
of a gradual unfolding of the mental faculties in obedience to 
natural law, the unfolding taking the form of a double-sided 
change from the simple to the complex, and from the indefinite 
to the definite. So is it with all other subjects whatsoever. In 
the essay on Manners and Fashions, for example, emphasis is laid 
upon the truths that the various forms of restraint exercised by 
society as an aggregate over its individual members such re- 
straints being now clearly differentiated into ecclesiastical, politi- 
cal, and ceremonial are all natural developments from one pri- 
mordial form, and that the divergence of one from the other and 
of all from such primordial form takes place "in conformity 
with the laws of evolution of all organized bodies." And once 
again a similar line of argument is followed out in the extremely 
attractive articles on the Genesis of Science and The Origin and 
Function of Music. Finally, in the elaborate essay on Progress : 
its Law and Cause, evolutionary principles are enunciated with 
the utmost distinctness. The law of progress is shown to con- 
sist in the transformation of the homogeneous into the hetero- 
geneous (a partial statement afterward completed by the addition 
of a factor for the time being overlooked *) ; and this process is 
illustrated by examples taken from all orders of phenomena, 
while the cause of the transformation is found in the law of the 
multiplication of effects, afterward brought out more fully in 
First Principles. In this essay, too, as in that on the Develop- 
ment Hypothesis, the general law of evolution is presented as 
holding good in the production of species and varieties, though 
here again direct adaptation to the conditions of existence is the 
only factor recognized as playing a part in the stupendous drama 
of unfolding life. 

I have said enough, I think, to show how active was the period 
with which we have just been dealing active alike in original 
production and in the absorption of fresh material and the or- 
ganization of new ideas. But the enumeration of these five-and- 
twenty essays does not exhaust the record of Spencer's labors dur- 
ing this time. His studies in psychology, of which the essays on 
The Universal Postulate (1853) and The Art of Education (1854) 
were the immediate results, took more systematic form about the 
date of the publication of the latter paper ; and in 1855 the first 
edition of his Principles of Psychology made its appearance. As 
this work was subsequently included as a portion of the two vol- 
umes on the Principles of Psychology in the synthetic system, 
any analysis of its contents does not fall within the scope of the 
present paper. Two remarks may, however, be appropriately made 

* This additional factor being increase in definiteness. A change must consist in in- 
creasing heterogeneity and increasing definiteness, to constitute evolution. 



io 



THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 



in the preeenl oonnection ero we pass on. In the first place, it is 
well thai we should remind ourselves how enormously this book 
was in advance of the whole thought of the time not the com- 
mon thoughl only, but the cultivated thought as well. It was in 
: fullest sense of the term an epoch-making book epoch-mak- 
ing because it placed the study of mind, theretofore in the hands 
of the metaphysicians as sterile a subject as it had proved in the 
days of medifflval scholasticism, upon an entirely new and prom- 
ly fertile basis. Hitherto, mental philosophy had concerned 
itself only with the facts of adult human consciousness. Spencer, 
realizing as we are now all able to realize, how little could ever 
be accomplished by this time-worn and superficial method, broke 
away from all the traditions of the schools, and started out on 
an original investigation of the phenomena of mind, in the wide 
sweep of which ho took in not only the mental growth of children 
and savages, but also the phenomena of intelligence as displayed 
by the whole range of the animate world down to the lowest 
creatures. To quote his own words, "Life in its multitudinous 
and infinitely varied embodiments has arisen out of the lowest 
and simplest beginnings by steps as gradual as those which 
evolved an homogeneous germ into a complete organism." Start- 
ing from this conception, the author proceeds to treat of the 
whole subject of intelligence and its forms of manifestation from 
an evolutionary point of view; the Principles having "for their 
object the establishment by a double process of analysis and of 
synthesis, the unity of composition of the phenomena of mind, 
and the continuity of their development." * My second remark 
Ls pa rely a personal one, yet one which has its interest and im- 
portance though these are of a somewhat melancholy character 
in any account of Mr. Spencer's earlier writings. It was in con- 
sequence of overwork while producing the volume now referred 
to, that Mr. Spencer suffered a nervous breakdown which com- 
pletely incapacitated him for a period of eighteen months, and 
which, even after his general recovery, left him stranded in that 
condition of partial and varying invalidism in which he has con- 
tinued fr,, m that day to this, and under the burden of which all 
subsequent great work has been done. 

It is not, I think, needful to pause, after even such a rapid 
summary of the activities of these ten momentous years, to say 
any thin- about the extraordinary perversion of judgment which 
I critics from whom, having regard to their positions and 
I culture, something better was to have been expected, to 
treat these writings as "stock-writings," and to refer to their 
author as having "the weakness of omniscience" and a desire to 



Th. Ribot, English Psychology, p. 148. London, 1873. 



SPENCER AND THE SYNTHETIC PHILOSOPHY, n 

discourse on a great diversity of subjects, from the nebular hy- 
pothesis to music and dancing. We are now, I believe, in a fair 
position to realize how much, or rather how little, these curiosi- 
ties of oracular criticism are really worth. So far from Mr. Spen- 
cer's various essays during this epoch being merely examples of 
flippant journalistic versatility (as such remarks as we have 
spoken of would imply), we have seen how they are all united 
and held together by that thread of common principle and com- 
mon purpose which runs through them all. Random and unre- 
lated as they may appear to superficial or careless readers, they 
may, broadly speaking, be regarded as separate and methodical 
studies in preparation for a complete working out in general and 
in detail of the doctrine of universal evolution. 

And now, why have I devoted so large a portion of the present 
paper to the consideration and analysis of these earlier, more mis- 
cellaneous, and, as it might seem, less important of Mr. Spencer's 
writings ? Passing over the fact that in the merest sketch of the 
growth and development of such a mind as his we are presented 
with a study of which it would not be easy to overrate either the 
interest or the value, I may say that I had hopes of achieving two 
objects by following the present course. In the first place, by 
thus making ourselves to some extent acquainted with the pro- 
gression and consolidation of Spencer's thought, we have, I think, 
very materially aided in fitting ourselves for the study of those 
ideas in the full and highly developed forms in which they ap- 
pear in the pages of the Synthetic Philosophy ; and, in the sec- 
ond place, it is by traveling together over this preparatory 
ground, as we have done, that we have been enabled to reach a 
vantage-point from which I trust it will now be easy for us to 
take such a survey of the general field as will help us to estimate 
with some degree of accuracy the real relation of Herbert Spencer 
to the great modern doctrine of evolution. 

And this is a question upon which I would fain make myself 
particularly clear, because it is one in reference to which there 
has long been and still is current an enormous amount of miscon- 
ception, not only among the mass of men and women (which would 
be only natural), but also, and as it seems a little strangely, among 
even the thoughtful and generally well informed. A vagueness 
and instability in the meaning of certain words in common use 
has been in this case, as in so many others, a main cause of con- 
fusion of ideas; another instance being thus furnished of the 
truth of Lord Bacon's dictum that, while we fondly suppose that 
we govern our vocabulary, it not infrequently happens that, as a 
matter of fact, our vocabulary governs us. In the common speech 
of the day the word Darwinism is almost invariably employed as 
if it were absolutely synonymous with the word evolution : the 



1 ; 



THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 



one is treated as being al all points not only coextensive but also 
cointensive with the other. Two noteworthy results of this mdis- 
crimination are: first, that Darwin is habitually regarded as the 
author of the modern doctrine of evolution at large; and, sec- 
ondly, that this doctrine has, ever since the publication of his 
great work on the Origin of Species, become so intimately bound 
up with the special views therein contained, that by the correct- 
or incorrectness of those special views the whole theory of 

ilntion is supposed to stand or fall. 

Thai this confusion, like all such confusions, has been fraught 
with many and varied philosophic drawbacks and dangers is a 
point which wo need not here pause to emphasize; such draw- 
lacks and dangers must be sufficiently patent to all. Here we 
aro principally concerned with the entirely unjust and erroneous 
estimate of the historical significance of Mr. Spencer's w^ork, and 
consequently of the relations of Mr. Spencer himself to the great- 
est of modern generalizations, which originated from or which at 

has been largely kept alive by the misconception of which I 

ik. 

To what extent this unjust and erroneous estimate has taken 
mot, even in more cultivated thought, may be shown briefly and 
conclusively by one or two quotations. For example, we find the 
London Saturday Review remarking, in the course of an article 
on Prof. Tyndall's famous Belfast address, that "what Darwin 
has done for physiology [!] Spencer would do for psychology, by 
applying to the nervous system particularly the principles which 
his teacher had already enunciated for the physical system gener- 
ally." In much the same strain, and obviously under the same im- 
pressii >n that Mr. Spencer's ideas were all obtained at second hand,* 
a gentleman whom we are sorry to detect in such carelessness 
Colonel Higginson writes, "It seems rather absurd to attribute 
to him [Spencer] as a scientific achievement any vast enlargement 
<>r further generalization of the modern scientific doctrine of evo- 
lution." ( face more, sketching out the college life of his friend, 
late lamented Prof. Clifford, with whose untimely death so 
many brilliant promises came to naught, Mr. Frederick Pollock 
" Meanwhile, he [Clifford] was eagerly assimilating the 
which had become established as an assured possession of 
Lence by Mr. Darwin, and were being applied to the systematic 

aping and gathering together of human knowledge by Mr. 

rbert Spencer." And, finally (not to weary by needlessly 

>a perhaps never been so original a thinker as Mr. Spencer who has had such 
Jggle to get or keep possession of the credit due to his own ideas. Not only is 
ineed to the position of a mere aide-de-camp of Darwin, but manv of his critics 
ary m Insisting, spite of all disproof of their assertions, upon his vital indebt- 
edness to Augusts Comte. 



SPENCER AND THE SYNTHETIC PHILOSOPHY. 13 

multiplying quotations), a man whose name is of infinitely 
greater weight in the world of philosophy and of letters than 
that of the pert critic of the Saturday Review, or the gallant 
American colonel, or the well-known English lawyer a man 
from whom, on account of his own contributions to the study of 
psychology and of his wide and deep knowledge of England and 
English thought, a more correct judgment might have been 
looked for I mean M. Taine has thus summed up his view of 
Mr. Spencer's work : " Mr. Spencer possesses the rare merit of 
having extended to the sum of phenomena to the whole history 
of Nature and of mind the two master-thoughts which for the 
past thirty years have been giving new form to the positive sci- 
ences ; the one being Mayer and Joule's Conservation of Energy, 
the other Darwin's Natural Selection." 

Now, all this, to the extent to which expressly or by impli- 
cation it relegates to Mr. Spencer merely the labors of an adapter, 
enlarger, or popularizer of other men's thoughts, is entirely false 
and unfounded ludicrously false and unfounded, as the general 
survey of Mr. Spencer's writings which we have just taken shows 
beyond the faintest shadow of a doubt. So far from its seeming 
" rather absurd " to credit to Mr. Spencer any great personal con- 
tribution to the formulation of the doctrine of evolution ; so far 
from his being in any sense of the term a pupil or unattached fol- 
lower of Darwin, we have seen that he had worked his own way 
independently, from a different starting-point and through an en- 
tirely dissimilar course of investigation, to a conception of evolu- 
tion as a universal process underlying all phenomena whatsoever, 
before Darwin himself had made public his special study of the 
operation of one of the factors of evolution in the limited sphere 
of the organic world. A simple comparison of dates will serve to 
make this point sufficiently clear. The first edition of the Origin 
of Species was published in the latter part of 1859. The essay on 
the Development Hypothesis appeared in 1852 ; in 1855 or four 
years before the advent of Darwin's book there came the first 
edition of the Principles of Psychology, in which the laws of 
evolution (already conceived as universal) were traced out in 
their operations in the domain of mind ; and this was followed in 
1857 by the essay on Progress : its Law and Cause, which con- 
tains a statement of the doctrine of evolution in its chief outlines, 
and an inductive and deductive development of that doctrine in 
its application to all classes of phenomena. Spencer's independ- 
ence of Darwin is thus placed beyond possibility of question. 

Let it not for a moment be imagined that I am endeavoring in 
the slightest degree to underestimate the special value or impor- 
tance of Darwin's magnificent work. Yielding him the fullest 
meed of praise for the great part which he undoubtedly played in 



4 



TEE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 



thedevel >pmen1 1 f scientific thought, I am aiming only to show, as 
( . ;m hown,and as simple justice requires to be shown, 

t } 1;i . atogether an exaggeration to speak of him as the father 

of the modem doctrine of .volution. What Darwin did was to 
amasa an enormous number of facts from almost every department 
f :l l science, and by the devoted labor, patient examina- 

tion, and long-searching thought of many studious years, to 

blish, once and for all, not the reality of evolution, nor even 
the laws and conditions of evolution, but the operation of one of 
the main factors of evolution a factor which, though it had till 
his time entirely eluded the scientific mind, was yet required to 
render comprehensible a vast array of phenomena otherwise with- 
out interpretation. How near Mr. Spencer's own investigations 
had l.i] him to a realization of the process of natural selection, or, 
as he afterward called it, the survival of the fittest in the struggle 
for existence, we have already been able to remark, and he himself 
took occasion to point out, when in the course of his later work 

ame 1<> deal more systematically with the whole problem of 
animal fertility and its practical implications.* But the factors 
mainly relied upon by him, in common with all pre-Darwinian de- 

ipmentalists, were the direct action of the environment and the 
inheritance, with increase, of functionally-produced modifications ; 
and as these processes, whatever might be their individual impor- 
tance (and this is probably somewhat underrated by scientists of 
nt day), were obviously incapable of throwing light upon 
a large part perhaps the larger part of the facts which pressed 
f'-r explanation, the theory of evolution could not for the time 
being hope for inductive establishment. Darwin's book put the 
whole question upon a new foundation, by exhibiting a process 
which did account for the hitherto unmanageable facts; and un- 
doubtedly it was thus to a large extent effectual in bringing the 
general theory intoopen court as an entertainable hypothesis. But 
while all this is freely conceded while the greatness of Darwin's 
work in itself, and its importance as a contribution to scientific 
LOUght, are acknowledged without hesitation, it has still to be 
red that that work was special and limited in character, 
and that with the general doctrine of evolution at large it had 
bself nothing whatever to do. The laws of evolution as a nniver- 



Of Biology, vol. ii, p. 500, note. The whole of this very interesting 

fled carefully, not only because it makes clear the scientific relations 

" Ud Darwin, but also for the foreshadowing which it contains of a reaction 

IttBive recognition of natural selection which soon became typical of bio- 

ndoita nt large. In hi., little work, recently published, on The Factors of Organic 

"t'"n, H oet has opened the whole question up afresh, by showing that, to ob- 

ful! fk w of the methods of evolution, other processes besides natural selection have 

to be taken into account. 



SPENCER AND THE SYNTHETIC PHILOSOPHY. 15 

sal process a matter which the aims and objects of Darwin's work 
did not lead him to touch were worked out by Mr. Spencer quite 
irrespective of the special process of natural selection ; and when 
Darwin's book appeared, that process fell into its place in Spencer's 
general system, quite naturally, as a supplementary and not in 
any way as a disturbing element. Thus it appears that if any one 
man is to be looked upon as the immediate progenitor of a doc- 
trine which, in common phraseology, may be said to have been to 
some extent in the air, that man is not he who first elucidated one 
factor of its process in one domain of phenomena the biological; 
but rather he who first seized iipon it as a universal law, under- 
lying all the phenomena of creation ; in a word, it is not Charles 
Darwin, but Herbert Spencer. 

One word only, in conclusion, about the train of causes which 
immediately led up to the projection of the vast work with which 
Mr. Spencer's name is more particularly associated the System 
of Synthetic Philosophy. 

It was in 1858, while he was engaged on writing an essay on the 
Nebular Hypothesis, that there dawned upon him the possibility 
of dealing in a more systematic and connected manner than he 
had hitherto found possible, with those foundation principles of 
evolution to which he had been led by the miscellaneous studies 
of the past eight or nine years. The germ of thought thus im- 
planted forthwith began to develop with amazing rapidity, and 
before long assumed the proportions of an elaborate scheme, in 
which all orders of concrete phenomena were to fall into their 
places as illustrations of the fundamental processes of evolution. 
Thus the conception of evolution presented itself to him as the 
basis of a system of thought under which was to be generalized 
the complete history of the knowable universe, and by virtue of 
which all branches of scientific knowledge were to be unified by 
affiliation upon the primal laws underlying them all. Though a 
rough sketch of the main outlines of the system, as they occurred 
to him at the time, was mapped out almost immediately, it was not 
till the following year, 1859 a year otherwise memorable for the 
publication of Darwin's book that a detailed plan of the various 
connected works in which these conceptions were to be developed 
was finally drawn up ; and not till 1860 that it was given to the 
small handful of readers interested in such subjects in the form 
of a prospectus. This prospectus included a brief summary of a 
proposed series of ten volumes, embracing thirty-three divisions 
or topics ; and any one who cares to take the trouble of comparing 
it, as it stood when it first saw the light, thirty years ago, with the 
contents of the different volumes and portions of volumes which 
have been published up to the present time, will, I think, be as- 
tounded to observe the singular correspondence between them a 



l6 THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

correspondence which .hows how fully and accurately Spencer 
himself must have had the whole vast plan marked out in his 
lnil . D down to the veriest details, before he sat down to 

oomrnit himself to the pinning of a single line. 

, having followed Mr. Spencer to the verge of the great 
undertaking to the prosecution of which he has devoted the ener- 
his after-life, we draw our paper to a close; our present 
purpose ii"t emhracing any direct consideration of that undertak- 
in itself. The hope which we have ventured to entertain is, 
thai even such a rapid review as we have thus taken of the earlier 
period of Mr. Spencer's intellectual activity may prove to be not 
altogether without its uses to the earnest student of that wonder- 
ful Bi riea < >f works which, by the common consent of all those most 
entitled to judge, have won for their author a foremost place 
long the greatest thinkers of all time. 







SCIENCE AND FINE ART.* 

Bt emil du bois-keymond. 

II. 

[Concluded.] 

ON still another side the development of photography has 
sured instructive data for art. In the year 1836 the broth- 
ers William and Edward Weber, in their famous work on the 
Bit thanism of the Human Organs of Locomotion, represented a 
man walking in the positions which it was theoretically supposed 
he must go through during the time of making a step. The strange 
feature was remarked that while the pictures corresponded at the 
inning and the end of the step, when the man for a short time 
had both feet on the ground, with the representations which the 
ters had always given of a walking man, in the middle of the 
when the moving leg was swinging by the stationary leg, the 
mosi eccentric and ludicrous spectacle was presented. The man 
appeared, like a drunken street musician, to be stumbling over his 
own feet Never had anybody seen a walking man in such a situa- 
tion. The brothers Weber proposed on the last page of their work 
the correctness of their schematic drawings by the aid of 
topic slides of Stampfer and Plateau, as in the figures 
's d8Bdaleum,t which has curiously come back to us 
America as a novelty under the name of the zoetrope or 

iln.itz Commemoration-day in the Academy of Sciences at Berlin, July 

Magazine, etc., January, 1834, Ser. Ill, vol. iv, p. 36. Poggendorff's 
Annalcn, etc., 1834, vol. xxxii, p. 650. 



SCIENCE AND FINE ART. 17 

vivantoscope ; but it is still not clear whether their purpose was 
carried out. 

Dr. William Weber lived to see himself and his brother fully- 
sustained, after nearly half a century, by instantaneous photog- 
raphy. Mr. Eadweard Muybridge, of San Francisco, applied it 
in 1872, at the suggestion of Mr. Stanford, to fix the attitudes of 
horses in the successive positions of different paces. The same 
phenomena were revealed in the photographs as in the Webers' 
schematic drawings. Pictures came out the like of which nobody- 
believed had ever really been seen.* Directed upon street scenes, 
processions, etc., the camera took many views of men in quite as 
astonishing positions as those which the brothers Weber had at- 
tributed to them on theoretical grounds. It was not different 
with the wonderful series of pictures of a flying bird and its wing- 
strokes which M. Marey has obtained with his photographic gun.f 

The explanation of these facts is evidently- that, when an object 
moves with periodically varying velocities, we get a stronger and 
more durable impression of the situations in which it halts, and a 
weaker and more fugitive one of those in which it moves swiftly. 
Even without knowing this law, no painter will represent the 
Black Forest clock in a peasant's room with a vertical pendu- 
lum, for, if he did, every observer would ask why the clock was 
stopped. For the pendulum, when it has swung to one side and 
is about to return, necessarily stops for an instant, and this situa- 
tion of pausing at one side impresses us more strongly than the 
one in which the pendulum is passing through its point of equi- 
librium with the greatest velocity. It is the same with the alter- 
nately swinging legs of the walking man : he pauses longer in 
the position in which both of his legs are at rest, and for the 
shortest time in that in which the moving leg swings in front of 
the resting leg. The last position and those near it, therefore, 
make substantially no impression upon us. We figure to our- 
selves the walking man, and the painter represents him accord- 
ingly in the position in which between two steps he touches the 
ground with both feet. 

Something very curious is observed in the running of the 
horse. No matter how frequent the intervals at which the pict- 
ure is taken, we never get the usual figure of a racing or hunting 
horse as it comes to us from England, and as we see it in the 
pictures that are hung up in the show-windows of the shops at 
the time of races and hunts, and as it in fact strikes our eyes on 

* The Horse in Motion, as shown by Instantaneous Photography (London, 1S82) now 
published under the title Animal Locomotion ; an Electro-photographic Investigation of 
Consecutive Phases of Animal Movements, etc. 

f Developpement de la Methode graphique par l'emploi de la Photographie. Supple- 
ment, etc. Paris, 1885, pp. 12 et seq. 
vol. xli. 2 



,8 THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

looking a1 the h< rse in motion. A difference may be marked here 
from what is the case with man; for, among the pictures of men 

Iking, taken casually or methodically, besides those which are 
Dover Been with the eye, some also appear which correspond with 
the -mmon idea of a walking man. The difference depends upon 
the fact that the moment in which the outstretched fore legs of 
the racing horse make their longer pause does not coincide with 
the one in which the backward-thrown hind legs do so. Both of 
these situations are apt to impress themselves upon the eye and 
blend in the resultant conception of the racer, but instantaneous 
photography catches them one after the other. 

An American illustrated journal, in 1882, had a picture of a 
hurdle-race, in which all the horses appeared in real attitudes, bor- 
rowed from the Muybridge photographs, as only the fast-receiving 
plate can see them. Prof. Eder, of Vienna, communicated these 
suggestive sketches to us in a paper on instantaneous photography,* 
and a rarer spectacle is hardly conceivable. But when the series 
of pictures of a periodically moved object taken at sufficiently 
short intervals, whether it is presented to the eye in the dseda- 
leum or each picture is illuminated for an instant in its passage, 
is well projected, the original thought of the Weber brothers is 
realized : the periodical motion, dissected as it were into differential 
pictures, is integrated again into an impression of the whole, and 
the accuracy of the apparently false pictures is demonstrated. 
The latter experiment has been worked out by Mr. Muybridge 
himself in his zoopraxiscope, and among us by Herr Ottomar 
Anschiitz, who manages instantaneous photography with extraor- 
dinary skill, in his electrical stroboscope. In both methods we 
see men and horses walking, running, jumping ; but there is still 
one thing to be remarked that is, that since the length of the 
passage past the eye of one of the slits of the dsedaleum or of the 
illumination of the directly visible picture is the same for all the 
pictures, the appearance of the whole impression of the move- 
ment is a little different from the view of the same movement 
itself. That the position in which both feet of the walking man 
are standing nevertheless preponderates in the impression, is due 
to tho fact that the motion of the legs becomes slower in ap- 
proaching this position, so that their rapidly recurring pictures 
nearly cover one another. 

Tho series of instantaneous pictures of an athlete during a 
re exercise, which Mr. Muybridge and Herr Anschiitz have 
are m themselves a rich source of instruction in the rep- 
resentation of the nude. Herr Anschiitz's stroboscope shows us 
the Bpear-thrower and the quoit-caster in the different stages of 



* Die Moroentphotographie. Vienna, 1870, p. 10. 



SCIENCE AND FINE ART. 19 

their greatest strain: we see their muscles swell and contract, 
while at last the missile still appears in the picture after it has 
been thrown ; for it can not move faster than the hand at the mo- 
ment it leaves it. Equally useful are the instantaneous photo- 
graphs of domestic and wild animals of all kinds which Herr 
Anschutz has taken destined to be to the animal painter. 

Instantaneous photography has been applied with surprising 
results, as every one knows, even to the surf in storms. But the 
sea painter must not forget, in the use of such pictures, that our 
eye can not see the waves as the quickly perceiving plate does, 
and that one may therefore easily give us a picture of them as 
incorrect in some respects as that of the stationary clock or of the 
man stumbling over his feet. 

Finally, the former method of representing lightning as a fiery 
zigzag is, as Mr. Shelf ord Bidwell has very recently shown by 
the evidence of two hundred instantaneous photographs, quite as 
false as were the old pictures of racing horses. Mr. Eric Stuart 
Bruce has, indeed, tried to save the zigzag lightning of the artists 
by seeing in it the reflection on the cumulus clouds ; but we can 
not understand how an acute-angled zigzag can be produced in 
that way.* 

Prof, von Brticke has in a special essay worked out the rule 
for the representation of motion in art,f which, like the laws of 
the combination of colors, has been unconsciously followed by the 
masters. From photography in natural colors, of which artists 
and laymen continue to dream and hope much, there is unhappily 
not only for the immediate future, but, on theoretical grounds 
which experience will hardly contradict, for all the future, little or 
nothing to be expected. There is a question whether photography 
will not have an unfavorable influence in the arts of reproduc- 
tion, copper-engraving, lithography, and wood-engraving, whose 
place it is taking to a widening extent. So faithful is it that it 
even in a certain sense depreciates the original pictures of the old 
masters by making them common property. 

Is it possible that it should not seem wholly superfluous to 
speak here of the advantage which the study of anatomy affords 
to the artist ? Has not the Borghese gladiator suggested the 
conjecture of anatomical mysteries among the Grecian artists as 
the only means by which they could achieve so perfect a repre- 
sentation of the uncovered male body ? Did not Michael Angelo 
acquire by long years of anatomical study the knowledge that 
justified the unparalleled boldness of his attitudes and foreshort- 
enings of the body, which have remained to this day the object 



* Nature, etc., No. 1076, vol. xlii, June 12, 1890, p. 151 ; No. 1078, June 26, p. 197. 
f Deutsche Rundschau, 1881, Bd. xxvi, p. 9 et seq. 



20 



THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 



of the admiration of naturalists like Prof. Henke and Prof, von 
Bruoke?* Are there not institutions maintained by the state 
wherever art is systematically cultivated for the purpose of giv- 
ili opportunity to train the eye on the cadaver to a clearer 
perception of what can be seen in the living body beneath the 
akin ? H a vo not three of the later members of this Academy been 
ned in succession to give such instruction here in Ber- 
lin ? Finally, have we not excellent manuals of anatomy pre- 

i especially for artists ? 
But the most distinguished art- writer of our day, who assumes 
a tone of authority that no Lessing exercised, and who enjoys at 
home the honor and fame of a Lessing, Mr. Ruskin, in his lectures 
at the Art School in Oxford, on the Relation of Science to Art, 
expressly forbids his pupils busying themselves with anatomy. 
Likewise, in his preface, he laments the deleterious influence 
anatomy had on Mantegna and Diirer, in contrast with Botticelli 
and Holbein, who kept themselves free from it. "The habit of 
contemplating the anatomical structure of the human form," he 

later on, "is not only a hindrance but a degradation, and 
has been essentially destructive to every school of art in which it 
has been practiced " ; and he adds to this that under its influence 
the painter, as in the case of Diirer, sees and portrays only the 
skull in the face. "The artist should take every sort of view of 
animals except one the butcher's view. He is never to think of 
them as bones and meat." \ 

It would be a waste of time and trouble to refute such er- 
rors, and demonstrate what an indispensable help the artist 
finds in anatomy, without which he would be groping as in 
a fog. It is very nice for him to depend upon his eyes, but 
still better to have learned, for example, in what the female 
skeleton is different from the male; why the knee-pan follows 
the direction of the foot when the leg is stretched out, but does 
not when it is bent ; why the profile of the upper arm with the 
hand supine is different from the profile in pronation ; why the 
furrows and wrinkles of the face run as they do in relation to the 
muscles beneath them. Camper's facial angle, although it has 

di-throned for more important objects by Herr Virchow's 

' , furnishes a great deal of information. How, without 

acquaintance with the skull, a forehead can be modeled, or the 

rure of a forehead like that of the Jupiter of Otricoli or of the 

can be understood, is hardly comprehensible. It is true 

that anatomical forms may be abused by fantastic exaltation, as 

been often remarked with r espect to Michael Angelo's suc- 

Deutsche Bundachau, 1875, vol. v, p. 216; 1890, vol. Lrii, p. 26; vol. lxlv, p. 413. 
% Tl \cst. Ten Lectures on the Relation of Natural Science to Art, 188-7, pp. 

107, i > ri 



SCIENCE AND FINE ART. 21 

cessors ; but there can be no better counteractive to this Michael- 
angelesque mannerism than an earnest study of the real. And a 
little comparative anatomy protects against such faults as that 
which overtook a very famous master, who made a joint too many 
in the hind leg of a horse ; or, as we see on the Fontaine Cuvier 
near the Jardin des Plantes, to the diversion of the naturalist, a 
crocodile bending its stiff neck so far back that the snout almost 
touches the side of the animal. 

We are, however, the less astonished at Mr. Ruskin's judgment 
when we learn that he also lays the same ban upon the study of 
the nude as upon that of anatomy. It should extend, he says, no 
further than health, custom, and propriety permit the exposure of 
the body, for which the use of anatomy would certainly be limited. 
It is well that propriety, custom, and health permitted more free- 
dom on this point among the Hellenes than exists in England. 
Fortunately, the English department of the Jubilee Exhibition 
four years ago gave us opportunity to satisfy ourselves that Mr. 
Ruskin's dangerous paradoxes had not been carried out, and 
allowed us to forget them in the sight of Mr. Alma Tadema's and 
Mr. Herkomer's magnificent contributions. Mr. Walter Crane's 
charming series of pictures, which adorn our book tables, have 
also risen up against Mr. Ruskin's absurd doctrine. 

In the same lectures Mr. Ruskin assailed the theory of selec- 
tion and descent with great vigor, and attacked the censure, based 
upon it, of artists' pictures representing vertebrates with more 
than four extremities. He said : " Can any law be conceived 
more arbitrary or more apparently causeless ? What strongly 
planted three-legged animals there might have been ! What 
systematically radiant five-legged ones ! What volatile six- 
winged ones ! What circumspect seven-headed ones ! Had Dar- 
winism been true, we should long ago have split our heads in two 
with foolish thinking, or thrust out, from above our covetous 
hearts, a hundred desirous arms and clutching hands, and changed 
ourselves into Briarean cephalopods." * 

It is clear from these words that this false prophet had no 
notion of what we in morphology call a type. Can it be necessary 
to tell Sir Richard Owen's and Prof. Huxley's countryman that 
every vertebrate has as the foundation of its body a vertebral 
column, expanding in front into the skull, and contracting behind 
into the tail ; encircled in front and behind by two bone girdles, 
the pectoral and the pelvic arches, from which depend the fore 
and the hinder extremities, regularly jointed ? That paleontology 
has never discovered a vertebrate form divergent from this type 
is certainly a striking argument in favor of the theory of descent 

* The Eagle's Nest, p. 204. 



22 



THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 



and against the doctrine of special creations ; for it is not easy to 
see why a free creating power should impose such limitations 

m itself. So little does Nature vary from the once given type 
that teratology traces deformities back to it. None of these are 
real monstrosities ; not even those with only one eye in the middle 
Of the forehead, in which Herr Exner looked for the original of the 
Cyclops, while Flaxman erroneously gave Polyphemus three eyes, 
a third in the forehead, besides the two normal but blind eyes. 
K.al monsters are those invented in the youth of art by an un- 
tamed power of portrayal winged forms, originally derived from 
the East : the bulls of Nimroud, the Harpies, Pegasus, the Sphinx, 
the griffin ; Artemis, Psyche, the Notos from the Tower of the 
Winds, the Victory, the angels of the Semitic-Christian cycle. 
A third pair of extremities (and a fourth appears in Ezekiel) is 
not only paratypically but mechanically absurd, for the muscles 
needed to move them are wanting. With happy tact, Schiller 
has avoided, in the Battle with the Dragon, endowing the mon- 
ster with the usual wings; and Retsch in his illustrations fur- 
nished it with a form so possible in comparative anatomy that 
one might have fancied the plesiosaurus or a zeuglodon had re- 
turned and become a land-animal. 

To the winged figures may be added, as similar abominations, 
the Centaurs with two chests and stomachs and double viscera, 
and Cerberus and the hydra with many heads on many necks, 
warm-blooded hippocamps and Tritons, whose bodies, without 
hinder extremities, end in a cold-blooded fish, a conception at the 
thought of which even Horace was shocked. If they had had at 
least a horizontal tail-paddle, one might find in them a kind of 
cetacean. More easily borne are the cloven-footed fauns, horns, 
pointed ears, and hoofs of which have been inherited by our devil, 
whose menaces, therefore, in Franz von Kobell's witty apology, 
Cuvier laughed at as those of a harmless vegetable feeder. The 
heraldic beasts, like double eagles and unicorns, set up no claims 
to art, and are protected by historical prescription against the 
criticism they intrinsically deserve. 

It is a remarkable example of the accommodating disposition 
of our sense of beauty, that though we are well instructed in the 
principles of morphology, our eyes are not more offended by some 
of these false creatures, such as the winged figures of Nike and 
tin- angels; and it would perhaps be pedantic and idle to forbid 
artists these time-honored rather symbolical representations, of 
which the greatest masters of the best periods have only made a 
v. ry moderate use. But such indulgence has its limits. The 
giants in our Gigantomachia, whose thighs change at half their 
length into serpents, and which, instead of two legs, stand on two 
vertebral columns running out into heads, with separate brains, 



SCIENCE AND FINE ART. 23 

spinal marrows, hearts, intestinal canals, lungs, kidneys, and 
sense-organs, are and remain an intolerable sight to the mor- 
phologically cultivated eye, and prove that, although the sculp- 
tors of Pergamon were superior in technical ability to their pre- 
decessors of the age of Pericles, they were inferior to them in re- 
finement of artistic feeling. They were perhaps pardonable, so 
far as tradition bound them, for making giants with snakes' legs. 
The hippocamps and the Tritons with horses' legs and double 
fish-tails which disfigure the railings of our Schlossbrucke, come 
from another time, when the antique still ruled unrestrained and 
morphological standards were less common property than they 
are now. But it is a matter of deep moment to us, if a famous 
painter of the present suffers such monstrosities, issuing from 
the trunk, as sleek, sheeny salmon hardly concealing the line 
between the human skin and the scales, to dance realistically 
on the cliffs or splash around in the sea. The multitude ad- 
mires such blue sea-marvels as works of genius ; what a genius, 
then, must Hollen-Breughel have been ! 

Singularly enough, the primitive men in the caves of Pe'ri- 
gord, contemporaries of the mammoth and the musk ox in 
France, and the Bushmen, whose paintings Herr Fritsch discov- 
ered,* only painted the animals known to them as truly as they 
could, while the comparatively highly civilized Aztecs outran all 
that is Oriental in abominable inventions. It almost seems as if 
bad taste belonged to a certain middle stage of culture. It fol- 
lows from what we have said that anatomical instruction in art 
schools should not be confined to osteology, myology, and the 
theory of human motion, but should take pains to inculcate in 
the pupils not a very hard thing the fundamental principles of 
vertebrate morphology. 

It should be the task of botanists to expose the breaches of 
the laws of the metamorphoses of plants which meet them so 
frequently in the acanthus arabesques, palmettos, rosettes, and 
scroll ornaments that are borrowed from the antique. But for 
obvious reasons these offenses do not afflict the student of plants 
so painfully as malformations of men and animals, repulsive to a 
sound taste, affect the comparative anatomist. Moreover, a more 
wholesome turn has lately come over floral ornament. When in 
the Renaissance the Gothic was displaced by the antique, art was 
impoverished of ornamental motives. The richness of invention, 
the naive observation of Nature, of which the rows of capitals 
in many cloisters bear witness, yielded gradually to a conventional 
schematism at the base of which was nothing real. But as Rauch 
at Carrara, instead of the eagle of a statue of Jupiter, made 

* Drei Jahre in Siidafrica. Reiseskitzzen, etc. Breslau, 1868, pp. 99, 100. 



2 4 THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

his studies for the birds of Lis monument upon a golden eagle 
which was captured there, so art began about the middle of the 
century to free itself from this dead conventionalism, and, corn- 
bin in-" truth to Nature with beauty, applied itself again to the 
rv.it ion and appropriation of the world of living plants 
ind us. Japanese art long ago struck out the right way in 
this region, and has been an inspiring motive for us. The minor 
rations of the house, and the decorations of women's cloth- 
ing, ha v.- been most happily enriched by it. 

Perhaps the naturalist will be accused of a lack of logical 
sequence if he, in another direction, renounces regard for the laws 
of Nature in art. The thousand soaring and flying figures in the 
art works of ancient and modern times undoubtedly defy the 
universal and fundamental law of gravitation quite as much as 
the most offensive creation of a perverted fancy defies the funda- 
mental laws, vital only in a few adepts, of comparative anatomy. 
Still, they do not displease us. We should rather see them with- 
out wings than with paratypical wings which could not be of use 
when of the usual size and without an immense muscular devel- 
opment. "We are thus not shocked at the Sistine Madonna stand- 
ing on the clouds and the figures beside her kneeling on the same 
impossible ground. The face of Ezekiel in the Pitti Palace is less 
acceptable. On the other hand, to mention later examples, in 
the procession of the gods hastening to the help of the Trojans, 
by Flaxman, Cornelius's Apocalyptic horseman, and Ary Schef- 
fer's divine Francesca di Rimini, which Gustave Dore* hopelessly 
tried to rival, our pleasure is not disturbed by the unphysical 
character of the positions. We likewise do not object to Flax- 
man's Sleep and Death bearing the body of Sarpedon through 
the air. 

Herr Exner, in his admirable address on the Physiology of 
Flying and Soaring in Plastic Art,* tries to answer the question 
why these impossible representations of conditions never seen 
in man or beast, appear so natural and unexceptionable. I can 
not agree in the solution with which he seems prepossessed. He 
thinks that we experience something similar in ourselves in swim- 
ming, and that in diving we see persons swimming over us, as 
we w< raid in flying. If we reflect within how short a time swim- 
ming has been made more general among civilized men, and 
recently it has become an exercise of women, who are no less 
with the soaring figures, doubt arises concerning Herr 
mert explanation. It would be even hazardous to appeal in a 
Darwinian fashion to an atavistic impression coming down from 
the fish ago of man. And are not the sensations and the views 



* Vienna, 1882. 



SCIENCE AND FINE ART. 25 

of the skater still closer to those of a flying, soaring being than 
those of the swimmer ? More pleasing to me is Herr Exner's re- 
mark, which I have also made myself, that under especially 
favorable bodily conditions we occasionally have in dreams the 
inspiring illusion of soaring and flying. Thus 

..." in each soul is born the pleasure 

Of yearning onward, upward, and away, 
When o'er our heads, lost in the vaulted azure, 

The lark sends down his flickering lay; 
When over crags and piny highlands 

The poising eagle slowly soars, 
And over plains and lakes and islands 

The crane sails by to other shores." 

Who would not ever and ever again with Faust strive to reach 
the setting sun and to see the still world in eternal twilight at 
his feet ? But what we should be glad to do, we are glad to hear 
of in song and to see in pictures before our eyes. The longing 
to rise in the ether, to travel in the sky, and similar visions, 
still come to the help of the old delusion of mankind concerning 
the heavenly abode of the blessed away up in the starry canopy, 
to which Giordano Bruno put an end; but not so completely 
but that we sometimes fail to realize how terrible a journey in 
endless, airless, frigid space would be to us, in which even a swift, 
steadily flying eagle could only after long years light upon a 
planet of doubtful habitability. 

What, now, can art do for science in return for so many and 
various services ? Aside from external matters, like the represen- 
tation of natural objects, it does not offer much of a different 
character from the reaction of the painter's experience in the 
mixing and combination of colors, on the doctrine of colors, an 
effect which is indeed not comparable with that of the retroac- 
tion of music on acoustics. The ancients had a canon of the pro- 
portions of the human body, attributed to Polycletes, which, how- 
ever, as Herr Merkel has lately charged * applied, to the disad- 
vantage of many an ancient work of art, only to the grown figure ; 
a deficiency which Gottfried Schadow first systematically reme- 
died. This theory has lately become the foundation of a very 
promising branch of anthropology anthropometry in its applica- 
tion to the races of men. 

If we extend our idea of art so as to include artistic thought 
and creation, there will not then be wanting relations and tran- 
sitions between artist and naturalist, how far soever their paths 
may diverge. Yet it is not certain that an artistic conception of 
its problems would redound wholly to the good of natural sci- 



* Deutsche Piundschau, 1888, vol. lvi, p. 414. 



,6 THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

... The p'-i-v. >rs inn of German science under the name of natu- 
ral philosophy at the beginning of the century was as much of 
Bathetic as of metaphysical origin, and even Goethe's scientific 
efforts had the same background. This artistic comprehension 
of the problems of Nature is defective because it is satisfied to 
stop with the finely rounded figures, and does not press onward 
fco the causal connections of the fact, to the limits of our under- 
standing. It suffices, where it is concerned with the perceptions 
of the resemblances of organic forms with plastic fancies, as in 
the plant stem or the vertebrate skeleton; it fails when, as in 
the theory of colors, instead of mathematically and physically 
analyzing, it satisfies itself with the contemplation of presump- 
t iv.-ly original phenomena. It was reserved for Herr von Briicke 
to trace the colors of dark media, on which Goethe based his Far- 
benlehre, and which to this day spread confusion instead of 
clearness in many German heads, by the aid of the undulatory 
theory to its true source. The difference between artistic and 
scientific treatment is prominently set forth in this incident.* 

Yet it should not be said that artistic feeling may not be of 
use to the theoretical naturalist. There is an aesthetic of research 
which strives to impart mechanical beauty in the sense in which 
we have defined it to an experiment; and the experimenter will 
not regret having responded as far as possible to its demands. 
At the transition-line between the literary and the scientific pe- 
riod of a nation's civilization, there rises, under the influence of 
the declining and that of the ascending genius, a tendency to a 
more vivid representation of natural phenomena, as is illustrated 
in France by Buffon and Bernardin de Saint-Pierre, and in Ger- 
many by Alexander von Humboldt, in whom it continued vital 
till extreme age. In this sense, as I have once said here and set 
it forth as a desirable end, a strictly scientific treatise may under 
a tasteful hand become an art-work like a novel, f The attain- 
ment of perfection in this direction will reward the naturalist for 
the labor, for it affords the best means of proving the faultless 
accuracy of the chain of reasoning comprehending the results of 
his observations. And in examples of this kind of beauty, which 
often flows unsought and unconsciously through the pen of talent, 
n< . lark will be found in our Leibnitz. Translated for Tlie Popular 
Scu run Monthly from the Deutsche Rundschau. 



The deepest Bounding yet found in the Mediterranean Sea was obtained by an 
-ian expedition in July, 1891, between Malta and Crete, 14,436 feet. At 22J 
nnk-9 southeast, of this, a sounding of 13,148 feet was taken. 

Popgendorffs Annalen, etc., 1853, vol. lxxxviii, p. 363 et seq. Die Physiologie der 
i arhon. Second edition, p. 104. 

t Uebcr eine kaiscrliche Akademie der deutschen Sprache. Reden, etc., vol. i, p. 160. 



CAVE DWELLINGS OF MEN. z 7 

CAVE DWELLINGS OF MEN. 

By W. H. LAKEABEE. 

STORIES of men who lived or worked in caves abound in his- 
tory, mythology, and folk-lore tales. The youthful imagina- 
tion is charmed with accounts of robbers' caves, from that of the 
forty thieves down to those described in Gil Bias and those which 
are associated with the robber period of the history of the Mis- 
sissippi Valley. Mythology furnishes caves of giants, those to 
which heroes have resorted, and the homes of supernatural beings 
or of gnomes like the Niebelungen and the " little people." Such 
stories are suggested by the obvious fact that a cave may afford a 
safe and convenient place of refuge when no better is at hand ; 
and their imaginative features are the outcome of the rarity or 
remoteness of experiences of cave-life within historic times dis- 
tance lending enchantment to the view. 

Tribes of cave-dwelling men, or troglodytes, are described by 
ancient writers as having lived in Egypt, Ethiopia, on the borders 
of the Red Sea, and in the Caucasus. The Red Sea region was 
called by the Greeks from this fact Troglodytice. Some of the 
ancient caves in Arabia are still occupied by Bedouins. 

The caves of the troglodytes near Ain Tarsil, in Morocco, 
which have been visited by Balanza and Sir Joseph Hooker, and 
described by a correspondent of the London Times, are situated 
in a narrow gorge, the cliffs of which rise almost perpendicularly 
from a deep valley, and are cut in the solid rock at a considerable 
height from the ground. In some places they are in single tiers, 
and in other places two or three tiers, one above the other, and 
inaccessible except by ropes and ladders. The entrances give ac- 
cess to rooms of comfortable size, furnished with windows, which 
were in some cases connected with other smaller rooms, also fur- 
nished with windows. The appearance of the caves, attesting that 
great pains were taken to secure comfort, is hardly consistent with 
the conception of the troglodytes as savages, which has been drawn 
from Hanno's account of them. Caves have been much used for 
burials, and have suggested the form of various artificial burial- 
places. The ancient Egyptians used natural caves or hollowed 
out artificial ones, preparing elaborate suites of chambers, ante- 
chambers, and recesses, and adorning them with brilliant paint- 
ings and art-works of religious significance. The recovery and 
exploration of these tombs constitute one of the most interesting 
and profitable branches of modern archaeological research. The 
most ancient real-estate transaction recorded in a historical book 
is the purchase of the cave of Machpelah from the children of 
Heth by Abraham, to be his family burial-place ; and it is still 



28 



THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 



guarded as Buch &\ Hebron by a Mohammedan mosque, which 
only the children of the faith and no infidel can pass. 

U, markable vestiges of the cave-life of antiquity may be seen 
Ln the rock-hewn city of Petra in Edom, some fifty miles south of 
the I > ad Sea. The valley in which it stood is lined on either side 
with the remains of tombs, temples, and perhaps habitations, 
excavated oui of the rock. These structures are supposed to date 
from a remote antiquity. In later times they were faced with 

dtectural fronts of a more or less imposing character. They 
are believed to have been used chiefly as places of burial. But 
there is reason to suppose that most of them were originally in- 
tended and used as habitations. Many of the chambers have no 
resemblance to tombs, but are such as a primitive race would 
construct to live in. Most of these have closets and recesses suit- 
able for family uses, and many have windows in front, which 
would be superfluous in tombs. It may be that in the course of 
time, as customs and people changed, these chambers were aban- 
doned for other houses, to be subsequently used as places of 
sepulture. 

Evidences are found in caves the world over of their use by 
1 in historic men from the stone ages down so frequently as to 
indicate that they were at one or more periods the usual dwell- 
ings of the race, and archaeologists have based upon them the 

or types of cave-men. The evidences of human abode are 
often found mingled with traces of animals, some of extinct spe- 
cies, which seem to have shared man's occupancy or contested 
w i t h him for it, or to have possessed the caves alternately with, 
hiin. They have furnished fruitful fields for archaeological and 
geological research, and the excavation of them has afforded valu- 
able information concerning the condition and surroundings of 
the most primitive men, and incidentally as to the age in which. 
tiny lived. The most noted localities where the earlier finds of 
ancient stone implements were made in France were habitations 
of cave-dwellers or in the immediate vicinity of such, habitations, 
and the science of palaeolithic archaeology was thus based in its 
beginning upon the relics left by men of this type. In Kent's 
I in, Torquay, which was one of the first of these palaeolithic 
abodes to be studied in England, human bones or articles of 
human manufacture have been found in two or three different 
strata, the oldest ones under conditions betokening extreme an- 
tiquity and in company with the remains of animals that were 

act long before the historical period. The first discoveries 

were among the earliest evidences that were obtained of 

man's having had a greater antiquity than had till then been 

ibed to him, and were received incredulously by a public 
which the thought struck as contradictory to revelation. The 



CAVE DWELLINGS OF MEN. 



29 



cave was examined year after year by scientific committees. The 
findings were confirmed, and shown to be in place and so situated 
as to forbid the supposition of the human remains being of more 
recent origin than the accompanying deposits. Similar remains 
have been found in many caves in all countries, and now consti- 




Fig. 1. Corinthian Tomb at Petra. 

tute only one among several kinds of evidences of man's glacial 
and preglacial existence. A cave at Cravan, near Belfort, France, 
appears to have been extensively used as a prehistoric burial- 
place of the polished-stone period. It contained a number of 
skeletons in such positions as suggested deliberate arrangement, 
and with them were beautifully ornamented vases, polished-stone 
bracelets, and a mat of plaited rushes. The cave of Marsoulas, in 
the Haute-Garonne, France, was inhabited by man several times 
during the palaeolithic age. The relics of what is designated as 
the second occupation are interesting on account of the specimens 
of artistic taste they afford. Besides the usual instruments of 
silex, arrow-points, and the like, were found some peroxide of 
manganese, which was probably used in tattooing, and engraved 
designs ; a piece of bone adorned with a regular ornamentation, 
engravings very much like those found in the valley of La Ve'zere ; 
and a piece of rib having an ovibos (or musk ox) carved upon it, 
in which, according to the Marquis de Nadaillac, the design is 
treated with exact knowledge of anatomical forms, the relief is 
brought out by shadings, and the drawing is vigorous. One of the 
recent excursions of the French Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science took in its way the grottoes of Lamouroux and 
Montrajoux, near Brive. The grottoes of Montrajoux are natural 
and have been used as the abodes of shepherds' families since the 

VOT Xh 3 



3 



THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 



eof the reindeer. Those of Lamouroux are the work of inan, as 
i- attested bj bhe marks of the pick which they still bear. They 
are grouped in Line and arranged in different stories which com- 
municate with one another, there being i n some places five stories. 
Some were distinguished by benches in the back, bearing tying- 
holes "ii their edges, which suggested that they had been occupied 
by the domestic animals. The situation of these grottoes in the 
neighborhood of the Chateau of Turenne, crowning the heights, 
induces the supposition that they served as places of refuge for 
Protestants during the religious wars. The bone caves of Borneo 
appear to have been occupied by men who were acquainted with 
the use of manufactured iron. The remains have recently been 
discovered on the banks of the Amu Daria or Oxus River, in 
central Asia, of a considerable city which was composed of cav- 
erns hewn in the rock. It seems, from the inscriptions, coins, and 
other objects found in it, to have been in existence in the second 
century of the Christian era. Some of the houses were of several 
stories. 

Dr. Arthur Mitchell, of Edinburgh, in a lecture delivered a 
t'.w y. 'ai's ago on the condition and antiquity of the cave-men of 
western Europe, showed of the men of the caves which he had 









AX'W 1 



V 



ure-a piece of bone, bearing regular designs. Lower Sgure-a piece of 
a ovibos engraved upon it. Both found in the grotto of Marsoulas (Haute- 

nind-that their weapons of war and the chase were 

' horn, and highly finished, while their implements 

extremely rude and calculated chiefly to serve as 

making of their bone implements, so that they were 

rather than the stone age of civilization. From 

lamination of the objects which the cave-man has 

Splaying an art faculty, and from the study of the crania 



CAVE DWELLINGS OF MEN. 



3 



of the cave people themselves, he argued that they must have pos- 
sessed a high capacity for culture in all directions, and must have 
been as complete in their whole manhood as living Europeans. 
He was disposed to put their age only a few thousand years back. 
The cave temples of India are famous and most curious speci- 
mens of architecture. They date from near the beginning of the 
Christian era. The best-known ones, those of Elephanta, have 
been described and pictured over and over again. The great 
cave, according to Mr. James Burgess, in The Rock-cut Temples 




Fig. 3. Facade of the Temple of Pandu Lena, near Nassik, India. 

by M. Albert Tissandier.) 



(From a drawing 



of Elephanta or Gharapuri, occupies a space having an extreme 
length of two hundred and sixty feet, with a depth into the rock 
of a hundred and fifty feet. It has three entrances one in the 
side and one at each end which are each about fifty-four feet 
wide, and divided into three doors by pillars fully three feet in 
diameter and sixteen feet high. This subdivision is repeated over 
the entire area of the underground temple, which may be described 
as consisting of eight parallel rows of such columns about fifteen 
feet apart. One of the quadrangular clumps of pillars is built 
round and incloses the shrine. Opposite the north entrance is 
the Trimusti, or Trinity, one of the most remarkable sculptured 
religious relics in the world. It consists of three united half- 
length figures, each head being elaborately carved and ornamented, 
and is seventeen feet high and twenty-two feet wide. Besides the 
great caves there are three others on the island. They consist of a 



32 



THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 



central excavation for the shrine, usually about twenty feet square, 
with attached cells or apartments for priests, two, four, and six 
respectively in number, each about sixteen feet square. The teni- 




_2 



4 



o 
1-1 
A 



'A 






6 



pies of Pandu Lena, constructed, according to the inscriptions they 
bear, about 129 B. c, are remarkable for the profusion and perfec- 



CAVE DWELLINGS OF MEN. 



33 



tion of their ornamentation, which, like that of the cave temples 
generally, seems to be designed to imitate constructions of wood. 
Those of A junta consist of four temples and twenty-three monas- 
teries, built in the face of an almost perpendicular cliff. They 
were begun about 100 B. c, and have remained in the condition in 
which they are now seen since the tenth century. They are ex- 
cavated en suite in the amygdaloid of the mountain, and are de- 
scribed as being of grand aspect, upheld by superb columns with 




Fig. 5. Plan of the Temples of Ktlas. 

curiously sculptured capitals and adorned with admirable frescoes 
reproducing the ancient Hindu life. The temples of Ellora are 
of different construction. Built in a sloping hill, it was neces- 
sary, in order to obtain a suitable height for the facade, to make 
a considerable preliminary excavation. In the group of these 
temples known as the Kylas, according to M. Albert Tissandier, the 
excavation has been carried around three sides, so as to isolate in 
the center an immense block, in which a temple with annexed 
chapels has been cut. The buildings are thus all in the open air, 
carved in the form of pagodas. Literally covered with sculptures 
composed with consummate art, they form a unique aggregate. 
They appear to be placed upon a fantastic sub-base on which all 
the gods of the Hindu mythology, with symbolical monsters and 



34 



THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 



rows of elephants, are sculptured in alto rilievo, forming cary- 
atides of strange and mysterious figure, well calculated to strike 
the imagination of the ancient Hindu population. The interior 
of the central pagoda is adorned with sixteen magnificent col- 
umns, which, as well as the side walls, were once covered with 
paintings ; and, with the central sanctuary of the idol, is com- 
posed with a correct understanding of architectural proportions. 
The two exit doors open upon a platform on which are five pago- 
das of lesser importance but of architectural merit and artistic 
ornamentation corresponding to those of the main building. 
Around these isolated temples excavations have been made into 
the sides of the mountain, in which are found a cloister adorned 
with bas-reliefs representing the principal gods of the Hindu 
pantheon ; other halls, likewise sculptured ; and various other 

features implying great labor 
and refined artistic taste and 
skill. 

At Bamian, in Afghanistan, 
are five colossal statues (prob- 
ably Buddhas) seated in niches 
which have been dug out in the 
cliff, while the rock is pierced 
with caves which are supposed 
to have been excavated by Bud- 
dhist monks during the first 
five centuries of the Christian 
era. Many of the caves are in- 
habited. Some of them are 
shown to have been bricked up 
in front, and both niches and 
caves are adorned with paint- 
ings and ornamental devices. 
Captain F. de Laessoe has de- 
scribed a number of caves which 
were excavated for habitation 
in the sandstones of the right 
bank of the Murghab River, 
near Penjdeh, in Afghanistan. 
One of them (Fig. 6) consists of a central passage a hundred and 
fifty feet long and nine feet broad and high, having on each side 
staircases and doors leading to rooms of different sizes. Each room 
has attached to it a small chamber, with a well in which possibly 
water brought up from the river was stored ; and is also provided 
with small niches in the walls on which the lamps were placed and 
where marks of soot can still be seen. The entrances from the 
main passage to the rooms were shut with folding doors on wooden 




Fig. 6. Yaki Deshik Caves of Afghan- 



istan. 



CAVE DWELLINGS OF MEN. 35 

hinges, of which the socket-holes of the hinges and holes for the 
admission of the arm behind the door to draw back the bolt are 
the only traces now to be seen. This structure had an upper 
story, but much less extensive than the lower story. Many other 
caves, similarly constructed but containing fewer rooms, are found 
all along the valley. At one of them the cliff is so well preserved 
as to show how access was gained. It was by means of holes cut 
in the rock for steps, which could be easily climbed by the aid of 
a rope hanging down from above. 

Vestiges of cave dwellings are very abundant in America, but 
they have not been made the subject of special study to so great 
an extent as those of Europe. They are prehistoric, ancient, or 
relatively modern, and represent various stages of civilization in 
those who inhabited them. Some are found as far north as Alaska, 
where, according to Dr. Peet, who has published in the American 
Antiquarian excellent illustrated summaries of the results of the 
explorations of the cliff and cave dwellings, " they are associated 
with shell-heaps ; others in the Mississippi Valley, where they are 
closely connected with the mounds; others in the midst of the 
canons of Colorado and Arizona, where they are associated with 
structures like the Pueblos ; others in the central regions on the 
coasts of Lake Managua, in Nicaragua ; and still others in the 
valley of the Amazon in South America." According to Mr. 
William H. DalL the cave-dwellers of Alaska were neolithic. The 
caves in Tennessee are described by Prof. F. W. Putnam as con- 
taining tokens of a neolithic character ; but it is uncertain whether 
they preceded the mounds or were contemporaneous with them. 
Dr. Earl Flint has described caves in Nicaragua which strike him 
as being very ancient ; and certain caves in Brazil are supposed 
to be palaeolithic. 

The most interesting of the American cave dwellings, and 
those which have received the most attention, are those which 
are associated and almost confounded with the cliff dwellings of 
the canons of Arizona and Colorado. So nearly related are the 
cliff and cave dwellings of this region, in fact, that it seems to 
have been to a considerable extent a question of the shaping of 
the rock whether the habitation should be one or the other. Re- 
garding the two as a whole, they were very numerous, and indi- 
cate the former existence of a large population. Major Powell is 
quoted as having expressed surprise at seeing in the region noth- 
ing for whole days but cliffs everywhere riddled with human 
habitations, which resembled the cells of a honeycomb more 
than anything else. Yet it is probable that only a small fraction 
of these singular dwellings have been seen, while the number of 
those that have been even only superficially explored is much less. 

An excellent, finely illustrated description of some of these 



36 



THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 




< 

< 

CD 






3 
(3 
H 
J 
-J 



W 






CAVE DWELLINGS OF MEN. 37 

ancient dwellings in the Rio Verde Valley was given, from his 
own personal observations, by Dr. Edgar A. Mearns, in The Popu- 
lar Science Monthly for October, 1890. But his attention was de- 
voted chiefly to the buildings in exposed situations of the Pueblo 
style of architecture'; while he speaks of having seen lines of 
black holes emerging upon the narrow ledges, which he was told 
were cave dwellings of an extinct race. He mentions also walled 
buildings of two kinds those occupying natural hollows or cavi- 
ties in the face of the cliffs, and those built in exposed situations ; 
the former, whose walls were protected by sheltering cliffs, being 
sometimes found in almost as perfect a state of preservation as 
when deserted by the builders, unless the torch has been applied. 
" Another and very common form of dwellings," Dr. Mearns con- 
tinues, " is the caves which are excavated in the cliffs by means of 
stone picks or other instruments. They are found in all suitable 
localities that are contiguous to water and good agricultural land, 
but are most numerous in the vicinity of large casas grandes" 

The cave dwellings are more prominent in other accounts 
of the region, and seem to be a very important feature in some 
of the canons. The majority of those known are in the valleys of 
the Colorado and the Rio Doloroso, Rio San Juan, and Rio Man- 
cos, its tributaries. A village, if we might call it that, on the 
San Juan, described by Mr. W. H. Holmes, is surmounted by 
three estufas or towers, one rectangular and two circular, each 
over a different group of cave dwellings. A short distance from 
this ruin are the remains of another tower, built on a grander 
scale. These structures are supposed by Mr. Holmes to have 
been the fortresses, council chambers, and places of worship of 
the cliff and cave dwellers. 

The great Echo Cave on the San Juan is described by Mr. W. 
H. Jackson as situated on a bluff about two hundred feet high, 
and as being one hundred feet deep. "The houses occupy the 
eastern half of the cave. The first building was a small struct- 
ure, sixteen feet long and from three to four feet wide. Next 
came an open space, eleven feet long and nine feet deep, probably 
a workshop. Four holes were driven into the smooth rock floor, 
six feet apart, probably designed to hold the posts for a loom. . . . 
There were also grooves worn into the rock where the people had 
polished their stone implements. The main building comes next, 
forty-eight feet long, twelve feet high, and ten feet wide, divided 
into three rooms, with lower and upper story, each story being 
five feet high. There were holes for the beams in the walls, and 
window-like apertures between the rooms, affording communica- 
tion to each room of the second story. There was one window, 
twelve inches square, looking out toward the open country." * 

* Dr. Stephen D. Peet, in the American Antiquarian. 



38 



THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY 



There were also holes in the upper rooms, which may have been 
used for peep-holes. Beyond these rooms the wall continued one 
hundred and thirty feet farther, and the space was divided into 
rooms of unequal length. The appearance of the place impressed 
Mr. Jackson as indicating that the family were in good circum- 
stances. These are single specimens of a class of dwellings of 
which there are probably many hundreds. The ages of these 
dwellings and the conditions under which they were built and 




Fig. 8. Echo Cave on the Eio San Juan. 

occupied are unknown. The climate favors the preservation of 
objects, so that they may be of considerable antiquity ; and there 
is no reason for supposing they were not inhabited down to a 
comparatively recent period. The objects found within the cliff 
and cave dwellings, some of which are represented in Dr. Mearns's 
article, indicate a considerable degree of civilization. 

An account was published by Mr. Theodore Hayes Lewis, in 
Appletons' Annual Cyclopsedia for 1889, of some curious drawings 
that are found in caves at St. Paul, Winona, and Houston Counties, 
Minn., La Crosse County, Wis., and Allamakee County, Iowa. 
They include representations of the human form, fish, snakes, 
animals, and conventional figures. 

Many accounts of travelers go to show that residence in caves 
is not rare in modern times, and that it constitutes a feature 'of 
life, though not an important one, in some of the most civilized 



CAVE DWELLINGS OF MEN. 



39 



countries in Europe. Sonie of the most interesting pages in Mrs. 
Olivia M. Stone's account of her visit to the Canary Islands (Ten- 
eriffe and its Six Satellites) relate to the cave villages, still inhab- 
ited by a curious troglodyte population mostly potters found 
in various places in Gran Canaria. Appositely to an account by 
the Rev. H. F. Tozer of certain underground rock-hewn churches 
in southern Italy, Mr. J. Hoskyns Abrahall relates that when 
visiting Monte Vulture, and while a guest of Signor Bozza, at 
Barili, having expressed surprise at learning the number of inhab- 
itants in the place, his host told him that the poor lived in caves 
hollowed out of the side of the mountain, and took him into one 
of the rock-hewn dwellings ; and he accounts for their existence 
by the facility with which they are formed. 




Fig. 9. Gh'mrassen, in the Ourghemma, Southern Tunis, with the Rock-cut Dwellings. 

The rock-cut village of Gh'mrassen, in the Ourghemma, south- 
ern Tunis, consists of rows of snug family dwellings, close to each 
other, hollowed out of the side of a cliff, the top of which at an 
overhanging point, is crowned by the remains of a small mosque. 

At a recent meeting of the Royal Geographical Society of 
Madrid, Dr. Bide gave an account of his exploration of a wild 
district in the province of Caceres, which he represented as still 
inhabited by a strange people, who speak a curious patois, and 
live in caves and inaccessible retreats. They have a hairy skin, 



4 



THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY 



and have hitherto displayed a strong repugnance to mixing with 
their Spanish and Portuguese neighbors. Roads have lately been 
pushed into the district inhabited by these " Jurdes," and they 
are beginning to learn the Castilian language and attend the fairs 
and markets. 

Some disused rock-hewn dwellings are mentioned in Meyer's 
Guide-Book as existing near the ancient Klusberg in the Hartz 




Fig. 10. Cave Dwellings near Langenstein, in the Hartz Mountains. 

drawing by E. Krell.) 



(From a 









Mountains. Herr E. Krell describes in a German periodical a 
group of such dwellings, now inhabited, near the village of Lang- 
enstein in the same region. There are some twenty of them, 
each furnished with a door and a window, and inhabited alto- 
gether by about forty persons. The oldest of them was made 

about thirty years ago, by a 
poor, newly married couple who 
found the conditions of life in 
the village too hard. It was 
gradually enlarged, by patient 
excavation in the rock, until it 
has been made a comfortable 
and convenient dwelling. The 
house has a neatly kept en- 
trance, with a hallway, a liv- 
ing-room on the right, in which 
is the only window, a bedroom 
on the left of the hall ; in the 
rear a spacious store-room on 
the left, and a kitchen with a 
fireplace on the right; and be- 
hind the kitchen another bedroom. The chimney is carried up 
through the roof, and where it comes out above the surface of the 
ground is well guarded with a wall of stones. Although the back 
rooms are not directly lighted from without, they receive sufficient 




Fig. 



11. Plan of a Cave Dwelling near 
Langenstein. 



CAVE DWELLINGS OF MEN. 



4i 



light from the front ; the houses, as a whole, are dry, warm in 
winter and cool in summer, and do not suffer from lack of venti- 
lation ; and their inhabitants, as a rule, are a healthy and vigor- 
ous people. Some of the proprietors have whitened the fronts of 
their dwellings, and have planted gardens in the ground over 
them and in front of them, so as to give their homes a not un- 
pleasing air ; and the cave dwellings are much drier and more 
healthful than city basements. 

Another group of inhabited caves is described in La Nature 
by M. Brossard de Corbigny as stretching for the length of a kilo- 




Fig. 12. The Grottoes of Meschers, in the Blfff, Charente-Inferieure, France. 
(From a water-color sketch by M. Brossard de Corbigny.) 

metre along the right bank of the river Gironde, at Meschers, in the 
Charente-Inferieure, France. " They are excavated in a high bluff 
of shell-rock, which is crowned above them by a number of wind- 
mills, some still active while others are disused, and face the 
broad river, commanding a view of the sea and the Cordouan 
Tower in the distance. The caves are partly natural and partly 
the work of man. They can not be seen from the top of the bluff, 
and are accessible by goat-paths descending from the mills not 
very pleasant walking for women and children, especially where 
it has been necessary to cut stepping-notches in the rock. Not all 
the paths are equally difficult of descent, and some leading to the 
stations of the lobster-fishers go down to a kind of ladder that 
reaches to the water's edge. Whatever path one follows, he is 
sure at about a third of the distance down to come upon an exca- 
vation suggesting the nest of some gigantic sea-bird of the olden 
time ; but he will soon observe that the bottoms of the caves and 
the roofs have been made smooth by the hand of man, while the 
great openings looking out upon -the sea bear marks of erosion by 



4 2 



THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 



the southwest winds and the rains. Most of these grottoes were 
inhabited fifty years ago, but the majority of them have been 
abandoned in consequence of the land-slides and the development 
of the knowledge and desire of a better way of living. Three of 
them are still occupied by persons who boast that they are very 
comfortable in them warm in winter with their southern expos- 
ure and complete protection from the north, and enjoying a re- 
freshing coolness in the summer. The caves are free from moist- 
ure, and cost no rent except a slight fee paid to the proprietor of 
the ground above them. The natural opening on the side of the 
sea is closed not very tightly with boards or stones, in which one 
or two windows admit a sufficient light. The house is usually 
composed of two rooms, separated by a partition which was left 
in the hollowing out of the cave, and the furnishings are as com- 
fortable as those possessed by the majority of the peasants of the 




Fig. 13. Entrance to the Orotto La Femme Nettve, Meschers. 



region 



Other shallower cavities outside of the main ones serve as 
sheds for the wood which is used to cook, in earthen kettles, the 
soup and the fish and oysters which are found in abundance at 
the foot of the bank. The visitor who expects to find misery or 
signs of hard life in these grotto homes will be disappointed ; in- 
stead, he will see people as satisfied with their lot as Diogenes was 
with his tub. 



CAVE DWELLINGS OF MEN. 



43 



" If we desire to visit these grottoes, we may descend from one 
of the windmills by a winding path to the one called Femme 
neuve, because it is the newest of the group. We are welcomed 
with the best the proprietor has to offer. The women are busy 
with their washing. The smoke escapes freely through the loose 
planks of the sea-wall. A second chamber serves as a sleeping- 




Fig. 14. Interior View of the Grotto La Femme Neuve, Meschers. 

room and is furnished with two beds, a commode, and, opposite 
the beds, the fireplace, back to the sea, between two small glass 
windows. During high southwest winds the spray leaps up to the 
height of the caves, the rain dashes against the planks, the grottoes 
are inundated and made uninhabitable, and it becomes necessary 
to seek shelter in some of the cottages of the village. 

"Another path from the windmills leads to a second grotto, 
where lives Father Lavigne, a bright and sprightly man of about 
eighty years, who makes a weekly trip to Royau and back in the 
same day. He receives his visitor with great courtesy, hat in hand, 
and shows him his two rooms, nearly bare, but commanding a fine 
view over the gulf and the sea. His furniture is simple but neat ; 
and the old gentleman, who has lived here more than forty years, 
declares that he is quite happy, for health is left to him. His 
cave-life has never given him rheumatism. 

" A locksmith and knife-grinder has recently established him- 
self in a third cave, and has the love of a hermit for it. His door 
and window are open, showing a single room with a bed of straw 
on four legs, a wall-table, a few utensils, and a chair, as all the fur- 



++ 



THE POPULAR SCIEXCE MOXTHLY 



niture. In one corner are a grindstone and a forge, the arrange- 
ment of which shows how much an ingenious man can do with 
the most primitive materials. The proprietor has traveled exten- 
sively in the exercise of his trade and has seen much of the world. 
Now, at forty years of age, he seeks rest, and the embellishment 



LA GIRO/MDC 




Fig. 15. Plax of the Grotto La Femme Xecte. Meschers : a, bods and closets ; 6, wash- 
tub : c, fireplace ; /', windows ; g, vertical planks forming a partition on the broad side ; 

h, rim of vertical rocks twenty metres above the sea ; edge of the floor ; p, door ; r, 

ladder ascending to the top of the cliff; t, water-hole. 

of his home is his ruling desire. He communicates his plans 
enthusiastically to his visitors. He has planted white gilliflowers 
under his window, the only kind, he says, that will bear the sea 
winds. Next year he will plant a grape-arbor, the vines of which 
he will carefully protect against too severe exposures. 




Fig. 16. The Knife-grinder's Cave at Meschers. 

" Other grottoes have been acquired by persons in easy circum- 
stances, remodeled, partitioned off, and even fancifully papered. 
They are simply the pavilions of citizens, and there is no interest 
in visiting them." At the foot of the bluff on the eastern side are 



EVOLUTION IN FOLK LORE. 45 

large regular cavities -which are said to have been the refuge of 
Protestants during the religious wars. They were afterward con- 
verted into quarries, from which a soft shell stone was obtained. 
The places are still to be seen where the barges landed at the en- 
trance of the quarries, and the older people of the country remem- 
ber when they were worked. 

For specimens of modern cave dwellings in the United States 
we might turn to the sod-houses of the Western plains, which the 
settlers construct for temporary shelter while waiting for a supply 
of lumber with which to build a more conventional if not better 
house. They can not, however, be classed with the permanent 
dwellings which this paper has held in view. As soon as the new 
house is done, they are turned over to the cattle and pigs, or aban- 
doned and left to the mercy of the elements. 







T 



EVOLUTION IN FOLK LORE. 

AN OLD STORY IN A NEW FORM. 

By DAVID DWIGHT WELLS. 

the historian folk lore is both a blessing and a curse. It 
presents an almost insurmountable barrier to scientific in- 
vestigation ; for, to separate the kernel of truth from the mass of 
superstitious chaff by which it is surrounded, is a task in com- 
parison with which the proverbial finding of the needle in the 
hay-stack sinks into insignificance. Viewed in another aspect, 
however, folk lore is of the greatest importance to the inquirer in 
the past, for it forms the connecting link in the evolution of a 
tribe, a race, or a nation. 

Long after a people has passed away as a unit, its traditions 
will survive, and, wherever they may be found, they will point 
conclusively to the existence of some portion of that race. The 
legend, however, seldom retains much of its original form, and 
this is not to be wondered at. Common experience teaches us 
daily how a story can grow in the mouths of men, and when it 
comes to be a matter of generations and not of days, it naturally 
undergoes many marked changes. The legend or folk-lore story 
adapts itself also to its surroundings, which, parasite-like, cling 
to it so effectually that often it is extremely difficult to distin- 
guish the original legend in its corrupted form. 

These changes are especially noticeable when the race or tribe 
has migrated from one country to another, and a careful study 
of the alterations which take place in the typical legends of a 
people illuminates the history of the race itself. 

It is not my intention to enter into any such elaborate under- 

TOL. XLI 



46 THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

taking ; but merely to present to the public a curious example 
of an evolution of folk lore which has come to my notice, and 
trace its passage for a few generations. 

This story came to me from a gentleman who was born about 
the beginning of this century in Essequibo, British Guiana, South 
America. His father was an English planter, and owned estates 
and slaves. Brought up, as was the narrator, among these slaves, 
he heard from them many of the traditions of their race, which 
his excellent memory preserved in their original entirety. Per- 
haps the most pleasing of these which his kindly spirit promp- 
ted him to relate for the amusement of children, and the only 
one of which I have any clear recollection, was 

The Story of the Hunter. Once upon a time a hunter 
lived in a little hut on the edge of a great wood in Africa. He 
lived by himself, for his father and mother had died many years 
before, leaving him nothing but the hut in which he dwelt, and 
three magic arrows, which he was only to use in time of great 
danger. This hunter had two very large and fierce dogs one 
called Ya-me-o-ro, and the other Con-ga-mo-ro-to which fol- 
lowed him everywhere he went. In this wood was a great herd 
of white cows, which the hunter killed when he had need of 
meat, and whose skins he dried and made into clothes. These 
cows hated the hunter, and would have torn him in pieces many 
times, had it not been for his faithful dogs, that always hunted 
with him, and which the cows feared to attack. So the hunter 
lived peacefully, and for many a day all went well with him. 

One evening about sunset the hunter, while seated in his hut, 
heard cries and groans coming from the woods ; and, taking his 
dogs, went out to find the cause of them. He had not gone far 
when he came upon a fair, strange woman, lying upon the 
ground, apparently in great distress. She was tall and slender, 
and more beautiful than any one that he had ever seen. When 
she saw him she begged for food and shelter, saying that she was 
dying of hunger and thirst, and had fallen fainting where he had 
found her. The hunter carried her back to his hut, and nursed 
her as tenderly as he could until she became well and strong 
again. "When she was herself again, she thanked him for his 
goodness, and said that on the next day she must set out on the 
journey which she was making when she fell sick. Then for the 
first time the hunter felt what it was to be lonely ; for as he had 
always lived by himself he had never before missed the company 
of other people. So he entreated her not to leave him, and the 
fair stranger, seeing his loneliness and remembering his kindness, 
stayed with him and became his wife. 

Not many days after this the hunter started in the morning to 
hunt, and called his dogs to go with him ; but the fair stranger 



EVOLUTION IN FOLK LOBE. 47 

begged that they might be left at home, to guard her from the 
white cows. Now, the hunter had never before gone to the woods 
without them ; but she begged so hard that he would leave them 
with her, that at last he tied them up in the hut, so that they 
should not follow him, and went forth to hunt alone. 

After he had gone some way he heard behind him a great 
noise, and looking back saw all the white cows in the forest, who 
had gathered together and were about to tear him to pieces. The 
hunter was greatly frightened, and ran like the wind for his 
home. But, fast as he ran, the cows followed faster, and he knew 
that they would catch him long before he could reach his hut. 
Then he remembered his three magic arrows, which he always 
carried with him in his belt, and taking one of them, he stuck it 
in the ground and put his foot upon the butt. In a moment he 
felt himself shooting up through the air, and found he was on 
the top of a tall palm tree which had sprung up out of the ground, 
and whose smooth trunk no cow could climb. 

The fury of the white cows when they saw their victim thus 
snatched from their grasp was terrible to see. The woods echoed 
with their cries of rage, and with lowered heads they charged the 
palm, butting it till it rocked as if in the midst of a tempest. 
When they saw that they could not overthrow it in this way, 
they all at once rushed into the midst of the woods, but returned 
in a few moments bearing sharp axes, with which they began to 
cut down the tree. Its trunk, however, was strong and tough; 
but the cows flew at it in a great crowd, and when one was tired 
another took her place. Great chips flew from the palm, and the 
hunter as he sat in the tree-top could hear the song of the axes 
as they bit into the hard wood : 




=$- 



=1= 



-1-4 



-*-^7 



A - phi -bim-m-gas-co-ma-bam, a- phi-bim-m-gas - cp - ma- bam. 

He now became greatly frightened and wished to call his dogs 
to his aid, hoping that they might hear him and break away, or 
that his wife might loose them ; so he called them loudly by name : 




:= 



S>- 



Ya - me - - ro Cong - a - mo - ro - to ! 

But they did not come, and he feared that they could not hear 
him. And, while he cried, the cows still swung their axes, which 
sang yet louder, as though to drown the hunter's voice : 

A-phi-bim Gas-co-ma-bam ; 

A-phi-bim Gas-co-ma-bam ! 



48 THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

Now the tree began to shake, as it had been almost cut through, 

and the hunter in great terror cried to his dogs at the top of his 

voice : 

Ya-me-oro, Con-ga-mo-ro-to ! 

Ya-me-o-ro, Con-ga-mo ro-to ! 
but all in vain. 

Then he took the second of his magic arrows, and, fitting it to 
his bow, he shot it down into the ground. At once another palm 
sprang up, taller and stronger than the first, to which the hunter 
leaped. And he was not a moment too soon ; for the tree he had 
left tottered from its base and fell with a great crash to the 
ground. 

When the white cows saw the second tree, they were very an- 
gry, and rushed at it again with their axes, plying stroke on 
stroke in their rage and fury, while the hunter kept calling his 
dogs by name : 




--P- 



&- 



m 



Ya - me - o - ro Cong - a - mo - ro - t3 ! 
and the axes rang louder and louder : 




2t=\ 



T 



* *- 



-*-* 



r -- -& -#-- h r -#- -&- w -# - r 

:. * 3 :?. * 5: 

A - phi - bim-m-gas -co - ma - bam, a - phi-bim-m-gas -co - ma- bam. 

Soon the second tree was ready to fall, and the hunter had to 
shoot his last arrow into the ground, when a palm taller and 
larger than either of the others sprang up into the air. Now he 
saw that unless help came quickly his end was near ; for he had 
no more arrows, and above the din of the axes he called as loud 
as he was able : 

Come, Ya-me-o-ro! come, Con-ga-mo ro-to! 

Suddenly he saw the fair stranger approaching, and he called 
to her to help him, and run back and loose the dogs ; but she 
laughed at him, saying that his dogs could not aid him now ; and 
as she spoke she changed into a white cow herself, and the hunter 
saw that she was the queen of the herd, who had become a woman 
only to entrap him. Still the axes kept crying : 

A-phi-bim Gas-co-ma-bam ; 

A-phi-bim Gas-co-ma-bam ! 

and the tree was almost cut through. For the last time the 
hunter called his dogs to come to his help : 

Come, Ya-me-o-ro ! come, Con-ga-mo-ro-to ! 
and as he did so he heard a crashing sound in the bushes, and 



EVOLUTION IN FOLK LORE. 49 

the dogs, who had at last gnawed their ropes apart, made their 
appearance and sprang upon the white cows. 

First they attacked the queen and tore her to pieces, and then, 
turning upon the rest of the herd, they killed many and put the 
others to night, so that the hunter was saved. 

Such is the form of the legend as I received it from the gen- 
tleman referred to above, whose culture and the position he held 
in society warrants me in believing him to be an authority on 
this matter. 

He was born in 1805, and must have heard the legend at least 
as early as 1810. He received it from his negro nurse, a slave, 
whom his father had bought direct from the coast of Africa. 
Assuming the woman to be of a responsible age, which she must 
have been to have had the care of children, it was unquestion- 
ably current on the coast of Africa in the latter part of the 
eighteenth century, and probably for a long antecedent period. 

The most unique feature of this tale, and that which made it 
especially attractive to children, was the hunters musical call of 
the dogs, and the song of the axes. The narrator sang these, re- 
peating them many times in the course of the story to a curious 
refrain which I have attempted to reproduce in the music given 
above. 

This, indeed, was the chief charm of the story, and so well 
was it executed that one could almost hear the ring of the axes 
as they rebounded from the tree, while the changes of voice 
in the cries of the hunter represented his increasing anxiety and 
fear as time went on and no aid came to him. It is difficult to 
describe the effect thus produced ; to appreciate it, it was neces- 
sary to hear it. 

Nearly a hundred years later this story was current again in 
Georgia, where it was made public by the facile pen of Mr. Joel 
Chandler Harris, better known as the author of the Uncle Remus 
stories. As will be seen on examination, it has changed consid- 
erably, but its principal points remain unaltered. I regret that 
I can not reproduce Mr. Harris's story in full, but a copyright 
prevents me from doing more than making a few brief quo- 
tations. 

This story, which Mr. Harris entitles " The Little Boy and his 
Dogs," appeared in the Louisville Courier-Journal, February 18, 
1886, and is somewhat as follows : 

A little boy lives with his mother in a hut beside a road. He 
is her only child; but Uncle Remus, who tells the story, in- 
forms us that the boy once had a little sister, who had been stolen 
away how, it is not related and whom her brother searches the 
woods in vain to find. One day, while engaged in this pursuit, 
he meets two ladies wearing long veils, who come to his mother's 

VOL. XLI. 5 



5 o THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

house and ask for some water, when the following conversation 
occurs : 

" Reckly he holler out, ' Mammy, mammy ! what you reckon ? 
Dey'er lapping de water ! ' De 'oman she holler back, ' I reckon 
dat's de way de quality folks does, honey.' " 

Then the ladies ask for some bread and eat it, so as to cause 
the little boy to cry : 

" Mammy, mammy ! what you reckon ? Dey'er got great long 
tushes." De 'oman she holler back, " I reckon all de quality folks 
has got 'em, honey." 

Then they wash their hands, and again the boy cries : 

" Mammy, mammy ! what you reckon ? Dey got little bit er 
hairy hans and arms." De 'oman she holler back, " I reckon all 
de quality folks has got 'em, honey." 

The ladies now request that the little boy show them the way 
to the cross-roads, which he refuses to do until admonished by 
his mother. 

" Now," says Uncle Remus, " dish yer little boy had two mighty 
bad dogs. One un urn waz name Minny minny Morack, en de 
oter one was name Follerlinsko, en de waz so bad dey hatter 
be tied in de yard day an' night, 'cep w'en dey wuzen't a- 
huntin'." 

Before setting out, however, the boy places a pan of water in 
the kitchen, and sticks a willow twig near by in the ground, tell- 
ing his mother that when the water turns to blood and the willow 
shakes, she is to loose the dogs and send them to hunt for him. 
He then proceeds to conduct the ladies to the cross-roads ; but 
after he has gone some way perceives, on looking behind him, 
that the supposed ladies are walking on all fours. This strikes 
him as somewhat suspicious, and he hastens to climb up a big 
pine tree near at hand for safety. The ladies try and persuade him 
to come down, threatening to tell his mother of his disobedience ; 
but in vain ; the little boy prefers to remain where he is. " Den," 
says Uncle Remus, "de quality ladies got mighty mad. Dey 
walked 'roun' dat tree en fairly snorted. Dey pulled off der bon- 
nets, en der veils, en der dresses, en, lo en behole ! de little boy 
seed dey wuz two great big pant'ers. . . . Dey tried to climb de 
tree, but dey had done trim der claws so dey could git on gloves, 
en dey couldn't clam no mo'. 

" Den one un em sot down in de road en made a kuse mark in 
de sand, en der great long tails turned to axes, dan de gun to 
cut de tree down. . . . 

" But wiles the little boy wuz settin' up dar skeered mighty 
nigh ter def, hit come inter his min' dat he had some eggs in his 
pocket w'at he done brung with 'im fer ter eat w'enever he git 
hongry. He tuck out one er de eggs en broke it en say, ' Place 



EVOLUTION IN FOLK LORE. 51 

fill up,' en bless you soul ! de place fill up slio' miff, en de tree 
look des 'zackly like nobody ain't bin a-cuttin' on it." 

This occurs three times, when, just at the critical moment, as 
his eggs are all exhausted, his mother sees that the water in the 
pan has turned to blood and that the willow twig is shaking, so 
she releases the dogs. The little boy hears them coming, and 
calls out : " Come on, my good dogs ! here, dogs, here ! ' ; 

The dogs come in the nick of time, and kill the panthers, who 
are unable to escape, since they have not time to change their 
axes back into tails. Here the story wanders off to the finding of 
the small boy's sister, who is rescued from the clutches of " Brer 
Bar." 

There is, I think, no question but that these two stories have 
a common origin ; the resemblance is so strong that it hardly 
seems necessary to mention it in detail. 

The hunter, changed to a little boy in the version of Mr. Har- 
ris ; who is possessed of two dogs which he rashly leaves at home ; 
who is attacked by wild beasts in human guise who chop with 
axes the tree into which he climbs to escape them ; the miracu- 
lous restoration of the trees, and the rescue by the dogs, appear in 
each narrative. 

As I have before stated, nearly a hundred years must have in- 
tervened between the telling of the two legends, and the variation 
in the second is plainly due to the change of scene and of environ- 
ment which befell the people who preserved and told the story. 

It is only the artist who can successfully set a narrative in a 
scene with which he is not familiar, and make the environment 
seem real. Folk lore, however, is no artist's tale ; it is told by a 
child of the soil, who unconsciously clothes his narration with 
the scenes and incidents with which he is best acquainted. The 
gentleman to whom the story was told in the early part of the 
century received it from a native African, who had heard it in 
her own country ; while Mr. Harris must have obtained his from 
a Georgia negro, who had grown up in exile and slavery. The 
local coloring was, of course, totally different. 

The hero in what, if I may be permitted, I shall call the un- 
adulterated version of the story, is a hunter ; and this is very 
natural, for hunting must have been one of the chief occupations 
among the uncivilized negro tribes of Africa. In Mr. Harris's 
version he becomes a little boy ; but this is perhaps the author's 
regulation little boy, who figures so often in the "Uncle Remus" 
stories. In the same way another change, which at, first would 
seem to be due to local environment, can be shown to be produced 
by other causes. I refer to the substitution in the later story of 
panthers for white cows. In portions of Africa cows can not 
exist, and, whether this was the case in the region occupied by 



5 2 THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

the tribe whose legend this was, I am unable to say ; but it is 
certain that at some time or other they must have seen white 
cows, otherwise they would not have told about them. The pan- 
ther, on the other hand, is a native of Africa ; and, indeed, there 
are no panthers in our Southern States, unless the name is erro- 
neously applied to the American puma. It is, therefore, quite 
likely that in the original legend, as it was currently known in 
Africa, both the cows and the panthers might have figured, since 
both were known to the people. 

A little further examination of the two stories will, however, 
illustrate strikingly the changes due to locality. 

In the first place, take the ladies into which the animals trans- 
formed themselves. In Mr. Harris's version they are spoken of 
as " quality folks," but there were no quality people in a civilized 
sense in Africa, and in their stead we find a " fair stranger," 
whom one could well imagine would seem a mysterious being to 
a lonely African hunter. So, too, we find that the three magic 
arrows of the first story have changed to three eggs in the second, 
and a palm to a pine tree, which latter change involves for Mr. 
Harris an explanation of why the panthers couldn't climb the 
tree, which was not needed in the first version. Such are some of 
the local changes which the legend has undergone during the 
past century. Others could doubtless be found, but I prefer to 
pass from these to changes of greater significance. Before doing 
so, however, let me say a word in regard to the names of the dogs. 
Ya-me-o-ro and Con-ga-mo-ro-to have an Eastern tone that fits 
exactly with the African legend ; but where, within the confines 
of Georgia, did Mr. Harris unearth such remarkable combinations 
of letters as " Minny minny Morack " and " Follerlinsko " ? Uncle 
Remus, I am sure, could never have pronounced them, and one is 
inclined to believe that they were conjured up by the author's 
fertile brain to take the place of the euphonious forgotten titles. 

Though change of locality has much to do with the alterations 
occurring in folk lore, it is by no means the only factor which 
brings about such results. Contact with a foreign predominant 
race, and with its customs and legends, has an equally great effect. 

In the first quotation which I made from Mr. Harris's version 
one of these alterations just noted is to be found. The ladies 
are discussed, by the little boy and his mother, in regard to their 
manner of drinking, their hands, and their teeth. Now, this inquiry 
and thirst after information on the part of the little boy is thor- 
oughly English in spirit. The native African would never have 
asked such questions, because he was by nature lazy and indiffer- 
ent. It also suggests very strongly the story of Red Riding 
Hood, which has almost become a classic in the English tongue. 
Red Riding Hood, the reader will remember, visits a wolf, dis- 



EVOLUTION IN FOLK LORE. 53 

guised as her grandmother ; asks him a series of questions some- 
what like those just referred to, and beginning, " But what great 
eyes you have, grandmother ! " " The better to see you with, my 
dear." Indeed, this tendency for inquiry is prominent in most 
English legends, and I think there is ground at least for the sur- 
mise whether Mr. Harris's negro has not unconsciously trans- 
planted into his own legend the characteristics of the legends 
belonging to the race which he served. 

One other factor of moment remains to be noticed, and this, I 
think, is more important than all, and is due to the change in the 
national life of the people whose legend it was i. e., from a state 
of freedom to one of slavery. One example will suffice, I think, 
to show plainly what I mean. In the first version of the story, 
which was originally told by a negro born free, the laws of cause 
and effect are carefully observed throughout. The hunter is at- 
tacked by the white cows because he destroys them, and in his 
death they recognize their safety. Now, in the second version of 
the story, which Mr. Harris must have obtained from a Georgia 
negro whose ancestors from whom he had received the legend 
had been slaves for three or four generations, there is no logical 
sequence of events, and an apparent ignorance displayed of the 
same law of cause and effect. Here the panthers merely appear, 
and attack the little boy, for no assignable reason whatsoever. It 
might be argued that their desire for food was a sufficient cause, 
but it is not the custom of panthers to disguise themselves for 
the purpose of entrapping their prey. According to the unwritten 
canons of all legends, these disguises may only be assumed on 
important occasions. This, however, does not affect the signifi- 
cance of the change. In a free tribe, whose members were de- 
pendent on their own unaided efforts for support, the laws of cause 
and effect would naturally be clearly understood, and a legend 
which disregarded these would be held in contempt: for these 
people believed their legends to be true. They must, therefore, of 
course, conform to the laws of their existence, so that they might 
possess the semblance of truth. When the story comes to be 
repeated years after in a state of slavery, and by one who heard 
it from slaves, the laws of cause and effect are disregarded, and 
very naturally ; for why should the negro trouble himself about 
such matters, when food and clothing were provided for him by 
his master, and he was looked after in his old age ? 

Another alteration due to this change may be noted in the 
difference of the persons of the actors already mentioned. In 
Africa, it was a national legend, and the hero was accordingly a 
man ; in Georgia, the heroic period of the race had passed away, 
and the legend had degenerated into a story told to please a child, 
and in which a child held the prominent part. 



54 THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

There is one more very curious point in regard to the treat- 
ment of the hunter by the woman, which has an ethical signifi- 
cance which seems more than national. The woman, after entrap- 
ping the hunter by her charms and depriving him of his strength 
in the shape of the dogs, surrenders him to his enemies. 

Between the Aryan and negro races there is a very great differ- 
ence 1 the difference between a race that has a written language 
and one that has not. It would seem that their religions might 
have little or nothing in common ; yet in this legend of the woman 
and the hunter have we not a counterpart of the legend of Sam- 
son and Delilah, in the Bible, where the woman, having deprived 
him of his strength, gives him over to his enemies ? 

Thus we see that among all races it has been customarv to in- 
corporate cardinal virtues and cardinal vices in legendary form, 
and it is only too likely that Delilahs existed on the coast of 
Africa as well as elsewhere ; and, alas ! as men daily learn, are 
still among us. 

Such are some of the changes in an example of folk lore which 
a century has wrought : but they are not greater than the changes 
which the people whose folk lore it is have undergone, and which, 
a- I think I have shown, in no uncertain manner. 

The legend, we might almost say. is the gauge of a people, 
for it clearly shows the risings and fallings in its social and men- 
tal condition. It is interesting to note how the one noted has re- 
mained intact in its general outlines, in spite of the disintegration 
of the tribe with whom it probably originated. Folk lore is one 
of the few immortal possessions of a nation. Its greatness may 
fade, and its name be forgotten among men, but while the world 
exists its national legends will still remain. Thus, out of the 
ignorance of a people, may be built their only monument of last- 
in? fame. 



- - 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL WORK IX EUROPE. 

By Peof. FEEDEE1CK STAEB. 



A\ 



^ITH<!>UT visiting either Stockholm, Vienna, or Rome, the 
author has recently seen many of the museums of ethnog- 
raphy in western Europe. It has seemed to him that a sketch of 
the workers and a description of the work in anthropology there 
might be of interest to readers of the Monthlv. Hence this 
article, which makes no claim to exhaustiveness, but which does 
aim to suggest something of the intense interest now shown in 
that science in Holland, Germany. Switzerland, Italy, France, and 
England. Under the comprehensive word anthropology we com- 
prise physical anthropology, ethnography, prehistoric archaeology, 
and culture historv. 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL WORK IX EUROPE. 



55 



Museums of ethnography are far more common in Europe 
than with us. There are, perhaps, no large cities without such an 
institution, and many small towns have fine collections. In the 
little kingdom of Holland alone there are fully a half-dozen 
ethnographic museums of importance, the chief one being at 
Leyden. This city is the main educational town of Holland, and 
its university, always fa- 
mous for its corps of teach- 
ers, still holds its rank as a 
finely manned institution of 
learning. Besides the uni- 
versity, the town boasts of 
one of the best museums of 
antiquities in the world, par- 
ticularly rich in Egyptian 
and Javanese objects, and 
the ethnographic museum, 
which in some respects is 
unsurpassed. Like many of 
the great collections in Eu- 
rope, the latter is unfortu- 
nate in its housing. The 
part usually shown to visit- 
ors comprises the wonder- 
fully rich collections from 
the South seas and the East 
Indies. These are in ex- 
ceedingly crowded and ill- 
lighted cpiarters, and a satisfactory display is impossible in the 
present building. The African collections are in a second build- 
ing as little suited to display as the first, and the rich series from 
Asia are stored in yet a third building. It is much to be de- 
sired that this collection might be brought together under one 
roof in a building of suitable character and well lighted and 
suitably cased. We have already referred to the wonderful series 
of objects from the South seas and the Indies. Many of them, 
brought home by the early navigators, are old. and represent the 
native arts before they were affected by white influence. Espe- 
cially fine are the carved work, weapons, armor, and articles of 
dress and adornment. Xew Guinea is finely represented by ob- 
jects from different parts, well illustrating the local variation in 
arts. The specimens from Sumatra. Engano, Xias, Borneo, and 
Java illustrate the whole life of the natives. The collection of 
k rises, or dirks, is probably the largest in the world, and many 
of the specimens are masterpieces of metal-work, and the hilts 
and sheaths are crusted with precious stones. Dr. Serrurier, the 




Dr. J. D. E. Schitzltz. 



56 



THE POPULAR SCIEXCE MONTHLY. 



director of the museum, classifies etlmograpliic objects iuto twelve 
groups such as relate to (1) Food, Drink, etc. ; ('-?) Clothiug ; (3) 
House-furnishing ; (4) Fishing and Hunting ; (5) Agriculture ; 
(6) Domestication of Animals ; (?) Trading ; (8) Manufactures ; 
(9) Weapons and War: (10) Government and Society; (11) Toys, 
Music, Theatre, etc. ; (12) Religion, Science, and the like. This 
scheme of classification runs through the whole arrangement of 
the museum. Dr. Serrurier is fortunate in having associated with 
him as conservator Dr. J. D. E. Schmeltz. 

There are in the university faculty several men who, without 
being professional anthropologists, have more or less directly done 
work of importance to anthropological science. Such are the fa- 
mous Sanskrit scholar, Prof. Kern ; the Sinologue, Prof. Schlegel, 
and Dr. Thiele, of the theological school. The latter has contributed 
much to the present scientific study of religions. Prof. Schlegel's 
Chinese Dictionary is far more than a " word-book," and is a 

treasury of ethnological 
material to which all stu- 
dents must refer. With 
M. Henri Cordier, of Par- 
is, Prof. Schlegel is edit- 
or of an interesting bi- 
monthly journal devoted 
to Asiatic subjects Toung 
Pao. The university has a 
chair of Ethnology, which 
was for several years ably 
filled by Prof. George 
Wilken, whose death a few 
months since was a seri- 
ous loss to the institution. 
Prof. J. J. M. de Groot 
has been appointed to the 
position. 

Prof. Kern and Prof. 
Schlegel, with other 
workers in ethnography 
in various countries, form 
an editorial committee of the Internationales Archiv fur Eth- 
nographic, a journal appearing at Leyden under the very capable 
direction of Dr. J. D. E. Schmeltz. Dr. Schmeltz is a rare worker. 
Born in Hamburg, his first important work in the field of eth- 
nography was done upon the famous Godeffroy collection, from, 
the South seas. The result of his work was the well-known illus- 
trated catalogue of that collection, which is the first work that 
the student of the South-sea cultures must know. Dr. Schmeltz 




Dr. Rudolf Virchow. 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL WORK IN EUROPE. 



57 



has been Conservator of the Ethnographic Museum at Leyden 
for more than ten years. When the Archiv fur Ethnographie 
was established, a little more than four years ago, he was in- 
trusted with its management. The journal is a quarto in form, 
appearing once in two months, and the articles, which are always 
of great value, are in French, Dutch, German, and English. 
Every number is illustrated, and many of the plates are hand- 
somely colored. We have laid considerable stress upon this jour- 
nal because of its great value, and because it is far too little 
known in this country. 

We have let Leyden stand as the type of work done in Hol- 
land, but it is not the only center. Considerable ethnographic 
museums, with good workers, are located at Rotterdam, Haarlem, 
The Hague, and Amsterdam. 

Germany is full of workers in every line of anthropological 
study. To describe what is done at Leipsic, Halle, Berlin, Dres- 
den, Munich, Heidelberg, 
and Freiburg will give 
some idea of the aims and 
methods of the work. And 
first we will consider the 
work in physical anthro- 
pology. At Leipsic we find 
Dr. Emil Schmidt, ex- 
traordinary professor at 
the university. He offers 
in three successive years 
three courses of lectures to 
the students general eth- 
nology, prehistoric archae- 
ology, and physical an- 
thropology. Dr. Schmidt 
is a critical and careful 
worker, and, notwithstand- 
ing the profound abyss 
separating German and 
French workers, he is well 
spoken of in France. His 

little book, An thropologische Methoden, is the best hand-book 
for the student in the laboratory or the field that is accessible. 
Although a man past middle life. Dr. Schmidt is an active work- 
er, and he has just returned from a trip to India and Ceylon, 
where he did extensive field work. In his laboratory he has a 
private collection of over a thousand skulls, many of them of 
his own gathering. Dr. Schmidt is ingenious in suggesting new 
methods of work and study. He is the originator of the cranial 




Prof. Johannes Eanke. 



5 8 THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

modulus. One of the chief objects of study in physical anthro- 
pology is the skull, and it is important to have some convenient 
means of comparing skulls of different kinds. To compare 
measurements taken in one direction only, of course gives no 
results of value ; thus, to know that one skull is nine and 
another is eight inches long, tells nothing as to shape or rela- 
tive capacity. Authors accordingly devised the cranial index, 
found by dividing the length of the skull into the breadth and 
expressing the result decimally. If skulls had but two dimen- 
sions this index would be satisfactory ; as it is, it is not perfect. 
A new index was devised which should take account of the height 
of the skull ; the height being divided by the length and the re- 
sult expressed decimally. By a combination of these two indices 
a fair idea of the skull would be given, but in a comparison of 
the indices of a number of skulls great difficulty arises. One ex- 
pression is what is desired. After much careful study and experi- 
mental work, Prof. Schmidt worked out the modulus ; the length, 
breadth, and height are measured and their arithmetical mean 
is taken. 

A veteran worker is Dr. Herman Welcker, Director of the 
Anatomical Laboratory of the University of Halle. The build- 
ing he occupies is one of the few in Europe that has been built 
recently and for scientific purposes. Welcker's work extends 
back through many years, and, although all of his suggestions 
have not been accepted by other workers, his contributions to 
craniology have been numerous and valuable. In the museum 
under his charge is a wonderful series of skulls, especially rich in 
Papuan, South sea island, and Indian specimens. One notice- 
able feature of the museum is the exceedingly large collection of 
human monsters, two-headed, cyclopean, etc. perhaps the largest 
in the world. 

No physical anthropologist in Europe is more widely known 
or more respected than Dr. Rudolph Virchow, of Berlin. He is in 
charge of the Pathological Institute of the university, where he 
has a vast quantity of valuable material. Among other osteologi- 
cal collections are great numbers of skeletons and skulls of the 
Negrito pygmies. Virchow's writings have been extensive and 
most important. He is at present engaged upon a great work 
a study of crania of American Indians, from both the Northern 
and Southern continents. An atlas of plates will form a part of 
the work, and every skull will be represented as seen from five 
different positions. The matter of fixing a skull in position for 
drawing is one of no little importance, and unfortunately there is 
no agreement between French and German workers in regard 
to what shall be called the horizontal line. The French con- 
sider a line drawn from the occipital foramen to a point between 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL WORK IN EUROPE. 



59 



the bases of the upper middle incisors as horizontal, while the 
Germans make it pass from the middle point of the upper curve 
of the auditory meatus to the middle part of the lower curve of the 
optic orbit. Virchow claims that the German line is preferable, 
as it can easily be taken on the living person, as well as upon the 
skull. He adds, usually with a little quiet satisfaction : ' The 
French horizontal line throws the head up, while ours throws it 
more naturally and downward ; they are more proud, we are mod- 
est." For years Dr. Virchow has edited the Zeitschrift fiir Eth- 
nologie, the official journal of the Berlin Anthropological Society, 
of which he has always been a leading member. Dr. Virchow's 
seventieth birthday was celebrated with much of German hearti- 
ness last fall, but years tell little on him, and he does a prodigious 
amount of work with all the enthusiasm of a young man. 

Of the many other workers in physical anthropology in Ger- 
many we can mention but 
one Dr. Johannes Ranke, 
of the University of Munich. 
He is perhaps the only full 
and regular Professor of 
Physical Anthropology in 
Germany. Since 1866 Prof. 
Ranke has been editor of 
the Archiv fiir Anthropo- 
logic, and since 1877 of the 
Urgeschichte Bayerns. His 
work, Der Mensch, in two 
large volumes, is the best 
elementary work on descrip- 
tive anthropology. His lab- 
oratory is well equipped in 
part with instruments of his 
own devising. One of the 
most important operations 
in anthropology is finding 
the internal capacity of the 
cranium. There are a host 

of methods. The difficulty is that no two methods give the same 
result, and no single method in the hands of two unskilled ob- 
servers gives exact agreement. The thing desired, then, is to 
work out a method of " cubage " that shall give invariable results. 
Dr. Ranke has attempted this. His students are given a bronze 
skull of known capacity. This is filled with millet seed rammed 
in tightly with a wooden plug. The filling is afterward turned 
out and measured. Every step in the operation is subject to 
fixed rules. When a student gains such skill that he succeeds 




Prof. Friedrich Ratzel. 



6o 



THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 



always in getting the capacity of this standard skull exactly, 
he is considered competent to measure the capacity of real crania. 
In drawing skulls most German workers use an instrument called 
a diopter, which produces a drawing of the natural size. Dr. 
Ranke has ingeniously attached a pantograph to the diopter in 

such a way that a correct 
reduced drawing may be 
produced at one opera- 
tion. His craniophore 
an instrument for sup- 
porting a skull in a hori- 
zontal position for pur- 
poses of study is the 
simplest and best made, 
but is, of course, suited 
only to the German hori- 
zontal. 

In German Switzerland, 
at Basel, is Dr. Kollman, 
best considered here, as he 
is of the German school. 
Prof. Kollman is a born 
teacher, and every speci- 
men in his Anatomical Mu- 
seum of the university is 
considered as instruction 
material, and is so mounted 
or prepared as to make its teaching value the greatest. The sub- 
ject of prehistoric races has taken much of his attention, and a 
large case in the museum is devoted to a series of casts or origi- 
nals of such skulls. Particularly interesting is the large series of 
prehistoric Swiss skulls representing the types described in His 
and Rutimeyer's classic work. Dr. Kollman has introduced some 
exceedingly long and difficult words into the nomenclature of phys- 
ical anthropology leptoprosopic, chaempeprosopic, etc. They are 
descriptive of cranial forms, and are intended as classificatory ; it 
is doubtful, however, whether they really express natural types 
or simply artificial and arbitrary groupings. 

As to ethnography, Germany is permeated with it, Magnifi- 
cent collections are numerous, and workers are everywhere. Leip- 
sic is a center of work. Here is the collection at which Dr. 
Klemm worked so diligently, now in charge of Dr. Obst. Only a 
small part of the treasures of this collection are on display. These 
are crowded, poorly arranged, and badly lighted ; and a vast 
quantity of precious things are stored away, where they must be 
deteriorating in value as the months pass. In the university 





% 

-v 


^H^^. TraJsi 1 ti :* : Mm^# ^^^^^^ 



Prof. Ad. Bastian. 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL WORK IN EUROPE. 



61 



is Prof. Friedrich. Ratzel, best known to ns for his Volkerkiinde 
an introduction to ethnography. Dr. Ratzel is now revising 
this work, and he has lately issued a yet more valuable treatise 
Anthropogeographie. Ethnography is most interesting to him 
in its geography, and he at present lays especial stress upon the 
local distribution of customs and arts. Prof. Ratzel is a favorite 
teacher, and has sent out many young men imbued with his meth- 
ods. Among these, one of the most promising is Dr. Heinrich 
Schurtz, privat-docent at the university, whose recent Philosophie 
der Tracht is an application of Ratzel's methods to the study of 
dress. 

Drs. Meyer, Lueders, and Buchner are doing fine work with 
the museums at Dresden, Hamburg, and Munich, and deserve 
more than a brief reference. But the ethnographic work of Ger- 
many and of the world cul- 
minates in Berlin. Adolph 
Bastian is the director of the 
museum, the leader of the 
corps of able workers who 
carry it on. He is a man 
whom years do not make 
old ; one who has unquench- 
able fire and enthusiasm. He 
is decidedly the right man 
in the right place. The Gov- 
ernment has been liberal to 
him, but he continually 
needs new funds for more 
and greater enterprises. No 
one recognizes more clearly 
than he the importance of 
doing ethnographical work 
now ; to-morrow will be too 
late. Old tribes are dying 
out ; new customs are being 
introduced ; native cultures 

are being swept away, or rapidly modified by contact with the 
civilization of the white man. Illustrations of such cultures 
must be saved now or never. " It is a burning house, and the 
main purpose is to gather material for the future to use. And 
contents are lost while we wait." So his prodigious accumula- 
tions are here for example, Dr. Grunwedel, who has direction 
of the India collections, has upward of twenty-four thousand 
objects in his charge. Prof. Bastian is a great traveler and a 
busy writer. Scarcely a year passes without an important work 
from his pen. 




Dr. Eduard Seler. 



62 THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

The American department of this vast collection is exceedingly 
valuable. There is but little from the Indians of the United 
States ; from ancient Mexico and Peru, from the modern South 
American tribes, and from the Northwest coast the representation 
is magnificent. The culture of Eskimos, of Tlingits, Haidas, and 
Bilgulas are fully shown. Some very choice Mexican antiquities 
collected by Humboldt are here. Here, too, are three of the ex- 
ceedingly rare and interesting mosaics from Mexico made by 
overlaying forms of wood with bits of turquoise, obsidian, and 
shell. Perhaps a score such are known in European museums : 
seven are at London, three at Berlin, two at Copenhagen, and five 
at Rome. They are among the most curious and interesting Az- 
tec objects. There are fine series of pottery from Mexico and 
Yucatan. The collection of Peruvian pottery is wonderfully com- 
plete, and is no doubt the finest on public display in the world. 
Reiss and StubePs great collections, upon which their famous 
work, The Necropolis of Ancon, is based, are here, and include 
the finest general series of Peruvian antiquities on exhibition 
especially rich in wrapped mummies, fine cloths, and household 
goods. As for modern ethnography, there are series of objects 
from almost every tribe from the Caribbean Sea to Cape Horn. 
All this wealth of materials is under the care of Dr. Edward Seler, 
whose special work upon Mexican subjects has made him known 
to Americanists. 

The men at Berlin are all hard workers. Dr. F. von Luschan, 
curator of the African department, exemplifies this. Himself a 
specialist in biblical archaeology, and frequently in the field over- 
seeing excavation, he allows no opjwrtunity to pass unimproved 
for gathering anthropological material of every kind. In addi- 
tion to his regular work he has, while in the field, taken photo- 
graphs and anthropological measurements of more than three 
thousand persons, some of them among barbarous and little-known 
tribes a work which alone would not represent an idle life. 

We can refer to but two more of the German workers Dr. 
Richard Andree and Dr. E. Grosse. Richard Andree, of Heidel- 
berg, has the heartiest admiration for our American ethnogra- 
phers and their work, and it is certain that they reciprocate. His 
writings are always clear and direct. His latest work perhaps is 
his Ethnographische Parallelen a good example of his style and 
ability. As editor of the geographic journal Globus, Dr. Andree 
is known the world around. At the old University of Freiburg, 
in the most picturesque part of the Rhine mountain country, is 
in progress one of the most hopeful works in anthropology in 
Europe. Dr. E. Grosse is there developing a museum and a de- 
partment of anthropology. No effort is made to collect a great 
mass of material, but carefully selected specimens are arranged 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL WORK IN EUROPE. 



63 



so as to show man's progress from the oldest age of stone to the 
present time, and so as to present pictures of life in various exist- 
ing tribes of savage or barbarous men. Nothing is here done in 
physical anthropology, but lectures are given in ethnography and 
culture history, and these are exceedingly popular. Dr. Grossed 
work is unobtrusive, but it is sure to be far-reaching. 

Much of the value of collections is lost by bad arrangement. 
Nowhere is there such pains taken in display as at Copenhagen. 
The results are beautiful, 
although nowhere have 
greater disadvantages had 
to be overcome. The Eth- 
nographical Museum is the 
oldest in existence, having 
been founded in 1847 In- 
spector Steinhauer, now 
seventy-five years of age, 
has had the arrangement 
in charge. Dr. Kristian 
Bahnson, a specialist in 
American ethnography, is 
his assistant. To Inspec- 
tor Steinhauer was given 
an old palace, with many 
small rooms, not at all 
adapted to the housing of 
a great museum. He has 
done wonders ; not an inch 
of space is lost, and great 
ingenuity is displayed in 

making available what must at first have looked like useless wall- 
room and passage-ways. The collections are arranged first by 
countries or tribes, and the material from any one region is rigidly 
classified into groups : (1) Religion; (2) Men ; (3) War; (I) House; 
(5) Industry and Art ; (6) Amusement. Within the cases them- 
selves the objects are arranged with the greatest care so as to pro- 
duce the most pleasing effect possible. In the same building is the 
Museum of Northern Antiquities, under charge of Dr. Sophus 
Mtiller. Denmark is classic ground for the prehistoric archa?olo- 
gist. Scarcely a foot of its surface but what has yielded relics. 
Its peat-bogs, kitchen-middens, and tumuli are famous. Here are 
found the finest flint-chipping in the world, the most interesting 
of bronze implements, the finest gold ornaments of the bronze 
age, and vast quantities of specimens illustrating the early age 
of iron. No student can afford to neglect this collection. The 
Museum of Northern Antiquities is exceedingly popular with the 




Dr. Richard Andree. 



64 



THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY 



Danish people, who are very loyal in sending to it specimens they 
may find. The Government itself is very wide awake to the im- 
portance of such, work as is here done, and has acted vigorously 
in the matter of preserving tumuli and other monuments of the 
past. 

Anthropology is by no means neglected in Switzerland. With 
men like Vogt and Kollman in physical anthropology, with mu- 
seums of ethnography at Basel, Bern, and Zurich, it is still true 
that the department of prehistoric archaeology leads the rest there. 
This is quite natural, for every lake has its old village sites and 
every town of consequence has its collection of " lake-dwelling " 
antiquities. There are more than two score such, of some impor- 
tance, in Switzerland. Certainly those at Bern and Zurich may 
be taken as good examples. The former, under Dr. van Fellen- 
berg, represents very fully all three of the great " ages " of the 
archaeologist. The oldest lake-dwelling villages of Europe date 
back to the age of stone (the neolithic period) ; many were of the 
bronze age ; some were of the early part of the age of iron. Some 

of the sites were occupied 
continuously from the older 
to the later time, while 
others represent only a sin- 
gle period. At Zurich are 
the collections upon which 
Dr. Keller's work was based, 
and very much valuable 
and interesting material 
from recent explorations 
undertaken quite near the 
city. Dr. Heierli, who 
teaches prehistoric archae- 
ology in the University of 
Zurich, has still a largely 
unworked field in Lake 
Zurich. It is a mistake to 
think of the lake-dwelling 
sites as " worked out." 

Italy is very active in 
anthropological work. At 
Turin Prof. Guido Cora 
conducts a geographical journal which contains much ethno- 
graphic matter; in the same city Prof. Lombroso experiments, 
writes books, and edits a journal, to which is due much of the 
present interest in criminal anthropology. In Florence are 
Mantegazza, Giglioli, and Regalia. At Perugia, Belluchi works 
away at the stone age of Italy. In Rome is one of the great eth- 




Prof. Paolo Mantegazza. 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL WORK IN EUROPE. 65 

nographic museums of the world, with Pigorini as director and 
Coligni as assistant. Two of these workers occupy unique posi- 
tions. Prof. Paolo Mantegazza is President of the Anthropological 
Society of Italy, editor of an anthropological journal, Director of 
the National Museum of Ethnography and Anthropology, and pro- 
fessor in the university. We mention these titles because they 
suggest his work. Physical anthropology, man himself, is his 
specialty. Mantegazza has traveled much and has written works 
of value as a result such are his monograph upon the Lapps and 
his work on India. But the books to which his fame is most due 
are of a more general character. Such are his Physiology of 
Pleasure, Physiology of Pain, and Physiognomy and Expression. 
The latter has been published in America in English, and will give 
a good idea of his style. His trilogy on love Physiology of Love, 
Hygiene of Love, and Ethnography of Love has created a sen- 
sation. The German translation of these has sold by tens of thou- 
sands ; a similar success has attended the French edition ; and in 
Italy they are seen everywhere. Mantegazza's mind is intensely 
analytic. This is shown both in his writings and in his museum. 
Nowhere else, so far as we know, is analysis applied to anthropo- 
logical material. He divides it into groups illustrating: (1) Com- 
parative anthropology, (2) biological anthropology, (3) artificial 
deformations, (4) pathological anthropology, (5) psychological 
anthropology, (6) ethnical anthropology. It must be confessed 
that having divided his material in this way he makes no attempt 
to arrange it afterward in the cases. In this museum, Prof. Man- 
tegazza has upward of four thousand skulls, two thousand of which 
are Italian. One of Mantegazza's latest ideas is a psychological 
museum, in which, by objects, the workings of the mind are to be 
illustrated. This museum has been begun, but it will be long be- 
fore the plan can be fully developed. By profession Henry H. 
Giglioli is a zoologist. In charge of the department of vertebrate 
zoology at the University of Florence, his work in that line speaks 
for itself. Interested in ethnography by a voyage he made around 
the world, he has gathered a collection of stone implements un- 
surpassed perhaps by any other private collection. The idea of 
the series is not to illustrate the stone age of any one place or peo- 
ple, but by carefully selected specimens from every part of the 
world to show all types of stone implements. Prof. Giglioli has 
also much interest in the persistence of the use of stone tools into 
later culture stages. 

Paris epitomizes France, and certainly the character of French 
work in anthropology is fairly shown if that of the capital is de- 
scribed. Anthropology is more cultivated in Paris than anywhere 
else in the world, and every department is there developed. The 
ethnographic collections are at the Louvre, the Trocadero, and 

VOL. XLI. 6 



66 



THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY 



the Muse'e Guimet. It is a pity that the material from Africa and 
the South seas now at the Louvre is not sent to the Trocadero 
and incorporated in the collections there under charge of Dr. 
Hamy. The Trocadero is a beautiful building, and the collec- 
tions it contains are of great importance, but it is not adapted to 
their suitable display. Dr. Hamy has made the best of his cir- 
cumstances, and his cases 
and wall trophies (usually 
an abomination in a mu- 
seum, but here a necessity) 
are true works of art. The 
hall devoted to African 
specimens is wonderfully 
fine, and the collections 
from South America, Mexi- 
co, and Yucatan are quite 
as good as any in Europe. 
One feature of this mu- 
seum is that it contains a 
fair representation of the 
ethnography of Europe 
a thing exceedingly rare. 
The Muse'e Guimet embod- 
ies a brilliant idea, the il- 
lustration of the world's 
religions. It grew out of 
an expedition sent to Asia 
to study the religions of 
Japan and India. The collections belong to the state and oc- 
cupy a building constructed for the purpose and beautifully 
arranged. The display halls are erected about a triangular 
court, and the two in front are connected by a rotunda. This 
contains a valuable library composed entirely of works devoted 
to religions. So far only Buddhism is represented with any 
degree of fullness. The arrangement is geographical. The re- 
ligions of India, southeastern Asia, and China occupy the first 
floor of one gallery, while in the upper floor are objects illustrat- 
ing the worships of ancient Greece and Rome. In a second wing 
are the Japanese series on the first floor and religious objects 
from ancient Egypt on the second. The third hall is as yet 
largely unoccupied. The chief criticism that one might make 
of this museum is, that the specimens are all choice pieces ; there 
is little to show the common idols or the mode in which worship 
is conducted. On the walls in the galleries and the rotunda 
are many paintings by Felix Regamy representing sacred places, 
temples, and religious ceremonies. 




Prof. Henry H. Giglioli. 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL WORK IN EUROPE. 



67 



In America no French anthropologist is so well known as A. 
-de Quatrefages, whose Human Species and Natural History of 
Man are here widely read. Up to the very date of his death, 
early in the present year, the old man lived among his books and 
kept at work, although he was in his eighty-second year. A 
zoologist by training, he was one of the few prominent workers 
in that field who held out against Darwinism and other forms of 
transforinist doctrine. His writings have been of the greatest 
importance. With his assistant naturalist, Dr. Hainy, he wrote 
Crania Ethnica, a standard work on the characteristics of race as 
shown in skulls. His Migration of the Polynesians, Fossil and 
Savage Men, and the Pygmies, are others of his works that are 
well known. De Quatrefages was officially connected with the 
Museum of Natural History, and under his directorship much of 
the material in the Galerie d' Anthropologic was gathered, and 
the Laboratory of Anthropology of the museum, perhaps the best 
equipped and most convenient in the world, was established. 
This laboratory is situated near the house where De Quatrefages 
lived (which was, by the 
way, the home of Buffon). 
It contains office-rooms for 
the corps of workers, Doc- 
tors Hamy, Verneau, and 
Delisle. Two large rooms 
are supplied with tables, 
instruments, and materials 
for the use of students. An 
excellent dark room for 
photographic work, rooms 
for preparation of material, 
for modeling and casting 
in plaster, are all provided. 
A fair library for reference 
is also connected with the 
laboratory. The Galerie 
d'Anthropologie of the mu- 
seum contains a vast quan- 
tity of varied and interest- 
ing material, probably the 
greatest collection in the 
world. Thirteen rooms are 

too small for its suitable display. Over two thousand skulls be- 
longing to the collection are packed away for lack of space for 
them in the cases. One of the rooms is devoted to fossil men, and 
here are many original pieces of great value and world-famous, 
such as the Cro-Magnon skulls and the Mentone skeleton. 




Prof. G. de Mortillet. 



68 



THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 



Besides the work at the museum, there is at Paris a very broad 
work centering at the School of Medicine. This work is carried 
on through three distinct agencies, the society, the school, and 
the museum and laboratory. The Societe d } Anthropologic de Paris 
was founded May 19, 1859, by Paul Broca and a handful of other 

interested men. It is the 
oldest existing anthropo- 
logical society, and perhaps 
the largest. Always ag- 
gressive, it has done much 
to develop anthropologi- 
cal study throughout the 
world. During his lifetime 
Broca continued to be a 
power in its work, and his 
influence largely trained a 
body of younger men to 
take his place. The soci- 
ety publishes its Bulletin, 
and has accumulated a li- 
brary of some eight thou- 
sand volumes. The School 
of Anthropology is an out- 
growth of the society. At 
first an individual enter- 
prise, it was " recognized 
of public utility," March 
23, 1889, and now receives support from the Government. This 
season lectures were given on various subjects, more or less di- 
rectly included under the name anthropology, by twelve profess- 
ors. The schedule is here copied : 

Monday, 4 p. m., G. de Mortillet: Prehistoric Anthropology. 
5 p. m., Mathias Duval : Anthropogeny and Embryology. 

Tuesday, 3 p. m., Fr. Schrader: Geographic Anthropology. 4 
p. M., Andre Lefevre : Ethnography and Linguistics. 5 P. M., 
Georges Herve : Ethnology. 

Wednesday, 4 p. m., J. V. Laborde : Biological Anthropology. 
5 p. m.. Mahoudeau : Zoological Anthropology. 

Friday, 3 p. M., Fauvelle : Conferences. 4 p. M., Bordier : 
Medical Geography. 5 p. m., L. Manouvrier : Physiological An- 
thropol ogy. 

Saturday, 4 p. m., Ch. Letourneau : Sociology. 5 P. M., A. de 
Mortillet : Comparative Ethnography. 

All these courses are absolutely free to the public, and an 
average attendance of some two hundred persons shows that they 
are appreciated. The Museum and Laboratory of Broca is the 




Dr. Paul Topinabd. 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL WORK IN EUROPE. 6 9 

third agency of this work at the buildings of the School of Medi- 
cine. During his lifetime, under the directorship of Broca him- 
self, and since then usually under Dr. Paul Topinard, they are 
very largely the work of these two men. The laboratory con- 
tains a full series of all instruments that have been made for 
anthropological investigation, and the material in the mu- 
seum practically illustrates the whole history of such work in 
France. 

The Professors de Mortillet are father and son, and they have 
been connected with all the work on prehistorics that France has 
done. Gabriel de Mortillet has brought order out of chaos, sys- 
tem out of confusion, by his terminology of prehistoric chro- 
nology. His system is accepted very widely throughout western 
Europe. It is somewhat the fashion in America to decry it, but 
we believe that the nomenclature will become more and more 
fixed. It will not probably fit our American conditions, but for 
France and its neighbors it apparently expresses facts. G. de 
Mortillet's little book, Le Prdhistorique, is a model of compact 
statement and sound criticism. The larger work, the Musde Pre"- 
historique, is the result of joint labor of father and son, and is 
based upon the unrivaled collections from drift gravels and 
caverns of France, which they have so beautifully arranged at 
the museum at St. Germain. Prof. Adrien de Mortillet is a skill- 
ful artist, and his lectures are always illustrated with rapidly 
drawn crayon sketches. 

A sketch of French work that omitted Dr. Paul Topinard 
would be very faulty. An old pupil and friend of Broca, he 
has done much to carry out his master's work. No one, save 
Broca, has done more to direct French work in anthropology. In 
many ways his influence has been felt as teacher in the school, 
as Director of the Broca Laboratory, as editor of the Revue 
d'Anthropologie in the past, and of L'Anthropologie at present. 
Some years ago his little book, L'Anthropologie, an introduc- 
tion to physical anthropology, caused a real sensation and gained 
deserved recognition. Later, a much larger work, Elements 
d'Anthropologie Generale, appeared, a most valuable manual for 
the laboratory and for students. Within a few months he has 
brought out a new book upon the relation of man to the animal 
world. 

In England there is considerable work in progress, though not 
so much as we might expect when we remember that it was there 
that Lubbock's works and the famous books of Tylor, Spencer, 
and Maine appeared. The British Museum has some rich collec- 
tions in ethnography and prehistoric archaeology. The depart- 
ment is in charge of Mr. A. W. Franks and Mr. Charles Reade. 
The best cataloguing in Europe is done here. Every specimen is 



7 



THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY 



numbered. The number, together with a description and history 
of the specimen, a carefully made pen-and-ink drawing, and refer- 
ences to literature, are all entered upon a large card. These cards 
are afterward arranged and cared for as usual in card catalogues. 
We can hardly refer even to some of the more interesting speci- 
mens. Magnificent series from the South seas, from Australia, 
and New Guinea are here. Many objects are of especial interest 
as having been collected in Captain Cook's voyages. These are 
not simply interesting as mementoes of the great traveler, but 
because they present us results of the native industries unaffected 
by white contact. It is curious to notice how widely scattered 
Cook's specimens are. Many are here at London, others are at 
Berlin, Bern, Florence, Leyden, Oxford, and A ustralia ! Of Ameri- 
can objects the British Museum has some of extraordinary in- 
terest : seven of the Mexi- 
can mosaics ; choice things 
from Peru ; a good Central 
American and Antillean 
series, and a fine lot of old 
Eskimo objects. The an- 
thropological material at 
the Royal College of Sur- 
geons is extensive and very 
valuable. 

In one of the buildings 
of the South Kensington 
Museum is Mr. Francis 
Galton's anthropometric 
laboratory. Mr. Gait on is 
President of the British 
Anthropological Society, 
and the author of vari- 
ous important works upon 
Heredity, African Peoples, 
and Human Faculty. He 
is extremely ingenious in 
devising apparatus and experiments for determining the degree 
of development of various faculties. In this laboratory any vis- 
itor may be examined and measured free of charge. The exam- 
ination includes, besides the regular anthropological measure- 
ments, tests of ej^esight, hearing, color-sense, quickness of muscu- 
lar blow, etc. The results of the examination are fully recorded 
on blanks prepared for the purpose, a copy of the record being 
given to the subject. Many thousands of persons have been 
measured in this laboratory, and the public has thus been made 
acquainted with the subject of anthropometry. Mr. Galton is 




Prof. E. B. Tyi.or. 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL WORK IN EUROPE. 71 

now much interested in studying means of personal identifica- 
tion, and is studying finger-tip impressions as identification ma- 
terial. All at present measured in the laboratory leave their 
finger-tip marks behind them. 

Americans are particularly interested in the little Blackmore 
Museum at Salisbury, although at present it cuts no great figure 
in anthropological work. There is here a good building with fair 
collections of prehistorics and some ethnographical specimens. 
The bulk of the collections made by Squier and Davis in their 
exploration of American mounds, and described in their famous 
work, the Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley, is here. 
This collection includes a larger number of stone pipes of the 
"mound-builder type " than any American collection. There are 
also good things from Central America and Peru. In addition to 
the specimens, there are in this building a great series of photo- 
graphs of American Indians and a wonderful library of Americana. 
The story of William Blackmore's life is almost a romance, and 
this little American museum in the quaint old English town is 
one of the strangest of strange things. Would that funds and 
workers might be supplied to make it felt as a power in the 
study of American anthropology ! 

Both of the great universities are at work. Oxford owns the 
Pitt Rivers Museum, unique in conception. The collection is due 
to the initiative of Colonel Lane Fox (General Pitt Rivers), and 
has grown and developed under his guidance and that of Prof. E. 
B. Tylor and Mr. Henry Balfour. The objects of the museum are 
set forth in the following announcement, which is posted in vari- 
ous places : 

"The specimens, ethnological and prehistoric, are arranged 
with a view to demonstrate either actually or hypothetically the 
development and continuity of the material arts from the simpler 
to the more complex forms; to explain the conservatism of 
lower and barbarous races and the pertinacity with which they 
retain their ancient types of art; to show the variations by 
means of which progress has been affected and the application of 
varieties to distinct uses; to exhibit survivals or vestiges of 
ancient forms which have been retained through natural selection 
in the more advanced stages of arts and reversions to such types ; 
to illustrate the arts of prehistoric times as far as practicable by 
those of existing savages in corresponding stages of civilization ; 
to assist the question of the monogenesis or poly genesis of certain 
arts whether they are exotic or indigenous in the country where 
they are now found ; and, finally, to aid in the solution of the 
problem whether man has arisen from the condition of the brutes 
or fallen from a high stage of perfection. To these ends objects 
of the same class from different countries have been brought to- 



72 THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

gether, but in each class the variations from the same locality are 
placed side by side, and the geographical distribution of the 
various arts is shown by distribution maps. Special finds serving 
to illustrate the correlation of the arts or of forms have been kept 
together. The collection was begun in the year 1851, and has ac- 
cumulated gradually." Only a few of the series displayed can be 
mentioned the gun, from the matchlock up to the present (this 
is the series, the working out of which by Colonel Lane Fox led to 
the founding of the museum) ; origin of geometrical patterns ; de- 
velopment of forms and ornament in pottery ; from the parry-stick 
to the shield ; dress development ; fire-making devices ; etc. The 
museum has grown to large proportions, and Mr. Balfour, the able 
curator, is now overhauling and rearranging the whole. Prof. 
Edward B. Tylor, who reads courses of lectures upon the His- 
tory of Culture to Oxford students each year, has exerted a 
vast influence upon anthropology, not only in Great Britain and 
America, but also throughout Europe. His great works, Early 
History of Mankind and Primitive Culture, and his remarkable 
little Anthropology, have been to many workers their first in- 
spiration. 

At Cambridge anthropological work is more recent than at 
Oxford, but it is now on a good basis and must prosper under 
Baron Anatole von Hiigel. The collections are in part prehistoric, 
in part ethnographic. There is a very good local series of pre- 
historics, some of the latest additions coming from excavations in 
the immediate neighborhood of Cambridge almost on the very 
grounds of the university. The chief ethnographic treasures are 
the collections from Fiji, gathered by Baron von Hiigel himself, 
which are unequaled. 

"We have aimed in this brief sketch to show where work in our 
subject is done in Europe, to mention a few of the workers, and 
to point out something of their methods and plans. 



Tiie Canadian Government is trying experiments on an extensive scale in the 
cultivation of trees. At the Central Farm, near Ottawa, the seeds of Rocky 
Mountain and European conifers have been liberally sown ; and in 1891 one hun- 
dred and seventy-five thousand seedlings were transplanted from the beds, to be 
distributed later on to branch farms and private experimenters, who are to send 
in careful reports of progress. The Government also distributed one hundred 
thousand forest-tree seedlings among one thousand applicants in the Northwest, 
with instructions for planting and subsequent treatment. Twenty-five gardens 
along the main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway have been supplied from the 
experimental farms. Speaking of the need of the application of forestry in the old 
provinces, Mr. J. C. Chapais mentions whole regions as known to him which were 
cleared by settlers who had to desert the land soon afterward because it was 
worth nothing. Such districts, he adds, would have been so many inexhaustible 
wood-reserves for future generations, but are to-day useless. 



WHY WE SHOULD TEACH GEOLOGY. 73 

WHY WE SHOULD TEACH GEOLOGY. 

By Pbof. ALPHEUS S. PACKARD. 

APROPOS of a recent article in The Popular Science Monthly, 
entitled " Do we teach Geology ? " it may be said that, 
while the science may be taught in some high schools and smaller 
colleges in the one-sided and perfunctory manner stated, the state- 
ments under this head seem somewhat sweeping, as is also the 
writer's condemnation of all of our text-books ; those of Dana, of 
Le Conte, or Geikie, being comprehensive and excellent. The sub- 
ject should be taught in our universities and larger colleges, so 
as to train good teachers in the best field and laboratory methods, 
who should follow such methods when called to teach in the high 
schools and smaller colleges. Undoubtedly the best way to teach 
geology is by lectures, supplemented by text-book study, and the 
collateral reading of monographs, but especially by required field 
work, and, when mineralogy and lithology are included, by labo- 
ratory work. The teacher should have traveled widely, and seen 
for himself volcanoes and geysers ; should have climbed mount- 
ain-peaks, visited canons, and examined the effects of erosion, 
and the every-day work of streams, of waves, tides, and ocean 
currents. He should show his class by what agencies the scenery 
at home has been produced, how certain mountains have been 
carved out of blocks of sedimentary rocks, and, if he lives in a 
region of fossiliferous rocks, the student should be taught to 
collect and identify fossils. 

All this is done with more or less thoroughness in our better 
equipped colleges, and where it is possible there are chairs of 
mineralogy and lithology, apart from geology proper, with well- 
appointed laboratories and collections, as well as special instruc- 
tion in paleontology, given by experts ; while trained assistants 
in dynamical geology take classes out for field observation. 

But, however the work of instruction be performed, the grand 
outlines of the study should be impressed on the mind of the 
student, and the teacher should have a philosophic grasp of the 
subject ; and it is on account of the philosophic and general bear- 
ings of geology that it should form a conspicuous element in any 
liberal curriculum. 

Geology, then, in its broadest scope should be taught in our 
schools and colleges, and for at least twelve good reasons. 

At the outset we would claim that it holds equal rank with 
astronomy or biology. The former science tells us of the exist- 
ence of other worlds than ours, and gives us some conception of 
the immensity of space. The study of plants and animals car- 

TOL. XLI. Y 



74 THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

ries an impressive lesson as to the unity prevailing amid all the 
diversity of Nature, besides affording the hope that we may at 
some time discover the origin of life, since it has already opened 
the way to an explanation of the origin of the existing forms 
of life ; while the grand outcome of geological study is that it 
brings vividly before the mind the immensity of time, enabling 
us to realize that time is only less than eternity. It also teaches 
us that our earth has had a history, that our own race has had 
a high antiquity ; and thus the contemplation of past geological 
ages, reckoned by millions of years, the fact that our earth is 
coeval with the sun in age all these considerations tend to im- 
measurably expand our mental horizon, and thus to react in a 
way to broaden the mind. 

Geology is also the complement of biology. As soon as one 
has mastered the rudiments of botany and zoology, and of the 
distribution of life-forms in space, the range of his thoughts 
should be extended to take in the orderly succession of life in 
past ages, and the evolution of modern specialized plants and 
animals from the earlier, generalized types. No liberally edu- 
cated person can, then, afford to ignore the study, and it seems to 
us that it should be taken up for the following, among many 
other considerations : 

1. Our first reason is that geology throws light on the origin 
of our earth and of the solar system in general ; the facts and 
speculations which culminated in the modern nebular hypothesis 
give some idea of the steps by which our planet assumed its 
present form and became adapted for the maintenance of life. 

2. After the earth cooled down and assumed its present shape 
and size ; in some way unknown to us, monads and bacteria, to- 
gether with infusoria, one-celled plants and animals, began to 
exist, and geology hints that the period when all this became 
possible may have been the early Laurentian, or at least at the 
dawn of what, for a better name, we call archsean time. 

3. We now feel quite sure that the diversity of life of the 
Cambrian period must have been in some way the result of 
great changes in the physical geography of that time, and cor- 
related with the inequalities of the sea-bottom, with regions of 
shallows and of abysses, with landlocked areas, islands, and in- 
cipient continents, rising from submarine plateaus bearing mount- 
ain-chains. Geology describes the birth of continents, the rise 
of mountain-chains, and discusses the results of the action of 
heat in transforming the physical features of our globe, and 
thus, in part at least, explains the origin of volcanoes, the causes 
of earthquakes, and the processes of mountain-carving, through 
the agency of brooks and rivers. 

4. Over immense tracts of mountainous regions, rocks, origi- 



WHY WE SHOULD TEACH GEOLOGY. 75 

nally stratified, and packed with, the remains of living beings, 
have been transformed into slates, schists, and other crystalline 
rocks, and the inquiry, how this has been done, can only be an- 
swered by the geologist. 

5. During the process of mountain-building the earth's crust 
has been uplifted, shattered, or dislocated, and finally permeated 
by hot springs, and the cracks and rents extending to the sur- 
face filled with the precious minerals. Certainly there is good 
reason why we should know how the ores thus came to be 
brought up from the bowels of the earth and almost laid at our 
doors. Theoretical geology gives us the probable explanation. 

6. Our North American continent has had a beginning, has 
passed through a period of infancy, youth, and maturity; the 
mountain-ranges bounding it are of different ages; its varying 
climates have become gradually established, and at different 
epochs it was fitted for the maintenance of quite different as- 
semblages of plants and animals. The intimate relationship be- 
tween these successive plant and animal worlds and the ground 
on which they were born, flourished, and died is now tolerably 
well understood by our geologists. 

7. Coal and coal-oils are geological products. Geologists can 
now give a satisfactory account of just how coal-beds have been 
formed from vast peat swamps ; why great beds of iron ore are 
interstratified with the coal. We have only had our attention 
drawn to coal-oils since 1860, but already our geologists feel 
confident that they are due to the immense profusion of marine 
animals or vegetables, or both, during the times before and since 
the great Coal period ; and chemical geologists nearly all agree 
in believing that petroleum is due to the storage in the earth of 
the chemical products derived from the tissues and oily matters 
once forming part of the bodies of myriads of living beings. 

8. It is interesting to know, and history-classes learn, the mode 
of origin of the people of Greece, of Rome, of the making of 
Great Britain, the mode of origin of the French or German peo- 
ples, and the successive steps in the history of our own nation. 
It is equally important to know when the worms, ascidians, 
early vertebrates, and fishes made their appearance ; when it be- 
came possible for air-breathing vertebrates to exist, and when the 
forerunners of mammals and man, the amphibians, were evolved 
from the ganoids. Paleontology throws light on these points, if 
intelligently studied and properly taught. 

9. Much time is given in our schools to the memorizing of the 
dates of the birth and death of kings and of dynasties. Why 
should not the pupil also learn the geological date of the first 
known appearance of mollusks, star-fishes, worms, insects, fishes, 
reptiles, birds, and beasts ? There are a great many isolated 



76 THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

facts and dry details in the study of fossils; but the leading 
conclusions, particularly those treating of the elaboration of the 
lines of forms resulting in the modern horse, the ox, the camel, 
and our other domestic animals, can be made interesting, and in- 
deed juicy and palatable, to the bright boy or girl of fifteen, or 
to the college student. 

10. The discovery of a single ammonite enabled the geologist 
to determine the geological age of the gold-bearing rocks of Cali- 
fornia. How indispensable fossils are as time-marks, character- 
izing the different formations, and the immediate practical use 
of such facts to the mining prospector, always interest a geologi- 
cal class. 

11. If, as is not improbable, man was evolved from some lemur- 
like form, and pursued a line of development parallel to, but im- 
mensely surpassing, that followed by the lines culminating in 
the monkeys and apes, it is a matter of deep interest to learn the 
probable time when vertebrate animals in which the fore legs 
were used for climbing appeared ; when such was the struggle for 
existence that the ordinary mammalian equipment did not suffice, 
and the brain was called upon to act more immediately, the limbs 
and skull being remolded, in a way before unknown, to answer 
the behests of growing intellectual powers, until man as man ap- 
peared. Paleontology again must be invoked, and who knows 
how soon, when we learn more of the later Tertiaries of Africa 
and Madagascar, light may flash forth and illuminate this dark 
problem ! 

12. One of the triumphs of modern geology is that it has es- 
tablished the fact of the high antiquity of man; that it has 
brought forth out of caves and gravel-beds the man of Neander- 
thal, the man of Spy, the inhabitants of the caves and shelters of 
central France and of southern England ; and told us what man- 
ner of men they were, what weapons they used, the nature of 
their dwellings, of their clothing, their art instincts, their cuisine, 
and something of their religious aspirations, as shown in the 
burial of their dead. It is those antiquarians and geologists who 
began with the study of zoology and of geology who have 
founded anthropology, the youngest of the sciences. It is thus 
due to the geologist that the old science of ethnology has been 
rehabilitated in fact, rejuvenated. 

It is owing to the combined labors of geologists and anthro- 
pologists that an entirely different view is now taken of the 
origin of man. It is almost a matter of scientific truth that primi- 
tive man was inferior to the lowest of existing savages ; that 
our present Australian and negro races are physically and intel- 
lectually, perhaps, on a higher plane than the race of Neander- 
thal and of Spy ; and that there has been a geological succession 



THE LIMITATIONS OF THE HEALING ART. 77 

of human types, leading up to races of which our existing sav- 
ages are the descendants. Physically, man of the present time is a 
most composite being, the result of crossings which began to take 
place long before the dawn of history. And, finally, it has been 
left for the geologists and archaeologists, of whom Lyell, Lartet, 
Mortillet, and others, are types, to point out the overlapping of 
prehistoric upon historic times, and thus to bring to light the 
lost ages, filling up the abyss in our knowledge formerly existing 
between the dawn of human history and the close of geological 
history. 

Such is the light which geology has already thrown upon the 
origin of man, and of the world in which he lives. Who can 
deny the utility and importance of a study which bears such 
fruits? How can a person be regarded as liberally educated 
who has not been brought in contact with these facts? And 
yet there are still hundreds and thousands of our college grad- 
uates who have neither had careful training in the principles, nor 
have been brought into contact with the grand results of modern 
geology ; whose minds have not felt the inspiration and mental 
tension resulting from contact with these wonderful discoveries 
and conclusions. Is there not every reason why geology should 
be taught, provided the facts and principles be imparted in a way 
to stimulate, quicken, and expand the mind? 
Brown University. 



THE LIMITATIONS OF THE HEALING ART. 

Br Prof. Dr. HERRMANN NOTHNAGEL, of Vienna.* 

rpHE fact is very evident that the practical art of healing has 
-L made great advances during the past century, especially 
during the last half of it. The progress of dermatology, the 
brilliant career of ophthalmology, the new creation of laryngology, 
the wonderful development of operative surgery and gynaecology, 
and, in the line of internal curatives, the introduction of a series 
of effective remedial substances and physical methods of healing, 
and, further, the greater importance attached to physiological, 
dietetical, and hygienic factors of the most diversified sorts have 
all taken place during this period, and in part in the very pres- 
ence of our contemporaries. And when we add to Lister's anti- 
septic process Pasteur's discovery of the antidote for rabies, and 
Koch's communication of a cure for consumption, which was 
received a year ago with such unbounded enthusiasm, the ques- 
tion may well force itself upon us, Where are the limits of the 

* From an address before the Association of German Naturalists and Physicians at 
Halle. 



78 THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

healing art ? It is indeed humanly proper to hope for a still wider 
extension of its scope, and it is a duty to try to obtain it. But it 
is becoming to the scientific man to look without prepossessions 
only at the facts, and with calm consideration to take account, 
not of what has been obtained only, but of what is attainable. 

" Being ill is life under changed conditions." What, then, is it 
to heal ? To influence pathological processes in the organism in 
such a way that they shall be brought to a halt, that the deranged 
tissues and disturbed functions shall be restored to the normal, 
and the interrupted interchanges between individual tissues and 
functions and the whole system shall be brought back to health- 
ful relations ; that is what we call healing. 

Healing, in the sense that the physician's art can control or- 
ganic processes in full activity, has not been advanced by the 
practical progress that has been made through antisepsis. For a 
tumor or an abscess can no more be made to go backward at this 
time than formerly. The exsection and opening of them are not 
synonymous with a real cure. And as with superficial lesions and 
those arising from external causes, so it is with those in the inte- 
rior organism, out of whatever causes they may have originated. 
In an ulceration of the bowels, a cure may be speeded by a series 
of appropriate measures to the extent that further injuries may 
be prevented, but the restoration of the injured parts will not be 
accomplished by them. On the bursting of a blood-vessel and 
the lesion of the brain-substance, it is necessary to apply suitable 
preventives to limit the congestion of the brain ; but no measure 
of the surgeon hastens the coagulation of the blood or the adhe- 
sion of the divided nerve-substance. 

Inflammations constitute another class of clinical affections, 
either acute or chronic, which, appearing in different organs, are 
grouped under that single designation. As we know from daily 
experience, the acute forms of inflammation are often cured, the 
chronic more rarely. There is, however, no internal medicament 
of demonstrated direct application for acute inflammations. Such 
remedies can only act indirectly in special cases as, for instance, 
most means in acute catarrhs as supporting applications. 

The therapeutic potentiality of the physician's art is its most 
ancient possession, grossly overapplied through centuries, then 
abruptly abandoned in part, and now wavering in uncertainty. 
Quiet, cold, and local bloodletting are the basis of a treatment 
which is, under well-defined conditions, very helpful in acute in- 
flammations. But it is sometimes fruitless, sometimes inapplica- 
ble. Deep inflammations, skin eruptions, and processes that set 
in with great activity, are regarded quite apart from specific 
forms like tuberculosis ; and still it is far from being proved that 
the therapeutic treatment, even when the symptoms have sub- 



THE LIMITATIONS OF THE HEALING ART. 79 

sided under its application, have had a direct effect on the prog- 
ress of the inflammation. Although it may appear to be so, it 
is no way demonstrated. It is the same also with chronic inflam- 
matory processes. The subsidence of single favorably localized 
forms may perhaps be promoted by such measures as massage, 
gymnastics, electricity, special baths, etc. ; but of them all it can 
only be said that they promote absorption; but no immediate 
influence on the organism, no cure of the processes, is worked by 
them. It may be all the same to the patient whether massage 
controls the restorative process directly or indirectly, so that it 
makes him well. In many other instances the application of simi- 
lar methods in favorable cases may overcome individual symp- 
toms, and remove the products of the disease, without yet having 
any essential influence upon its progress. The various diseases 
of the blood, metabolic derangements, and the inexhaustible multi- 
tude of disorders of the nervous system, to this time have fur- 
nished no more opportunities for a real cure than the soil of 
Alaska for the successful cultivation of the date palm. Among 
infectious diseases we admit only that in typhus, scarlet fever, 
measles, dysentery, cholera, and the long, dangerous host of such 
contracting diseases, medical art can contribute much to a favor- 
able outcome by counteracting dangerous symptoms, and through 
general hygienic measures and a judicious direction of nourish- 
ment. But in only two, perhaps three, of these diseases can medi- 
cine induce a cure by direct influence upon the pathological 
processes viz., on malaria, syphilis, and acuta rheumatism. 
Of the last, we only know that the salicylic treatment allays 
the fever and the joint affection, but is without influence on the 
dangerous endocarditis, with its following of disordered heart- 
rhythm. And all other infections, when they have become out- 
broken and developed illness, can not to this day be cured in the 
sense in which science uses that word. Whichever way one turns 
he will everywhere strike limits. In fact, a diseased condition is 
susceptible of cure only so long as it is attacked while still ad- 
vancing; as soon as it has reached a definite culmination, no 
more ; there then remain deformations, atrophies, hypertrophies, 
and other resultants of most various kinds. In most cases these 
are out of the reach of therapeutic influence and restorative pro- 
cess, except occasionally through a mechanical measure or the 
knife of the surgeon. An acute pleurisy is curable, but not its 
residues. The metabolic anomalies which lead to the formation 
of calculus in the kidneys can be influenced in the beginning, 
but the stone when it is formed can be removed only by the 
surgeon. The possibility of therapeutic effect is in many cases 
determined by the locality of the process, and, further, by the 
circumstance whether the cause of disease accrued suddenly or 



80 THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

gradually, or set in with greater or less intensity. A quantity 
of arsenic which ordinarily would kill at once, is borne by the 
habitual arsenic-eater. Of two similarly constituted persons, 
cholera will take one away at once, while another will escape 
with a light attack. A disease is also incurable when its causes 
work on without interruption. Malaria induces an incurably 
chronic condition if the infected person does not leave the 
impregnated marsh-land of his residence. A bronchial catarrh 
continues stationary, and at last draws the lungs into sympathy 
with it, if the person attacked by it remains constantly exposed 
to a dusty atmosphere. "With like suddenness and energy of 
the causes of disease, with like continuance of the local pro- 
cesses, the individual's power of resistance, the vigor of his consti- 
tution are important factors in determining the outcome. A 
vigorous thirty-year-old man will overcome an inflammation of 
the lungs which would be fatal to an old man, to a drinker, or to 
a man weakened by luxury or a life of dissipation or suffering. 
Finally, crimen non est artis, sed cegroti the fault is not of the 
art, but of the patient is the phrase that may be applied to those 
cases in which the most correct measures taken under favorable 
circumstances fail to accomplish their purpose, because the patient 
himself does not or can not co-operate with them. No treatment 
can relieve the smoker from his throat-catarrh, so long as he per- 
sists in his habit. This aspect of the case is especially pertinent 
to the nervous disorders which are one of the growing scourges 
of our age ; incapacity and vacillation, the force of outer influ- 
ences, or the pressure of business too often intervene to interrupt 
a cure which was otherwise fairly possible. 

Gloomy as are the prospects which we have before us here, 
we still recognize that all diseases which do not fall under one of 
these mentioned categories are curable, or that their curability is 
only a question of time. Strange as it may sound in the present 
state of medicine, we believe that the possibility of in time curing 
malignant tumors is not yet closed. 

Real healing, the restoration to their normal state of functions 
and tissues that have been changed by disease, is brought about 
in its essentials only through the life-processes in the organism. 
Therefore the answer to the question to what degree the healing 
art is or may be in a condition to influence these processes will be 
decisive as to whether it shall enlarge the boundaries of its 
knowledge. And if it results that this can not be, or can be 
only within a small compass, then will arise the further question 
whether the object shall be hopelessly given up, or whether still 
other possibilities are open for medicine to strive after its high 
aim. It will never be possible to re-form lost cells or to cause 
separated ones to grow together again; never immediately to 



THE LIMITATIONS OF THE HEALING ART. 81 

affect the processes which play in hallucinations their wild pranks 
in the ganglion-cells and associative paths. 

We can certainly by the application of certain substances 
cause changes in particular cells which are expressed, albeit in 
some unknown way, by physiological effects. Thus many alka- 
loids, alcohol, ether, chloroform, bromine, curare, digitalis, etc., 
operate directly on particular cell-groups, and bundles of nerves 
and muscles ; pilocarpine, arsenic, and iodine on certain glands ; 
phosphorus on growth processes in the bones. When the cases at 
present known are analyzed, it is found that bromine restrains 
the paroxysms of epilepsy for a short time, but does not remove 
the processes in the central nervous system from which they 
originate. Alcohol in moderate doses temporarily excites the 
brain and heart to activity, but does not cure a single pathological 
condition the presence of which made the administration of alco- 
hol necessary. Morphine alleviates the pains of neuralgia, but 
does not effect any fundamental change in the disease. Some- 
times effects appear like those of iodine in certain diseases corre- 
sponding with a real cure brought about by the means itself ; but 
it is still the last experience of medical art that the restoration 
from the diseased condition, in the true sense of the word, must 
come to pass through the organism itself. Whether an order of 
thoughts like that which Robert Koch developed in his studies of 
tuberculin will lead to this end must be learned by clinical ex- 
periment. It may be that the healing art will make its advance 
in this way. For the present we must learn, the more impress- 
ively as medical knowledge becomes more perfect, that the doctor 
is only the servant of Nature, not its master. 

Although the expectation and the possibility of controlling 
the fundamentals of pathological processes are so limited, the 
healing art is nevertheless not doomed to vain contemplation and 
inactive dallying. While art can not master Nature, it can follow 
it with diligent observation. The truth of this remark covers a 
genuine progress, and furnishes the key to the secret of the suc- 
cess of really great physicians. To investigate the exact origin 
of pathological changes, to ascertain by what methods and under 
what conditions disturbances of the organism are most easily 
overcome or counterbalanced, deliberately to support and imitate 
these methods if possible, and before everything to do no harm, 
is the way by which the healing art can accomplish something 
important and good. History proves incontestably that practical 
efficiency at the sick-bed goes in an exactly parallel line with the 
cultivation of scientific methods. Medicine to-day, without yet 
being able directly to cure the pathological condition, reaches, 
simply by following the principles here laid down, incomparably 
more favorable results than formerly. It has learned, first of all, 

VOL. XLI. 8 



82 THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

not to interfere so as to destroy the course of natural compensa- 
tions ; but seeks by dietetical, hygienic, and climatic influences, 
here by the removal of excitants, there by methodical stimula- 
tion of the matter-changes of the nervous system to put the 
organism into a condition to overcome the pathological disturb- 
ances. To use such measures, carefully adapted on principles of 
scientific observation and enlarged knowledge of the course of 
disease to the most diverse conditions, continually to furnish a 
closer support to the natural compensations and adaptations 
that is one of the ways to which the healing art must turn in or- 
der to enlarge its scope. 

Since we know that already developed pathological processes 
can be only imperfectly or not at all affected by art, it should be 
our more inflexible purpose to guard against their beginning, to 
recognize the causes of disease, and render them harmless. But 
this purpose must be comprehended in its widest sense ; it should 
not be confined to the prevention of infectious diseases alone, or to 
mere measures of sanitary policy, but should also include specific 
means of cure. Thus, the treatment of malarious disease with qui- 
nine is to all appearance etiological. The changes that have already 
taken place in the blood-cells and the spleen are not reversed by 
quinine, but the plasmodia of malaria are in some way destroyed, 
and then the disease may be cured. 

The hope is not unjustified that in a nearer or further future 
we shall learn to nullify by specific means the promoters of dis- 
ease in many other infections. After nullifying the irritating 
causes, the processes of Nature may be relied upon to complete the 
cure. It is possible that this advance will be perfected incident- 
ally, as has happened with quinine and malarious disease, and 
with salicylic acid and rheumatism. There is also good ground 
here for the hope that methodical research will be rich in re- 
sults. The fruitful investigations of numerous contemporary 
laborers permit much to be expected. And though the conflict of 
opinions sways hither and thither, and although the knowledge 
that has been gained relates only to diseases of animals, there is 
no vital reason for supposing that the same results will not also 
be reached for man. 

The efforts of the present are turned in three directions: to 
cure bacterial diseases that have already become clinically visi- 
ble ; to make infections harmless while in their incubatory stages ; 
and especially to ward off infection. The last-named object is 
the farthest-reaching one. It can be attained in two ways: by 
sanitary protective measures against epidemics, and by confer- 
ring immunity on the individual organism, of which vaccination 
for small-pox is a typical example. Securing artificial immunity 
by inoculation, and its scientific basis, are now in the full flow 



THE LIMITATIONS OF THE HEALING ART. 83 

of investigation. However favorable results may be reached in 
it, it seems practically clear that preventive immunity, even when 
we have gained sufficient experience in it, will be conferred only 
against those infections to which many men are likely to be ex- 
posed such as small-pox, measles, possibly scarlet fever, whoop- 
ing-cough, inflammation of the lungs, diphtheria, and enteric 
fever ; in the time of approaching epidemics, as cholera, influenza, 
and typhus and relapsing fever. On the other hand, it is ex- 
tremely improbable that preventive measures of immunity will be 
adopted against rabies, anthrax, and tetanus. The problem of 
warding off and removing the causes evidently exists in the great- 
est possible comprehensiveness, and in the most diverse other 
conditions, but its working is not so strikingly manifested in them 
as it is against bacterial infections. 

While art is limited, in the curing of pathological processes, 
by the impossibility of changing the course of life at pleasure ; 
while it also reaches limitations in warding off disease, yet its 
function is not exhausted ; there still remains to it the extraordi- 
narily important work of treating symptoms. An inconceivable 
number of pharmaceutical preparations look directly to this pur- 
pose. In numerous cases, also, the application of burning and 
bath-cures, of electricity, and many other therapeutic helps, is 
made for the same end. The importance of this part of the art 
is not underrated. It is often indifferent to the patient whether 
these or those anatomical and functional changes take place ; he 
will have no perception of them, will not be disturbed by them in 
his capacity or have his life shortened by them. But symptom- 
atic treatment often makes natural cure possible ; it bridges over 
dangerous episodes in the course of the disease. And no person 
to whom intelligent management by a physician has preserved a 
dear one will think little of the treatment of symptoms. 

In this the healing art is not only capable of extraordinary 
progress, but is actually advancing in an encouraging degree. 
Since Griesinger lamented, thirty years ago, that the doctor was 
helpless in the heat of fever, we can now, by the cold-water treat- 
ment and a number of strong antipyretics, keep a typhus patient 
almost continuously at the normal temperature. Recent years 
have furnished numerous soporifics and antiseptics, pilocarpine 
and cocaine and others, and the present is equally fruitful in the 
introduction of symptomatic methods. Everywhere active life, 
fresh labors ; and, amid all of it, every human existence which 
comes to a premature end, every person who is hampered in his 
career by chronic disease, admonishes us that here are the limits 
of medical art. Some of these barriers it will never raise ; at best, 
it will be able only to push them further on. Translated for The 
Popular Science Monthly from the Pharmaceutische Rundschau. 



84 THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

DENDRITES. 

By M. STANISLAS MEUNIER. 

THERE is a universal tendency to seek and sometimes to see in 
the forms of objects around us representations of the human 
figure or of animals and plants. Many interesting examples have 
been recorded and pictured in La Nature of rocks and mountains 
presenting resemblances to animated forms. We are quite ready 
to discern in the clouds all sorts of personages ; and at periods 
when superstition has been active, apparitions have been described, 
the whole existence of which consisted of misinterpreted simple 
resemblances. Stones have usually been considered especially 
worthy of attention in this category ; in tubercles of sandstone 
and nodules of flint it is easy to find features analogous with the 
most various objects. A block of sandstone is exhibited in the 
forest of Fontainebleau on which one willing to see it may recog- 
nize a petrified knight on his horse, all of the natural size. A 
nodule of sandstone was once brought to me in the geological 
laboratory of the museum, on which the owner saw the portrait 
of our Lord on the cross. Some persons are specially ingenious 
in finding resemblances in flints ; and Boucher de Perthes admit- 
ted into his Atlas of Celtic and Antediluvian Antiquities a whole 
series of figures of imitative forms of that mineral. 

There is no limit to this line of curiosities. All sorts of sub- 
jects may be found calves' heads, which are quite common, and 
eyes, birds, fishes, detached hands, feet, and ears, and human pro- 
files. A large flint was kept for a long time at Meudon, on which 
everybody recognized the bust of Louis XIV. To such accidents 
M. J. B. Robinet, in 1778, devoted a part of his ingenious Consid- 
erations on the Efforts of Nature in trying to make Man (Con- 
siderations sur les essais de la Nature qui apprend a faire 
Vhomme). As we turn the leaves of this curious work we see 
described, in distinct paragraphs, anthropocardites, representing 
the heart of man ; encephalites, or brains ; crano'ides, or skulls ; 
otites, or ear-stones ; leucophtlialmos, or white eyes ; chirites, or 
hands ; stones representing a muscle, and even the olfactory 
nerve, etc. 

The drawing of the distinction between fortuitous resemblances 
and true fossils was protracted and made difficult by the fact that 
the two forms are often mingled, sometimes associated in the 
same specimen or originating in beds having the most essential 
characteristics in common. 

Sometimes, for instance, fossils are reduced to the condition of 
impressions squeezed between two beds of rock or between two 
laminae of a schistose stone. Fishes and insects are found in this 



DENDRITES. 



85 



condition, and plants in prodigious abundance. Accidental cases 
of color or structure externally resembling these may be found 
under similar conditions more or less complicated figures in 
which it will be often easy to find such resemblances as clouds or 
the arabesques of a tap- 
estry give us. Fig. 1 
represents an example 
of this kind, from the 
Saxonia Subterranea of 
Mylius (Leipsic, 1709) ; 
it is the picture of a 
stone the fracture of 
which exhibits spots 
making oux the figure 
of a fowl with her plu- 
mage, comb, and the 
scutels of the tarsi. 
A class of accidents 

Of a different Character Fia. 1.-Sto NE the fracture of which presents the appear- 

ance of a feathered fowl. (After Mylius.) 

is especially fruitful of 

surprises of the kind under consideration. These are the den- 
drites, which are very frequent in joints of rocks of all ages, and 
of which Fig. 2 gives a very exact idea. At Romainville and 





Fig. 2. Dendrite, composed of small crystals of ferriferous oxide of manganese the acer- 
desis of mineralogists ; found in the Assures of a lithographic limestone. (Specimen from 
the Museum of Natural History ; half the natural size.) 

Argenteuil, near Paris, we may see in the plaster quarries that all 
the fissures crossing the beds of marl, whatever their color, white, 



86 



THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 




Fig. 3. Arborized Agate ; that is, agate in- 
closing a dendrite deep in its mass. (Speci- 
men from the Museum of Natural History ; 
halt' the natural size.) 



green, or gray, with which the gypsum is cut up, are darkened 
with dendrites of various dimensions and sometimes very elegant. 
These dendrites are likewise found in limestones, chalk, building- 
stones, lithographic stones, and compact marbles ; in sandstones, 
granite, and various other crystalline rocks. They are not always 

black ; some are the color of 
rust ; some are metallic, and 
consist of common pyrites be- 
tween sheets of slate, or copper, 
or native silver, or gold. Final- 
ly, besides superficial dendrites, 
deep ones are known, which are 
developed across the mass of the 
stones. The best-known speci- 
mens of this kind are those 
which make appropriate the 
special designation of arborized 
agate (Fig. 3). 

This name, like that of den- 
drites, shows that a vegetable 
origin was at first attributed 
to these accidents. Sometimes 
fancy went further ; and Fig. 4 represents, from Mylius, whom 
we have already quoted, the figure of a dendrite in which the 
author saw a landscape a plain traversed by a river and bordered 
by a chain of wooded hills, and pierced with caves. It is easy to 
discover that dendrites have none of the characteristics of the 
vegetable ramifications with which we are at first inclined to com- 
pare them, and, when we study them under a sufficient magnifying 
power, the crystalline 
structure of most of 
them appears distinct- 
ly. This is especially 
the case with the black 
dendrites, which are 
most, abundant, and is 
shown in the originals 
< f Figs. 2 and 4, which I 
have particularly stud- 
ied, and have been able 
to produce artificially. 
It is evident that 
these dendrites, which consist of a hydrated oxide of manganese 
the acerdesis of mineralogists are the result of a precipitating 
action exercised by calcareous rocks on water containing traces 
of metallic salts. Hence we might expect to obtain an imitation 




Fig. 4. 



-Schist, exhibiting dendrites, in which the repre- 
sentation of a landscape may be imagined. 



ENERGY AS A FACTOR IN AGRICULTURE. 87 

of them by placing pieces of marble or lithographic stone in a 
dilute solution of chloride or sulphate of manganese. The hope 
of success is all the more legitimate because carbonate of lime 
has already permitted the imitation in this way of several natural 
minerals, particularly of limonite, an iron mineral, and bauxite, 
or the mineral of aluminum. But the experiment has not been 
successful, and, instead of the desired black deposit, we get only 
chocolate-brown flakes having no resemblance to the substance 
of the dendrites. 

Seeking for the causes of this want of success, I have found, 
by analysis, that the dendrites said to be of manganese contain 
oxide of iron, in minute proportions it is true, but in proportions 
that seem to be sufficient. And the addition of traces of ferric 
salts to the solution of manganese salt has really determined the 
deposit on the limestone surface of a perfectly black compound, 
presenting in many cases the exact form of the dendrites of 
Nature. I have in the museum specimens that leave no doubt 
on the subject, the inferiority of which to the models which I 
sought to copy is most probably due to the inferior slowness of 
the process of producing them. Translated for The Popular Sci- 
ence Monthly from La Nature. 



ENERGY AS A FACTOR IN AGRICULTURE.* 

By Dr. MANLY MILES. 

THE rapid development of science and its numerous applica- 
tions in the industrial arts are leading to a general recogni- 
tion of its importance as a factor in the material and intellectual 
progress of the age. The aid of science is now invoked in every 
department of human activity, and, judging from what has already 
been accomplished, we can not perceive any indications of a limit 
to its useful applications in the industries. 

While the general outlook encourages optimistic views in re- 
gard to the present and prospective advantages that may be real- 
ized from the applications of science, we should not overlook the 
shadows involved in its progress, which seriously interfere with 
its own advancement, and at the same time increase the difficulties 
attending original investigations relating to many industrial prob- 
lems. 

The scope and extended range of modern science, that necessi- 
tate a subdivision of its lines of research into numerous branches, 

* An abstract of this paper was read at the Washington meeting of the American 
Association of Science, and also before the Society for the Promotion of Agricultural 
Science. 



88 THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

each of which requires a lifetime of diligent study for its mas- 
tery, are serious obstacles in the investigation of a certain class 
of problems that can only be solved by contributions from the 
entire circle of the sciences. 

Prof. Huxley has sounded a note of warning which should be 
heeded, especially by those who are engaged in conducting experi- 
ments for the advancement of agricultural science. In his retir- 
ing address as President of the Royal Society he says : " Of late 
years it has struck me with constantly increasing force that those 
who have toiled for the advancement of science are in a fair way 
of being overwhelmed by the realization of their own wishes. 
We are in the case of Tarpeia, who opened the gates of the Roman 
citadel to the Sabines, and was crushed under the weight of the 
reward bestowed upon her. It has become impossible for any man 
to keep pace with the progress of the whole of any important 
branch of science. If he were to attempt to do so his mental fac- 
ulties would be crushed by the multitude of journals and volu- 
minous monographs which a too fertile press casts upon him. 
This was not the case in my young days. A diligent reader might 
then keep fairly informed of all that was going on without de- 
moralizing his faculties by the accumulation of unassimilated in- 
formation. It looks as if the scientific, like other revolutions, 
meant to devour its own children ; as if the growth of science 
tended to overwhelm its votaries ; as if the man of science of the 
future were condemned to diminish into a narrower and narrower 
specialist as time goes on. 

'' I am happy to say that I do not think any such catastrophe 
a necessary consequence of the growth of science ; but I do think 
it is a tendency to be feared, and an evil to be most carefully 
provided against. The man who works away at one corner of 
Nature, shutting his eyes to all the rest, diminishes his chances of 
seeing what is to be seen in that corner ; for, as I need hardly re- 
mind my present hearers, that which the investigator perceives 
depends much more on that which lies behind his sense-organs 
than on the object in front of them. 

" It appears to me that the only defense against this tendency 
to the degeneration of scientific workers lies in the organization 
and extension of scientific education in such a manner as to secure 
breadth of culture without superficiality ; and, on the other hand, 
depth and precision of knowledge without narrowness." 

From the exceeding complexity of many of the problems in 
agricultural science, and the number of factors that require con- 
sideration in attempts to solve them, there is especial need of 
guarding against the dangers attending the exclusive prosecution 
of special lines of research, which are so forcibly stated by Prof. 
Hnxley with reference to the general advancement of science. 



ENERGY AS A FACTOR IN AGRICULTURE. 89 

In almost every problem in agriculture the complex phe- 
nomena of life are directly concerned, under various forms and 
activities, which can not be expressed or formulated in chemical 
terms, from the self-evident truth that the part can not contain 
the whole. The significance and interdependent relations of the 
biological factors in agriculture are unavoidably obscured by the 
exclusive consideration of specific details "which, with the ad- 
vance of knowledge, may prove to be but incidents in the mani- 
festations of general laws. 

The solution of these Protean problems can only be secured by 
abstract researches to determine the relations of the several fac- 
tors to each other, and to the general laws of which they are the 
expression. The principles of science that are admitted to be of 
general application are the only safe guides in developing an 
improved and rational system of agriculture, while the purely 
empirical lines of research that aim to discover specific rules 
of practice, and thus gain immediate practical results, retard the 
march of progress by the delusive importance assigned to non- 
essential details. 

The truth of these statements may be illustrated by the re- 
markable progress of the physical sciences in the past quarter of 
a century, and the rapid development of the industrial arts 
through the recognition and applications of the principle of the 
conservation of energy, which Faraday looked upon as " the high- 
est law in physical science which our faculties permit us to per- 
ceive," and Huxley refers to, in connection with evolution, as 
" the greatest of all of the generalizations of science." 

The principle of the conservation of energy, which is now gen- 
erally admitted to be a prime factor in Nature's operations, has not 
received adequate attention in agricultural science. It is true 
that in general terms it has been incidentally referred to as a fac- 
tor in biology, more particularly with reference to mechanical 
work, but the dominance of purely chemical considerations has 
prevented its real significance in all organic processes from being 
fully recognized. 

More than twenty-five years ago, Dr. William B. Carpenter 
pointed out to physiologists the " distinction between the dynami- 
cal and the material conditions ; the former supplying the power 
which does the work, while the latter affords the instrumental 
means through which that power operates." 

The material conditions have, however, continued to receive a 
predominant, and almost exclusive, share of attention, and the 
manifestations of energy in the processes of vegetable and animal 
nutrition have practically been ignored. 

In the applications of science to agriculture, and especially in 
planning and conducting experiments, the transformations of 

TOL. XLI. 9 



90 THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

matter have been looked upon as the sole factors requiring atten- 
tion, and a simplicity in organic processes has been assumed that 
is not warranted by our present knowledge of the conditions that 
have a decided influence on the nutrition and well-being of plants 
and animals. 

An approximate quantitative estimate of the expenditure of 
energy in certain processes of Nature involved in growing a field 
crop will serve to illustrate its importance in biological science 
and farm economy, and a preliminary review of some of the 
salient points in the economy of plants will simplify the problem 
we have to deal with. 

A growing crop, in common with other living organisms, re- 
quires certain conditions of environment for the healthy and vig- 
orous exercise of its vital activities, among which may be enu- 
merated as essential, a suitable temperature, a certain supply of 
moisture, and a sufficient food-supply; and to these must be 
added soil conditions that promote an extended root development 
and distribution. 

Plants differ as to the temperature required for active growth, 
but there is for each a minimum, below which growth ceases ; a 
maximum, above which life is destroyed ; and between these an 
optimum temperature which is most favorable for the activity of 
the processes of nutrition. The temperature of the atmosphere, 
which is an incident of seasons, need not be noticed here, but it 
may be remarked that it is of less practical importance than soil 
temperatures, which depend on conditions that, to some extent, 
may be controlled. 

Plants obtain their supply of water from the diffused moisture 
of the soil, which is retained by capillary attraction. In fertile 
soils this capillary water is kept in constant circulation by the 
drafts made upon it by growing plants, and by the evaporation 
which takes place from the surface soil, and an equilibrium is 
thus maintained in the distribution of soluble soil constituents, 
and in the processes of soil metabolism.* 

To say nothing of other important considerations, it is evident 
that soil conditions favorable for the extended distribution of the 
roots of plants are necessary to enable them to obtain their needed 
supplies of water from the comparatively limited amount present 
in the soil. As the water evaporated from the surface soil is re- 
placed from below by capillary attraction, its influence on soil 
metabolism and the transportation of soluble soil constituents to- 
ward the surface strata should receive attention as a factor in the 

* The series of chemical, physical, and biological changes taking place in the soil, or in 
the processes of vegetable and animal nutrition, are conveniently expressed by the general 
term metabolism, and they are frequently designated as metabolic processes. 



ENERGY AS A FACTOR IN AGRICULTURE. 91 

economy of plant growth that is closely related to that presented 
"by the water absorbed by the roots of plants and exhaled by their 
leaves. 

Energy has been defined as " the power of doing work, or over- 
coming resistance/' and its varied transformations into heat, 
motion, electricity, etc., without gain or loss, are expressed by the 
general term conservation of energy. In the nutrition and growth 
of plants an expenditure of energy is evidently required in the 
work involved in a number of distinct, but correlated, processes, 
the most important of which are constructive metabolism, or the 
building of organic substance; the exhalation of water by the 
leaves, which is constantly taking place in their processes of nu- 
trition ; the evaporation of water from the surface soil ; and the 
warming of the soil to provide optimum conditions of tempera- 
ture. 

The energy expended in constructive metabolism, or tissue- 
building, is stored up as potential energy, and reappears as heat 
when the plant is decomposed by any process, as, for example, 
when it is burned. The mechanical force exhibited by growing 
plants is a phase of the constructive process that has often been 
noticed. President Clark's squash raised a weight of 4,120 pounds 
in its processes of growth. Sprouts from the roots of a tree push- 
ing their way through an asphalt pavement have been observed 
by myself, and many similar exhibitions of the force exerted by 
growing plants are often seen. 

These obvious manifestations of energy in constructive metab- 
olism are, however, so familiar that they require but a passing 
notice, and we will proceed to consider the much larger expendi- 
tures of energy involved in vaporizing the water exhaled by the 
leaves of plants and evaporated from the surface soil, as these un- 
obtrusive and incidental processes, as they might be termed, are 
quite as significant factors in plant growth as the direct work of 
building organic substance, to which the attention of physiologists 
is more particularly directed. In field experiments the results 
obtained with manures must largely depend on the expenditure of 
energy, under the prescribed conditions, in the work of exhalation 
by the plants and the evaporation of water from the surface soil. 
The supply of plant food in the manure may, in fact, be a matter 
of secondary importance to the growing crop. 

Experiments at Rothamsted, England, and on the continent 
by Hellriegel, on the exhalation of water by a variety of farm 
crops, including wheat, oats, peas, beans, and clover, show that 
about three hundred pounds of water are exhaled by the leaves for 
each pound of dry organic substance formed by the plants. It 
was estimated by Lawes and Gilbert that the average annual ex- 
halation from the wheat grown on some of the experimental plots 



9 2 



THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 



at Rothamsted was at the rate of 1,680,000 pounds of water per 
acre, or the equivalent of 7'4 inches of rainfall ; and on the same 
"basis the exhalation from a crop of Indian corn, of 60 bushels 
per acre, would be equivalent to about 8*5 inches of rainfall. 

So far as the expenditure of energy is concerned, it matters not 
whether water is changed to vapor in the process of exhalation 
by the crop or in evaporation from the soil, and the same stand- 
ard of measurement will, therefore, be applicable in both cases. 

Energy is measured in heat-units, and work is expressed in 
foot-pounds or in kilogramme-metres.* For convenience of illus- 
tration we will make use of another standard adoj)ted by engineers, 
which, although not as definite, is sufficiently accurate for our 
purpose. 

From experimental data it has been found that, under favor- 
able conditions, one pound of coal will evaporate from 6'60 to 8'66 
pounds of water from an initial temperature of 32 Fahr., according 
to the quality of the coal used. If we assume that one pound of 
coal will evaporate 8*5 pounds of water under the conditions pre- 
sented in crop-growing, our standard will be considerably above 
what is realized in ordinary steam-engines. 

The energy required to vaporize the water exhaled by one 
acre of corn in its processes of growth, with a yield as above es- 
timated, would, therefore, be represented by the heat produced in 
burning 226,500 pounds of coal, or over 113 tons. This may be 
expressed in another form, which will, perhaps, be more readily 
understood. We are told that " a good condensing engine of 
large size, supplied with good boilers, consumes two pounds of 
coal per horse-power per hour." The work involved in the pro- 
cess of exhalation from one acre of corn would, therefore, be 
equivalent to the work of more than twenty-five horses day and 
night, without cessation, for six months. 

The same standards of measurement applied to the energy 
expended in evaporating water from the soil will give quite as 
striking results. With a sufficient rainfall to supply the require- 
ments of a crop, the amount of water evaporated from the soil 
will vary, within certain comparatively narrow limits, with the 
amount and distribution of the rainfall, the capacity of the soil 
for heat, and the atmospheric conditions that influence evapora- 
tion, as temperature, humidity, and the character of the prevail- 
ing winds. 

From the best evidence I can obtain, which need not here be 

* The English heat-unit is the amount of heat required to raise one pound of water 
1 Fahr. in temperature, and the French heat-unit, or calorie, is the amount of heat re- 
quired to raise one kilogramme of water 1 C. in temperature. 

A foot-pound = one pound raised one foot. 

A kilogramme-metre = one kilogramme (2-2 pounds) raised one metre (3 - 28 feet). 



ENERGY AS A FACTOR IN AGRICULTURE. 93 

discussed in detail, it appears safe to estimate the soil evaporation 
in the Middle States at approximately twice the amount exhaled 
by a growing crop of fair luxuriance. Of an annual rainfall of 
thirty-two inches, or over, fairly distributed, we may then as- 
sume, with apparent good reason, that about sixteen inches will 
be disposed of by evaporation from a fertile, well-drained soil, and 
about eight inches by exhalation from a growing crop, or an aggre- 
gate of about twenty-four inches will be disposed of in the form 
of vapor from soil and crop, involving an expenditure of energy 
represented by the heat produced by burning 320 tons of coal per 
acre, or the equivalent of the work of seventy-three horses, day 
and night, without intermission, for six months. If to this is 
added the energy expended in constructive metabolism and in 
warming the soil, which we will not now estimate in specific 
terms, the sum would represent the normal demands for energy 
in growing a crop of one acre. 

This enormous expenditure of energy appears to be quite as 
essential to the well-being of the crop as the supply of food con- 
stituents, to which attention has been too exclusively directed, 
and any conditions that tend to materially increase or diminish 
it must be looked upon as injurious. 

From this standpoint the principle of the conservation of 
energy furnishes most satisfactory data for discussing the philos- 
ophy of farm drainage. On undrained, retentive soils, the rain 
that falls in excess of the normal requirements of the crop and 
soil metabolism must be removed by evaporation, and this calls 
for a very considerable expenditure of energy that on drained 
land might be made available in useful work, to say nothing of 
the influence of removing surplus water by evaporation on the 
physical and biological characteristics of the soil. 

For each inch of surplus rainfall removed from the soil by 
evaporation, the energy expended would be represented by 26,600 
pounds of coal per acre. With an annual rainfall of forty inches, 
which is not unusual in the Middle States, and is considerably 
exceeded in some localities, there would be sixteen inches of water 
in excess of the normal demands of an ordinary farm crop, and 
to remove this by evaporation would require the equivalent 
of about 213 tons of coal per acre, representing the continuous 
work of forty-eight horses, day and night, for six months. The 
removal of this surplus water by drainage would obviate the ne- 
cessity for this enormous expenditure of energy, besides other 
incidental advantages which we need not notice here. 

In the economy of animals the manifestations of the law of 
the conservation of energy are quite as striking and significant. 
The potential energy of their food is the sole source of the energy 
expended in work, and in their processes of nutrition and growth. 



94 THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

Animals have been looked upon as machines for converting the 
vegetable products of the farm into animal products of greater 
value, and this in the light of the law of the conservation of 
energy may be interpreted as the conversion of the potential 
energy of field crops into the useful work of an animal machine. 
Considered as machines for the manufacture of definite products, 
the efficiency of animals must depend upon the amount of work 
performed for a given supply of energy in their food. 

An ordinary steam-engine formerly converted less than one 
tenth of the potential energy of the fuel consumed into useful 
work, and the attention of engineers has been directed to improve- 
ments in construction to secure greater economy and efficiency in 
the work performed, by a more complete utilization of the poten- 
tial energy supplied in the form of coal or other fuel. The re- 
markable industrial development of the past few years, resulting 
in a material reduction of the cost of production and transporta- 
tion, is largely owing to improvements in the steam-engine 
which have been brought about by a more intelligent application 
of the principle of the conservation of energy. 

There are good reasons for the belief that the animal machine 
works with greater economy than the steam-engine, even in its 
improved form, but, according to the most favorable estimates, 
only a small proportion of the potential energy of foods is utilized 
in useful work, and there is a broad margin for improvement, 
even in what we call our improved breeds, to secure a more 
efficient expenditure of energy. 

The problem of paramount interest in animal husbandry is 
essentially the same the mechanical engineer has been dealing 
with in his efforts to improve the steam-engine. It is simply to 
obtain the largest net returns in useful work from the potential 
energy of the food consumed. It is evident that improvements in 
the animal machine itself must be the leading object to receive 
attention, and the breeders of pure-bred stock must recognize this 
principle in their efforts for improvement. The form and pro- 
portions in which the chemical constituents of food are provided 
are of far less importance than the inherited capacity and capa- 
bilities of the animal machine to utilize and economize energy in 
the work involved in the manufacture of animal products. 

When speaking of foods we should bear in mind the fact that 
there is but a limited demand in the animal economy for the 
so-called nutritive constituents, aside from their agency in the 
transformations of energy involved in the metabolism of the 
system. But a small proportion of the chemical constituents of 
foods are stored up in the body, even during the period of growth, 
when the demands for new materials in constructive metabolism 
are most active, while an abundant supply of energy in an avail- 



ENERGY AS A FACTOR IN AGRICULTURE. 95 

able form must be provided as an essential condition of the mani- 
festations of life. It must not, on the other hand, be assumed that 
the potential energy of foods may be considered as a reliable in- 
dex of their physiological value. Biological processes are exceed- 
ingly complex, and, in calling attention to energy as a dominant 
factor in vital activities, we do not lose sight of other important 
considerations which can not here be noticed. 

Protean transformations of energy are constantly carried on 
in all the metabolic tissues. The energy expended in building 
organic substance in animals, as in plants, is stored up in the 
form of potential energy as an essential condition of its constitu- 
tion, and it is again liberated in the form of heat in the correla- 
tive processes of destructive metabolism which are taking place 
without cessation in the work performed in every operation of 
the system. 

Dr. Foster tells us that what is really meant by the phrase, 
" living substance, is not a thing, or body, of a particular chemical 
composition, but matter undergoing a series of changes." These 
metabolic changes are brought about, in the main, at the expense 
of energy, and they represent in fact successive transformations 
of energy from the active to the potential form, and a final recon- 
version to heat, which leaves the body in various ways. 

The animal machine is in effect a heat-engine that is con- 
stantly being worn out by the work performed, and as constantly 
repaired by its own processes of nutrition, and the heat leaving 
the body (animal heat) represents the energy that has been used 
in internal work, and finally liberated through the agency of de- 
structive metabolism. 

We must not, however, carry the analogy of the heat-engine 
so far as to assume that the food consumed by animals is disposed 
of by a process of combustion, like the fuel burned under a steam- 
boiler. There is no evidence that anything like a combustive 
oxidation of the food constituents, or of the tissues, takes place 
in the animal economy. The building of organic substance and 
storing of potential energy (constructive metabolism) is accom- 
panied by parallel processes of disintegration (destructive metab- 
olism), in which the stored potential energy is changed to heat ; 
and these alternate, or possibly simultaneous, transformations of 
energy which take place in living tissues must be regarded as 
manifestations of vital activities that differ widely in their char- 
acteristic features from the processes of combustive oxidation 
that take place in non-living matter. 

From what is now known in regard to animal physics it will 
be safe to assume that from four fifths to five sixths of the poten- 
tial energy of the food consumed and digested by working 
animals is expended in vaporizing the water thrown off by the 



96 TEE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTELY. 

skin and lungs, and in the internal work performed by the 
metabolic tissues in their constructive processes of nutrition, and 
the energy used in this internal work finally leaves the body as 
animal heat, a very large proportion of which is the result of 
muscular and glandular metabolism. 

The work performed in twenty-four hours by the heart alone 
of a man weighing 150 pounds is estimated at 75,000 kilo- 
gramme-metres, an expenditure of energy sufficient to raise his 
own weight to a height of 3,600 feet, and the work performed by 
other internal organs, and in vaporizing the water thrown off by 
the skin and lungs, is quite as significant. 

The energy expended in some of the unobtrusive operations of 
Nature that are likely to escape attention may exceed in amount 
the more obvious expenditures in mechanical work. We readily 
recognize the demands for energy by an animal moving a heavy 
load when working eight or ten hours a day, while we fail to 
notice that from two to three times as much energy is expended 
by the same animal in the course of twenty-four hours in vapor- 
izing the water thrown off by the lungs and skin. As this energy 
is all derived from the food consumed, it must be taken into the 
account as a significant factor in discussing the physiology of 
nutrition. 

Another important fact should not be overlooked. In the re- 
constructive processes that are carried on without intermission in 
the living tissues of the animal machine, a supply of energy, as 
we have seen, must be constantly provided to replace that which 
is thrown off from the system in the form of heat, or expended in 
vaporizing water and in external work ; but new materials are 
not required to replace all the disintegrated constituents of the 
tissues, as there is a rearrangement, to a certain extent, in the 
processes of repair of the elements of which they are composed. 
This is especially the case with muscle, which constitutes so large 
a proportion of the proteid substance of the body. The work per- 
formed by muscle is not at the expense of its nitrogenous sub- 
stance, and its energy is, to a great extent, if not exclusively, de- 
rived from the carbohydrate elements of the food. The demands 
of the proteid substance of muscle for nitrogen are, therefore, 
limited, and the available supplies of energy in the various ele- 
ments of the food determine the efficient activity of the animal 
machinery. 

Energy as a factor in animal physics seems to be entirely 
overlooked in the application of the popular theory of nutritive 
ratios. There is a wide difference in the potential energy of feed- 
ing rations that have been formulated for the same specific pur- 
pose, with practically the same nutritive ratio. On the same 
page of a popular agricultural paper I find two rations for milk- 



BAD AIR AND BAD HEALTH. 97 

production, the one having a ratio of 1 to 5, and the other of 1 to 
5*1, but there is a difference in potential energy in the two rations 
equivalent to over 2,411,000 kilogramrne-metres of work, or one 
and a quarter horse-power in the day's rations. 

In two other rations for milk-production with nutritive ratios 
of 1 to 5 and 1 to 5*1, the difference in potential energy would be 
represented by 3,112,000 kilogramme-metres, or 1*6 horse-power 
for the day's feed. 

There are likewise rations with exactly the same nutritive 
ratio (1 to 5), prescribed for Jersey cows giving milk, in which 
the difference in potential energy is equivalent to 1,123,600 kilo- 
gramme-metres, or more than one half of a horse-power for the 
day's feed. There are also rations for horses, with nutritive ratios 
1 to 6, and 1 to 6"4, which have a difference in energy of 2,834,000 
kilogramme-metres, or the equivalent of over one and a quarter 
horse-power for the day. 

It is unnecessary to cite further instances of the obvious fal- 
lacies in rations that have been formulated in accordance with a 
theory which ignores the significance of energy in animal nutri- 
tion. The facts already presented must be sufficient to show that 
the law of the conservation of energy should be recognized as an 
important factor in the nutrition and growth of both plants and 
animals, and that it should receive due attention in planning and 
conducting experiments for the promotion of agricultural science, 
and in interpreting their results. In the development of a rational 
system of farm economy the applications of this general law must 
have a dominant influence in determining the most profitable and 
consistent methods of practice. 







BAD AIR AND BAD HEALTH. 

Br HAEOLD WAGER and AUBEEON HEEBEET. 
\_Conclu ded.~\ 

EXERCISE, as well as pure air, helps us in our constant strug- 
gle against the poisons that we manufacture within ourselves. 
It does this by driving the blood charged with oxygen, by means 
of the pressure of the muscles called into play, more thoroughly 
through the tissue (Foster, page 219) ; and thus it would quicken 
the breaking down of dead tissue into its safe and final waste 
products (water, carbonic acid, and urea), and shorten the pe- 
riod during which the dead tissue was passing through various 
dangerous forms which it temporarily assumes. From this fact 
we may infer that the man of sedentary life, above all others, 
requires pure air. 

In truth, pure air and exercise are equal forces acting in the 

VOL. XLI. 10 



98 THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

same direction. They both get rid of waste, and with it of the 
poisons in the system, which are depressing various organs. We 
need not, therefore, be surprised when we are told by Sir D. Gal- 
ton that after barracks were better ventilated the rations of the 
men had to be increased ; or by " the pathetic story " of certain 
seamstresses whose work-room was ventilated, and who then 
begged that the old state of things might be restored, as their 
appetites had increased beyond their earnings. Sir D. Galton 
gives another experience, illustrating the depressive effect of 
these poisons upon the functions of life. A New York medical 
man rather cruelly shut up some flies without food, some in foul 
air, others in pure air ; the pure air being constantly changed. 
To his surprise, the flies in the pure air died first, these dying 
from simple starvation ; while the flies in the foul air died from 
poison, and with the tissue of their bodies unexhausted, indicat- 
ing how the functions of life were carried on to the last where 
oxygen was available, but had been slowed and depressed by 
the presence of the poison, so that life was actually maintained 
longer in the foul than in the pure air. To take one more ex- 
ample. Parkes tells us (page 159) that it was found in the case of 
miners that they required six thousand cubits of air introduced 
per man per hour (this included the air necessary for horses and 
lights) to be able to work at their best. When this quantity was 
reduced to one third or one half, there was a great reduction in 
their working energy. In other words, the poison within their 
system being imperfectly oxidized, impaired their faculties.* 

We could wish that it were possible to write the whole of the 
noble story of oxygen from a physiological point of view. It is a 
double service that it performs for us. It not only, as we have 
seen, neutralizes the deadly poisons resulting from waste, but it 
provides the heat and energy, by the oxidizing or burning up of 
this waste. All through animal life the consumption of oxygen, 
serving this double purpose, is the measure of activity. Just as 
reptiles and cold-blooded creatures consume small amounts of oxy- 
gen and develop little activity, so birds and insects consume im- 

* We may also take the case of races living in hot and cold climates. In hot climates 
we breathe a smaller quantity of oxygen (owing to the expansion of gases) than in cold 
climates. Thus, taking two climates, one of 32 F. and the other of 80 F., we should in- 
hale about 2,164 grains of oxygen per hour in the one climate (the cold), and only 1,971 
in the other climate (the warm), or a difference of about nine per cent (Galton, Our 
Ilomes, p. 498). This would in part account for the difference of energy that exists in 
the races of hot and cold climates ; just as our own energy varies considerably on hot 
days and keen frosty days, though we think some allowance ought to be made for the more 
open-air life that would be led in the warm climate. The bearing of these facts upon 
crowded rooms should be perceived. As the room gets hotter, not only are we breathing 
more poison, but less oxygen, which is the only remedy for the poison. We are therefore 
doubling the causes of evil. 



BAD AIR AND BAD HEALTH. 99 

mense quantities of oxygen and develop immense activity. Each 
animal has, as Prof. Foster believes (page 812), its own peculiar 
quantity, its coefficient, so to speak, of oxygen, which it consumes 
an amount which, judging from the few instances he gives, seems 
to vary with intelligence ; thus the dog consumes more than the 
rabbit per pound of its weight, and a man more than a dog. In 
the same way, a waking man consumes more oxygen than a 
sleeping man, a man at work than a sedentary man, a young man 
than an old man, a young child more than the young man. The 
restless activity of children marks both their great consumption 
of oxygen and their pressing need for it by being allowed to 
breathe abundance of pure air. Rapid and extensive waste is 
going on in every child's body. Tissue of every kind, including 
bone, is being constantly broken down in order that it may be built 
up anew on a larger scale, and it is therefore the greatest cruelty 
in their case not to provide them in fullest measure with the 
purest air. Unhappily, very little thought is given to this mat- 
ter ; and with quite young children whose need is the greatest 
of all our nurseries are only too often mere slaughter-houses. 
Mothers of all classes should try to see the meaning of the fact * 
that out of four deaths of infants one takes place from lung col- 
lapse, a state that often follows bronchial inflammation (see R. D. 
Powell, Lungs; Quain,page 861), and probably of ten indicates the 
source of the mischief. Dr. Douglas Powell significantly says, 
" All causes that interfere with respiratory efficiency favor the 
occurrence of the condition named." 

It is now right for us to look at the subject of these waste- 
poisons in special reference to the skin. Without referring here 
to the different calculations made on this subject, it is enough to 
say that much less carbonic acid escapes from the skin than from 
the lungs; more water (if we are to follow Prof. Foster who 
differs from other authorities, who again differ among them- 
selves we may say roughly, 1*5 pound from lungs, and 2'5 pounds 
from the skin per day), and a larger amount of solid matter The 
solid matter is put at one or two per cent of the whole 2*5 pounds 
and two thirds of this one or two per cent is organic matter con- 
taining the poisons in question. \ We can see the importance of 
the skin, as an organ of excretion, in various ways. In the first 
place, the provision of an enormous number of sweat-glands un- 

* So it has been stated. It is also interesting to quote the statement from the Regis- 
trar-General's Report for 1889, that there were in that year 71,056 deaths of male infants 
(not over twelve months) in England, and out of this number, 13,805 (roughly speaking, 
about one in five) died of diseases connected with the respiratory system. It is right to 
add that lung collapse may follow many different kinds of illness. 

f Thus we should have from 118 - 3 to 236'6 grains of organic matter excreted by the 
skin in twenty-four hours. 



ioo THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

der the skin, supposed by Krause (Baker's Kirk, page 427) to be 
between two and three millions in number in the parts where 
they are least abundant they are over four hundred to the square 
inch offers evidence of a physiological character on the point, 
even if, as is stated, some small part of skin perspiration takes 
place independently of these glands. Then we have the evidence 
of the disagreeable odor from the skin and clothes where cleanli- 
ness is not observed ; again, we have the curious facts of death 
having both actually and nearly occurred in cases where the body 
has been covered (the mouth having been left free) with gold-leaf 
or plaster of Paris. Various explanations have been given, 
but Prof. Foster seems to think (page 697) that the retention 
of poisonous matters " constituents of sweat, or the products of 
some abnormal metabolism " (change) which would have been 
discharged through the sweat-glands, is largely concerned in the 
matter. We venture to believe quite independently of certain 
experiments that this conclusion can not be avoided. 

We have also a most remarkable case recorded by Sir D. Gal- 
ton. Some men in the horse artillery had left their bedding rolled 
up for two months, without its being opened to the air. When 
first used again, man after man who had slept on this bedding 
came into hospital with " a suspicious fever." It would be diffi- 
cult to find a case that more vividly illustrates both the poisonous 
character of the emanations of the body and the necessity of free 
ventilation in order to render them harmless. Again, when se- 
rious consequences result from a chill owing to the constriction 
of the blood-vessels of the skin and interference with the sweat- 
glands such as a dangerous affection of the kidneys (Richardson, 
page 283), or a congestion of the spleen (Richardson, page 307), or 
the inflammation of bone and periosteum (Richardson, page 323), it 
seems probable that the cause of mischief in all these cases is 
either the retention of normal poisons that ought to have escaped 
through the skin, or the formation of abnormal poisons during the 
inaction of the skin. [We think it is Dr. Richardson who makes 
this suggestion.] Again, the fetid exhalations from lungs and 
skin in starvation seem to show that the breaking down of tissue, 
which is very rapid in these cases, is resulting in a larger dis- 
charge than usual, through skin and lungs, of putrescent matter. 

From what has been already said, we ought not to feel surprised 
that those who live in foul air are not only lowering their health, 
but are carefully preparing themselves both for lung and bron- 
chial affections, and for such diseases as scarlet fever, typhoid, 
small-pox, dipththeria, dysentery, cholera, etc. As regards cholera, 
we extract the following interesting account given by Dr. Car- 
penter. He states (page 360) that in the fatal autumn of 1849 there 
was at Taunton an exceedingly badly ventilated workhouse. In 



BAD AIR AND BAD HEALTH. 101 

the school-rooms there were only sixty-eight cubic feet or less per 
head. The fatality of the cholera attack thus carefully prepared 
f or -was awful. Within forty-eight hours after the first attack, 
nineteen deaths and forty-two seizures had taken place. In the 
course of a week sixty, or twenty -two per cent of the whole num- 
ber, died, almost all the others suffering badly. Fewer boys died 
as compared with girls, because, as it was stated, having even less 
air than the girls, they used to break the windows. In the jail 
of the same town, where each prisoner had over 800, and in some 
cases over 900 cubic feet, and where a system of ventilation kept 
renewing the air, there was not " the slightest indication of the 
epidemic influence." In August, 1849, the cholera raged severely 
in London, the mortality having increased from nearly 1 per 1,000 
in June and July to 4| in August and September. It happened 
that at this moment a large number of male prisoners were trans- 
ferred from Millbank Prison which was in one of the bad dis- 
tricts to another part of the country, the numbers being thus 
reduced from over 1,000 to close upon 400 ; while at the same time 
the female prisoners were slightly increased in number in Mill- 
bank Prison, from 120 to 131. The consequences were remarkable. 
The mortality of the female prisoners went up from a little over 
eight to a little over fifty-four per cent (which was considerably 
above the rate of increase in the outside districts), while the mor- 
tality of the men fell from slightly over 23 per 1,000 to nearly 10 
(the June and July rate of mortality). Carpenter gives other in- 
teresting examples, and also remarks upon the fact that the special 
centers of cholera existed before the invasion of that disease as 
fever nests ; and that cholera followed the footsteps of other dis- 
eases, not only in the same district, but in the same streets and 
houses, and even rooms.* 

As with cholera, so with other causes of death. At Secun- 
derabad, in India, in old days, the barrack accommodation for the 
line was unusally deficient, and the average annual mortality of 
the men was nearly double the average of the presidency. At 
the same station, both the officers, who were well quartered, and 
the detachment of artillery, who had roomier barracks "at no 
great distance," did not share in the heightened mortality (Car- 
penter, page 363). Barrackpore furnished an even worse exam- 

* Of course it would be unfair to put all these cases simply and exclusively down to 
the effects of vitiated air, as we might, perhaps, in the case of the prison quoted above ; 
since overcrowding in towns occurs among the poorest part of the people, living on the 
worst food, badly clothed, and therefore for these reasons exposed to attacks of disease ; 
but with all such deductions the evidence is of a striking character. Dr. Richardson writes 
to the same effect. Speaking of relapsing fever, he says, "The disease (1847) followed 
where the habitation was most crowded " (Our Homes, p. V); and, again, " Certain it is 
that homes which are charged with impure atmosphere are the places in which septic 
diseases are most likely to be intensified and most likely to spread " (Our Homes, p. 21). 



io2 TEE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

pie as regards troops ; but the worst of all was to be found in the 
Indian jails, where, in some instances, 70 cubic feet only of air was 
the average allowed; in no cases did it exceed 300 cubic feet. 
The mortality was, as might be expected, one in four. It was a 
humble imitation of the Black Hole of Calcutta. So at the end 
of the last century, in the Dublin Lying-in Hospital, the mortality 
from trismus of the children was one in every six born ; by better 
conditions of ventilation, it was reduced to one in nineteen and a 
half (Carpenter, page 985) ; and this number of deaths was again 
reduced. So in the London workhouses of the last century, twenty- 
three out of twenty-four children died in their first year. By re- 
forms, especially by improved ventilation, the number of deaths 
was reduced from between 2,000 and 3,000 to between 400 and 500 
(Carpenter, page 365). So with our soldiers. When barracks 
improved, especially in the matter of ventilation, deaths from 
zymotic diseases fell from 4*1 per 1,000 to 0"96 per 1,000 (Galton). 
So in the case of our sailors on board the Kattlesnake, a case 
which came under the notice of Prof. Huxley. The crew (Car- 
penter, page 25G) had acquired by confinement (this seems to have 
been the special cause, though not the only cause) a predisposition 
to disease. No malady appeared, however, until one of them 
slightly wounded his hand: then typhoid resulted, and ran 
through the whole ship's company. They had carefully prepared 
themselves for disease with the poisons of impure air. 

"We suspect that no class of human beings suffers so much 
from the poison of foul air as infants. Older children and grown- 
up persons are seldom so much shut up, and the diseases by which 
so many infants die, infantile diarrhoea, convulsions, and infantile 
pneumonia,* strongly suggest the irritation likely to be pro- 
duced by breathing these waste-poisons; though improper food 
must also bear a large share of the blame. Of all the evil conse- 
quences, however, of foul air none can be traced more surely than 
phthisis or pulmonary consumption. Wherever men are crowded 
together without care and proper means to supply them with 
fresh air, there pulmonary disease shows itself. Parkes, Dr. A. 
Ransome, Sir D. Galton, and others have collected many interest- 
ing examples bearing on this matter. \ Sir D. Galton tells us 
(page 502) that after our barracks were improved ventilation 
being one of the leading improvements chest and tubercular dis- 
ease, which had been fatal to 101 per 1,000 soldiers, was only 

* These make up a very large proportion. See lectures by Sutton. Health Lectures, 
1879-'80, p. 130. 

f " Experiments have recently been made in Berlin, in a room closely shut up after the 
death of a consumptive patient. Six weeks after the death living microbes of phthisis 
were found on the mirror, walls, and picture-frames, and these introduced into the body of 
a guinea-pig produced the disease." (L. P.) 



BAD AIR AND BAD HEALTH. 103 

fatal to 4*2, and in the same way that, with proper ventilation 
(and other improvements) of the stables of the horses, coughs 
and catarrhs disappeared. He also quotes Dr. Leeds, of New 
York, to show that the supposed cure of sending a consumptive 
patient to a cow-stable was in reality the cure of sending him 
into somewhat purer air than that of his own room (page 502). 
Dr. Richardson quotes a case where no less than nine members of 
a family following the occupation of Cheap Jack were in succes- 
sion the victims of consumption from sleeping in a traveling van, 
their life in the open air during the day being insufficient to 
counteract the poison breathed in the night (Our Homes, page 
11). Parkes also tells us (page 152) that in the royal navy and in 
the mercantile navy bad ventilation and phthisis, occasionally 
amounting to a veritable epidemic, have accompanied each other ; 
and he quotes many authorities insisting upon the close relation 
between foul air and pulmonary consumption. On the same 
point the slaughter produced by unventilated barracks Dr. 
Richardson tells us the mortality in the army before Sebastopol 
was during twenty-two weeks ending May 31, 1856, at the rate of 
12*5 per 1,000 as against 20*4 of the Guards quartered in England 
(Our Homes, page 13). Dr. A. Ransome reports (Health Lect- 
ures, 1875-76, page 149) a case as late as 1861, where fearful lung 
disease broke out in some of the ships of the royal navy. The 
arrangements were actually such that only fourteen inches space 
was allowed to each hammock, and the air above the hammock 
was 8 to 10 hotter than below.* 

The same evidence comes from the sedentary trades, some of 
which "afford experimental conditions for the development of 
disease"; from the cases of phthisis, or destructive lung disease, 
among cows in unventilated sheds (Parkes, page 162) ; from the 
higher rate of consumption in town as against village, and city 
as against town (Hirsch, page 213) in each case the dearer lodg- 
ing implying more overcrowding; from the outdoor treatments 
now recommended for consumptive patients; and from other 
sources, f 

When we come to pneumonia, it is still the same poisons, we 
believe, which indirectly are at work. As in pulmonary con- 



* The violence of so-called Russian influenza in America is probably to some extent 
the result of the breathing of highly impure air, which is so common in that country. 
We suspect that this disease is just one of the many forms of trouble which appear where 
people live in constant disregard of the purity of the air of their living-rooms. The subject 
demands attention from this point of view. 

f There are many interesting points such as the discussion as regards the effect of 
dampness of soil, and Hirsch's theory as regards the high Mexican plateaus which have 
to be considered, but they do not seem to shake the main fact that impure air is the great 
ally of pulmonary consumption. 



io 4 THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

sumption the bacillus finds its food prepared for it in the unhealthy 
state of the blood and tissues altered by the poisons that have 
been rebreathed from foul air so also must it be in pneumonia ; 
if we are to accept the statements made about the bacterium of 
pneumonia (Crookshank, page 273). Secondary pneumonia, which 
is a lung attack resulting from the poison in the system from 
such a fever as typhoid, throws some light upon this matter, and 
seems exactly to explain the origin of ordinary pneumonia. In 
ordinary pneumonia we believe that it would be found that the 
person attacked had been living in rooms where the air was 
tainted, had breathed consequently, again and again, the exhaled 
poisons, until these poisons had so altered the tissue as to allow 
the bacterium to form its lodgment ; in other words, that he was 
as much " poisoned " as the person suffering from secondary pneu- 
monia. Of course a slight chill, by arresting the action of the 
skin and thus increasing the poison in the system, is likely enough 
to be the immediate precursor of the attack by rendering the con- 
ditions still more favorable for the germ. Again, latent pneu- 
monia in quite young children is sometimes masked (Quain, page 
880) by the signs of the nervous disorder which precedes it. This 
nervous disorder tells the story. It is caused by the poisons 
which are acting on the system, and which at last produce the at- 
tack of pneumonia.* 

It might, however, be urged that a person leading a healthy 
outdoor life might, after severe exposure, be attacked by pneu- 
monia. Certainly, and in his case the attack would mean poison- 
ing (that is, predisposing for the germ by poisoning) through the 
skin ; just as in the case of the man living in bad air it would 
mean poisoning through the air taken into the lungs. 

Now, granting that this is a true explanation, that pneumonia, 
or even common cold, is a case of poisoning, and only a case of 
cold in a secondary sense, it is worth noticing that the effect of 
these poisons must be felt in the throat and bronchial passages 
and lungs much more than in other organs. These poisons would 
cling to the sides of the throat and bronchial (and nasal) passages, 
and would often enter the lungs. In the case of persons living in 
foul air, these organs, being more exposed and in intimate contact 
with the poison, would probably be saturated with it, and there- 
fore would be always prepared for disease. We can then under- 



* If on the other hand it is believed that pneumonia can arise without the intervention 
of the bacterium, we must regard it as a case of direct instead of indirect poisoning. That 
there is such direct poisoning we know from those attacks of the liver and kidneys which 
follow a severe chill, and throw back the poisons, which should have been excreted by the 
skin, on to those organs. Parkes (p. 164) strongly believed that bronchitic affections are 
often produced from the breathing of foul air. He does not, however, as far as we are 
aware, enter into explanations. 



BAD AIR AND BAD HEALTH. 105 

stand at once why the leading symptoms of a cold are violent 
flow from the nose, sneezing, coughing, with the accumulation of 
phlegm, and painful soreness in the throat.* These symptoms 
"become intelligible at once from the point of view of local poison- 
ing, and we see in all the circumstances of a cold the " protective 
efforts" which Nature makes to eject the poison of whatever 
kind it may be from the parts which are specially attacked, just 
as we often see in diarrhoea the effort to get rid of an irritant, 
or' in fever, with its rapid disintegration of tissue, of the poison 
that has attacked the system. Of course, as in pneumonia, some 
slight chill often immediately precedes the attack of cold the 
chill, by its arrest of skin action, throwing more poison into the 
blood, which is sufficient to determine the attack in the predis- 
posed part. 

We believe, therefore, that few healthy persons would be sub- 
ject to cold, unless they lived in impure air. With an old person, 
or a person in lowered health, it is different. A defective ma- 
chinery for the circulation of the blood or for respiration might 
readily result in the waste-poisons being imperfectly separated 
from the blood, and thus such persons would live in the same state 
of blood-poisoning and preparation for attack as a young and 
healthy person does who constantly breathes bad air. Where we 
have cases of liver or kidney attack following upon a severe chill, 
we may suppose either that the poisons retained (or formed) near 
the surface of the body pass into the blood, and then act through 
the nervous centers upon those organs which happen to be spe- 
cially susceptible ; or that the poisons, imperfectly breathed out at 
the lungs, are carried directly to those organs. 

We wish that it were possible to follow the subject further, but 
we have already overstepped the limits which the kindness of the 
editor has allowed. We can only say, in conclusion, that we are 
convinced that very grave issues are dependent upon the question 
of pure air in our houses. We suspect that not only liability to 
cold, but to gout, rheumatism, lumbago, neuralgia, some forms of 
headache, and many forms of nervous irritation are to be con- 
quered by constantly giving lungs and skin a fair chance of get- 
ting rid of these poisons ; we feel sure that the irritable temper 
that so often accompanies severe literary work, and at last 
ends in the " break down/' must largely be put to the account 
of the impure air breathed through long hours ; and we suspect 



* The fact that the air that we breathe is delayed for some little time in the bronchia 
passages before reaching the lungs probably increases the local poisoning, and therefore 
the predisposition for attack by the germ of the parts when we breathe bad air. In this 
way perhaps the lungs are protected at the expense of the bronchial passages ; and a cold 
is the violent occasional expurgation of those parts which are specially exposed to the 
poison. 



io6 THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

that much of the intemperate drinking in towns results from 
the depressed feeling which follows work done under similar 
conditions. We think a great society should be formed to arouse 
the interest of all classes in this subject, and that inquiries 
should be made the answers being published as to the pro- 
vision for fresh air existing in hotels, concert-rooms, theatres, 
schools, churches, etc. We are, both of us, opposed to action 
being taken through state inspectors. The present evil will 
never be really overcome until individual interest is aroused; 
and the state inspector does not develop individual interest. 
We shall be glad to communicate with any persons anxious 
to take steps in the matter, and shall hope to draw up a short ! 
paper containing a few practical suggestions of a simple nature. 
Meanwhile, without discussing systems of artificial ventilation, 
we say to everybody : " Live as much as you can with open win- 
dows, wearing whatever extra clothes are necessary. In this way 
you will turn the hours of your work to physical profit instead of 
to physical loss. If you can not bear an open window, even with 
an extra coat, and a rug over your knees, when you are sitting in 
a room, do the next best thing, which is, to throw the windows 
wide open not a poor six inches whenever you leave it, and 
thus get rid of the taint of the many dead bodies that we have 
breathed out from ourselves, and that hang like ghosts about 
our rooms. Smuts, as we confess, may be bad, but they are 
white as snow compared with impure air. Pay special atten- 
tion to the constant exposure to pure air both of clothes and 
of bedding. Avoid chill, that is one form of poisoning. Avoid 
impure air, that is another and much more insidious form of 
poisoning." 

Our present addresses are : Harold Wager, Yorkshire College, 
Leeds ; and Auberon Herbert, Larichban, Cladich, Argyllshire. 

Several gentlemen have been kind enough to read the forego- 
ing paper, and to express the following opinions upon it. Sir 
Lyon Playf air writes : 

I return your proof with only a few suggestions. The paper is a good expo- 
sition of air in its relations to public health, and. is likely to he very useful. You 
ought to follow it up with another paper on water, and conclude with one on 
cleanliness. Pure air, pure water, and cleanliness, personal and objective, are the 
three great factors of public health, provided that people are adequately fed. Na- 
poleon, reciting his long personal experiences at St. Flelena, made a wise remark: 
" Life is a fortress which neither you nor I know anything about. "Why throw 
obstacles in the way of its defense? Water, air, and cleanliness are the chief arti- 
cles in my pharmacopoeia." You and Mr. Wager have made an excellent begin- 
ning with air. Follow it up with essays on water and cleanliness, and then, as 
a veteran sanitary reformer, I will begin to think that my time for preaching is 
ended. T write this, withholding my judgment on certain special theories yon 
have advanced. 



BAD AIR AND BAD HEALTH. ^07 

Prof. Huxley writes : 

When you insist upon the importance of fresh air especially in combination 
with exercise I go heartily with you. I have long been convinced (and to a great 
extent by personal experience) that what people are pleased to call " overwork" in 
a large proportion of cases means under-oxygenation and consequent accumulation 
of waste-matter, which operates as a poison. The " depression " of overworked 
nervous organization is very commonly the " oppression " of some physiological 
candle-snuff not properly burned. 

Furthermore, it is highly probable that the decaying organic matter given off 
from the whole free surface of animal bodies, taken in conjunction with its micro- 
bial contents, is a source of danger, but whether directly or indirectly is a point 
about which I sbould not like to speak confidently. 

The fact is, while the virtues of fresh air and the wisdom of physical purity 
as a prophylactic may be very confidently justified by experience, the theory of 
the subject is full of difficulties, and the present views of physiologists must be 
regarded as merely tentative hypotheses. I should not feel justified in putting 
the theoretical points you advance as safely established truths before the public. 
I began to mark some paragraphs I thought specially open to objection; but I 
can not go into the matter, as I am myself struggling out of the influenza poison, 
which afflicts one's brain with mere muddiness. 

Dr. Clifford Allbutt writes : 

Whether there be room for question in parts of your argument or not, it is in 
the main true, and your practical conclusions are as solidly true at they are im- 
pressive. 

If any one doubt, let him try the marvelous recreation of a few nights camped 
out sub dio and be converted. 

Moreover, the marvelous effects of an open-air life in the cure of such mala- 
dies as consumption are known of all men. But is it kind to tell us these dread- 
ful things when we'are helpless to amend them? 

Your home solution of the problem is known to your friends, and is excellent 
in your circumstances, but is impossible in towns, where every inch of window 
means an inch of grime on walls, ceilings, and furniture. Not only so, but our 
big common dwelling-halls are gone, our high-backed chairs and settles are gone, 
our tapestry is gone, and air supplied in modern fashion by slits or pipes means 
"drafts." 

Now, " drafts " will kill some of us as quickly as ptomaines and far more 
painfully. 

Please write another paper to tell us what is to be done ! 

Dr. W. B. Cheadle writes : 

I am sure that you are doing a valuable sanitary service in calling attention to 
the chronic poisoning by foul air which goes on ?o constantly without being real- 
ized in the homes of both rich and poor, and in business offices and in workshops. 

The poor suffer from the small, ill -ventilated cubic space available for either 
sitting-rooms or bedrooms and the crowding of work-rooms ; the better classes 
partly from the close offices in which some of them work, but chiefly from de- 
fective bedroom space and ventilation. Few people, I imagine, realize the fact 
that about one third of their whole lives is spent in their bedrooms, and that they 
pass this third part of their existence in an atmosphere so poisoned by organic 



io8 THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

matter that it would not be tolerated in a sitting-room for a moment. The amount 
of space allowed in bedrooms and dormitories is frequently altogether insufficient. 
Doors and windows are tightly closed, and there is practically little ventilation 
going on for six or eight hours of sleeping time, whereas in sitting-rooms the ad- 
mission of air is promoted by persons passing in and out. 

This steady nightly poisoning goes on in many public institutions, I am afraid, 
in the "houses" of some public schools, and the dormitories of charitable institu- 
tions. They are well ventilated during the day, closed at night, and the allow- 
ance of cubic space is quite insufficient to supply fresh air enough with the very 
small influx which can take place. 

Night nurseries, again, especially in large towns, are liable to be grossly over- 
crowded. I have seen a small, low room in the attics of a London mansion used 
as a sleeping apartment for five or six children and a nurse which had not space 
or ventilation enough for two persons. 

Without indorsing the whole of the pathology suggested in your excellent 
paper, I am sure you are right in attributing a large proportion of ill health, con- 
tagious disease, and especially the increased virulence of this, to air fouled by 
organic matter. 

Prof. W. H. Flower writes : 

I am not sufficiently acquainted with modern physiology to know whether all 
the scientific details of the paper are correct, but I quite agree with you in the 
very great importance of the subjeot being pressed home upon all classes. How, 
for instance, could people travel in a railway carriage with perhaps six or more 
companions shut up together for several hours, and insisting on keeping all the 
windows closed, as they often do, if they were made to realize that the air which 
they are breathing must necessarily be passing in and out of the lungs, not only 
of themselves, but of all their fellow-travelers as well, over and over again in the 
course of the journey, and each time becoming more and more contaminated ? 

I have always thought, though I have not medical experience enough to prove 
it, that the greater prevalence of tuberculosis and other lung disease in cold over 
warm climates is owing, not so much to difference of temperature, as to the fact 
that in the former there is a greater tendency to breathe impure air for the pur- 
pose of warmth. My theories on the subject are, however, rather staggered by 
the thought of rabbits, sand-martin, etc., passing a considerable part of their lives 
at the bottom of burrows, where anything like ventilation seems absolutely im- 
possible, and yet remaining perfectly healthy. 

Mr. Lawson Tait writes : 

What can I add to an article, so lucidly written, save that I agree generally 
with it, and hope that it may be productive of great good, as it well may? 

Contemporary Review. 



Dr. Junker expresses, in the narrative of his travels in Africa, a somewhat 
favorable opinion of the intellectual qualities of the negroes among whom he trav- 
eled, and pronounces them capable of higher moral development. He everywhere 
found the upper classes, princes and nobles, the most highly endowed with intel- 
lectual qualities. This he attributes to the fact that the negro ruler is compelled 
to think and act in his capacity of judge, lawgiver, and captain. He notices, too, 
the wonderful fluency of speech acquired from the custom of making long ora- 
tions, embellished with simile and metaphor, in their public assemblies. 



A DESERT FRUIT. 109 

A DESERT FRUIT. 

By GRANT ALLEN. 

WHO knows tlie Mediterranean, knows the prickly pear. Not 
that that quaint and uncanny-looking cactus, with its yel- 
low blossoms and bristling fruits that seem to grow paradoxically 
out of the edge of thick, fleshy leaves is really a native of Italy, 
Spain, and North Africa, where it now abounds on every sun- 
smitten hillside. Like Mr. Henry James and Mr. Marion Craw- 
ford, the Barbary fig, as the French call it, is, in point of fact, an 
American citizen, domiciled and half naturalized on this side of 
the Atlantic, but redolent still at heart of its Columbian origin. 
Nothing is more common, indeed, than to see classical pictures of 
the Alma-Tadema school not, of course, from the brush of the 
master himself, who is impeccable in such details, but fair works 
of decent imitators in which Caia or Marcia leans gracefully in 
her white stole on one pensive elbow against a marble lintel, 
beside a court-yard decorated with a Pompeiian basin, and over- 
grown with prickly pear or " American aloes." I need hardly say 
that, as a matter of plain historical fact, neither cactuses nor agaves 
were known in Europe till long after Christopher Columbus had 
steered his wandering bark to the sandy shores of Cat's Island in 
the Bahamas. (I have seen Cat's Island with these very eyes, and 
can honestly assure you that its shores are sandy.) But this is 
only one among the many pardonable little inaccuracies of paint- 
ers, who thrust scarlet geraniums from the Cape of Good Hope 
into the fingers of Aspasia, or supply King Solomon in all his 
glory with Japanese lilies of the most recent introduction. 

At the present day, it is true, both the prickly-pear cactus and 
the American agave (which the world at large insists upon con- 
founding with the aloe, a member of a totally distinct family) 
have spread themselves in an apparently wild condition over all 
the rocky coasts both of southern Europe and of northern Africa. 
The alien desert weeds have fixed their roots firmly in the sun- 
baked clefts of Ligurian Apennines ; the tall candelabrum of the 
"Western agave has reared its great spike of branching blossoms 
(which flower, not once in a century, as legend avers, but once in 
some fifteen years or so) on all the basking hillsides of the Mau- 
ritanian Atlas. But for the origin, and therefore for the evolu- 
tionary history, of either plant, we must look away from the shore 
of the inland sea to the arid expanse of the Mexican desert. It 
was there, among the sweltering rocks of the Tierras Calientes, 
that these ungainly cactuses first learned to clothe themselves in 
prickly mail, to store in their loose tissues an abundant supply of 
sticky moisture, and to set at defiance the persistent attacks of all 



no THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

external enemies. The prickly pear, in fact, is a typical instance 
of a desert plant, as the camel is a typical instance of a desert 
animal. Each lays itself out to endure the long droughts of its 
almost rainless habitat by drinking as much as it can when oppor- 
tunity offers, hoarding up the superfluous water for future use, 
and economizing evaporation by every means in its power. 

If you ask that convenient fiction, the Man in the Street, what 
sort of plant a cactus is, he will probably tell you it is all leaf and 
no stem, and each of the leaves grows out of the last one. When- 
ever we set up the Man in the Street, however, you must have 
noticed we do it in order to knock him down again like a nine-pin 
next moment : and this particular instance is no exception to the 
rule ; for the truth is that a cactus is practically all stem and no 
leaves, what looks like a leaf being really a branch sticking out 
at an angle. The true leaves, if there are any, are reduced to 
mere spines or prickles on the surface, while the branches, in the 
prickly -pear and many of the ornamental hot-house cactuses, are 
flattened out like a leaf to perform foliar functions. In most 
plants, to put it simply, the leaves are the mouths and stomachs 
of the organism ; their thin and flattened blades are spread out 
horizontally in a wide expanse, covered with tiny throats and lips 
which suck in carbonic acid from the surrounding air, and disin- 
tegrate it in their own cells under the influence of sunlight. In 
the prickly pears, on the contrary, it is the flattened stem and 
branches which undertake this essential operation in the life of 
the plant the sucking-in of carbon and giving-out of oxygen, 
which is to the vegetable exactly what the eating and digesting 
of food is to the animal organism. In their old age, however, 
the stems of the prickly pear display their true character by be- 
coming woody in texture and losing their articulated leaf-like 
appearance. 

Everything on this earth can best be understood by investi- 
gating the history of its origin and development, and in order to 
understand this curious reversal of the ordinary rule in the cactus 
tribe we must look at the circumstances under which the race was 
evolved in the howling waste of American deserts. (All deserts 
have a prescriptive right to howl, and I wouldn't for worlds de- 
prive them of the privilege.) Some familiar analogies will help 
us to see the utility of this arrangement. Everybody knows our 
common English stone-crops or if he doesn't he ought to, for 
they are pretty and ubiquitous. Now, stone-crops grow for the 
most part in chinks of the rock or thirsty, sandy soil ; they are es- 
sentially plants of very dry positions. Hence they have thick and 
succulent little stems and leaves, which merge into one another 
by imperceptible gradations. All parts of the plant alike are 
stumpy, green, and cylindrical. If you squash them with your 



A DESERT FRUIT. in 

finger and thumb you find that, though the outer skin or epider- 
mis is thick and firm, the, inside is sticky, moist, and jelly-like. 
The reason for all this is plain : the stone-crops drink greedily by 
their roots whenever they get a chance, and store up the water so 
obtained to keep them from withering under the hot and pitiless 
sun that beats down upon them for hours in the baked clefts of 
their granite matrix. It's the camel trick over again. So leaves 
and stems grow thick and round and juicy within ; but outside 
they are inclosed in a stout layer of epidermis, which consists of 
empty glassy cells, and which can be peeled off or flayed with a 
knife like the skin of an animal. This outer layer prevents evapo- 
ration, and is a marked feature of all succulent plants which grow 
exposed to the sun on arid rocks or in sandy deserts. 

The tendency to produce rounded stems and leaves, little dis- 
tinguishable from one another, is equally noticeable in many sea- 
side plants which frequent the strip of thirsty sand beyond the 
reach of the tides. That belt of dry beach that stretches between 
high-water mark and the zone of vegetable mold is to all intents 
and purposes a miniature desert. True, it is watered by rain from 
time to time ; but the drops sink in so fast that in half an hour, 
as we know, the entire strip is as dry as Sahara again. Now, there 
are many shore weeds of this intermediate sand-belt which mimic 
to a surprising degree the chief external features of the cactuses. 
One such weed, the common salicornia, which grows in sandy 
bottoms or hollows of the beach, has a jointed stem, branched 
and succulent, after the true cactus pattern, and entirely without 
leaves or their equivalents in any way. Still more cactus-like in 
general effect is another familiar English seaside weed, the kali 
or glasswort, so called because it was formerly burned to extract 
the soda. The glasswort has leaves, it is true, but they are thick 
and fleshy, continuous with the stem, and each one terminating 
in a sharp, needle-like spine, which effectually protects the weed 
against all browsing aggressors. 

Now, wherever you get very dry and sandy conditions of soil, 
you get this same type of cactus-like vegetation plantes grasses, 
as the French well call them. The species which exhibit it are 
not necessarily related to one another in any way ; often they be- 
long to most widely distinct families ; it is an adaptive resem- 
blance alone, due to similarity of external circumstances only. 
The plants have to fight against the same difficulties, and they 
adopt for the most part the same tactics to fight them with. In 
other words, any plant, of whatever family, which wishes to thrive 
in desert conditions, must almost as a matter of course become 
thick and succulent, so as to store up water, and must be protect- 
ed by a stout epidermis to prevent its evaporation under the fierce 
heat of the sunlight. They do not necessarily lose their leaves in 



112 THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

the process ; but the jointed stem usually answers the purpose of 
leaves under such conditions far better than any thin and exposed 
blade could do in the arid air of a baking desert. And therefore, 
as a rule, desert plants are leafless. 

In India, for example, there are no cactuses. But I wouldn't 
advise you to dispute the point with a peppery, fire-eating Anglo- 
Indian colonel. I did so once, myself, at the risk of my life, at a 
table d'hote on the Continent; and the wonder is that I'm still 
alive to tell the story. I had nothing but facts on my side, while 
the colonel had fists, and probably pistols. And when I say no 
cactuses, I mean, of course, no indigenous species ; for prickly 
pears and epiphyllums may naturally be planted by the hand of 
man anywhere. But what people take for thickets of cactus in 
the Indian jungle are really thickets of cactus-like spurges. In 
the dry soil of India, many spurges grow thick and succulent, 
learn to suppress their leaves, and assume the bizarre forms and 
quaint jointed appearance of the true cactuses. In flower and 
fruit, however, they are euphorbias to the end ; it is only in the 
thick and fleshy stem that they resemble their nobler and more 
beautiful Western rivals. No true cactus grows truly wild any- 
where on earth except in America. The family was developed 
there, and, till man transplanted it, never succeeded in gaining a 
foothold elsewhere. Essentially tropical in type, it was provided 
with no means of dispersing its seeds across the enormous expanse 
of intervening ocean which separated its habitat from the sister 
continents. 

But why are cactuses so almost universally prickly ? From 
the grotesque little melon-cactuses of our English hot-houses to 
the huge and ungainly monsters which form miles of hedgerows on 
Jamaican hillsides, the members of this desert family are mostly 
distinguished by their abundant spines and thorns, or by the irri- 
tating hairs which break off in your skin if you happen to brush 
incautiously against them. Cactuses are the hedgehogs of the 
vegetable world ; their motto is Nemo me impune lacessit. Many 
a time in the West Indies I have pushed my hand for a second 
into a bit of tangled " bush," as the negroes call it, to seize some 
rare flower or some beautiful insect, and been punished for twenty- 
four hours afterward by the stings of the almost invisible and 
glass-like little cactus-needles. When you rub them they only 
break in pieces, and every piece inflicts a fresh wound on the 
flesh where it rankles. Some of the species have large, stout 
prickles ; some have clusters of irritating hairs at measured dis- 
tances ; and some rejoice in both means of defense at once, scat- 
tered impartially over their entire surface. In the prickly pear, 
the bundles of prickles are arranged geometrically with great 
regularity in a perfect quincunx. But that is a small consolation 



A DESERT FRUIT. 113 

indeed to the reflective mind when you've stung yourself badly 
with them. 

The reason for this bellicose disposition on the part of the cac- 
tuses is a tolerably easy one to guess. Fodder is rare in the desert. 
The starving herbivores that find themselves from time to time 
belated on the confines of such thirsty regions would seize with 
avidity upon any succulent plant which offered them food and 
drink at once in their last extremity. Fancy the joy with which 
a lost caravan, dying of hunger and thirst in the byways of Sa- 
hara, would hail a great bed of melons, cucumbers, and lettuces ! 
Needless to say, however, under such circumstances melon, cucum- 
ber, and lettuce would soon be exterminated ; they would be 
promptly eaten up at discretion without leaving a descendant to 
represent them in the second generation. In the ceaseless war 
between herbivore and plant, which is waged every day and all 
day long the whole world over with far greater persistence than 
the war between carnivore and prey, only those species of plant 
can survive in such exposed situations which happen to develop 
spines, thorns, or prickles as a means of defense against the mouths 
of hungry and desperate assailants. 

Nor is this so difficult a bit of evolution as it looks at first sight. 
Almost all plants are more or less covered with hairs, and it needs 
but a slight thickening at the base, a slight woody deposit at the 
point, to turn them forthwith into the stout prickles of the rose 
or the bramble. Most leaves are more or less pointed at the end 
or at the summits of the lobes ; and it needs but a slight intensi- 
fication of this pointed tendency to produce forthwith the sharp 
defensive foliage of gorse, thistles, and holly. Often one can see 
all the intermediate stages still surviving under one's very eyes. 
The thistles themselves, for example, vary from soft and unarmed 
species which haunt out-of-the-way spots beyond the reach of 
browsing herbivores, to such trebly-mailed types as that enemy 
of the agricultural interest, the creeping thistle, in which the 
leaves continue themselves as prickly wings down every side of 
the stem, so that the whole plant is amply clad from head to foot 
in a defensive coat of fierce and bristling spear-heads. There is 
a common little English meadow weed, the rest-harrow, which in 
rich and uncropped fields produces no defensive armor of any 
sort ; but on the much-browsed-over suburban commons and in 
similar exposed spots, where only gorse and blackthorn stand a 
chance for their lives against the cows and donkeys, it has devel- 
oped a protected variety in which some of the branches grow 
abortive, and end abruptly in stout spines like a hawthorn's. 
Only those rest-harrows have there survived in the sharp strug- 
gle for existence which happened most to baffle their relentless 
pursuers. 

VOL. XII. 11 



n 4 THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

Desert plants naturally carry this tendency to its highest 
point of development. Nowhere else is the struggle for life so 
fierce ; nowhere else is the enemy so goaded by hunger and thirst 
to desperate measures. It is a place for internecine warfare. 
Hence, all desert plants are quite absurdly prickly. The starving 
herbivores will attack and devour under such circumstances even 
thorny weeds, which tear or sting their tender tongues and pal- 
ates, but which supply them at least with a little food and moist- 
ure : so the plants are compelled in turn to take almost extravagant 
precautions. Sometimes the leaves end in a stout dagger-like 
point, as with the agave, or so-called American aloe ; sometimes 
they are reduced to mere prickles or bundles of needle-like spikes ; 
sometimes they are suppressed altogether, and the work of defense 
is undertaken in their stead by irritating hairs intermixed with 
caltrops of spines pointing outward from a common center in 
every direction. When one remembers how delicately sensitive 
are the tender noses of most browsing herbivores, one can realize 
what an excellent mode of defense these irritating hairs must 
naturally constitute. I have seen cows in Jamaica almost mad- 
dened by their stings, and even savage bulls will think twice in 
their rage before they attempt to make their way through the ser- 
ried spears of a dense cactus hedge. To put it briefly, plants have 
survived under very arid or sandy conditions precisely in propor- 
tion as they displayed this tendency toward the production of 
thorns, spines, bristles, and prickles. 

It is a marked characteristic of the cactus tribe to be very 
tenacious of life, and, when hacked to pieces, to spring afresh in 
full vigor from every scrap or fragment. True vegetable hydras, 
when you cut down one, ten spring in its place ; every separate 
morsel of the thick and succulent stem has the power of growing 
anew into a separate cactus. Surprising as this peculiarity seems 
at first sight, it is only a special desert modification of a faculty 
possessed in a less degree by almost all plants and by many ani- 
mals. If you cut off the end of a rose branch and stick it in the 
ground under suitable conditions, it grows into a rose tree. If 
you take cuttings of scarlet geraniums or common verbenas, and 
pot them in moist soil, they bud out apace into new plants like 
their parents. Certain special types can even be propagated from 
fragments of the leaf ; for example, there is a particularly viva- 
cious begonia off which you may snap a corner of one blade, and 
hang it up by a string from a peg or the ceiling, when, hi presto ! 
little begonia plants begin to bud out incontinently on every side 
from its edges. A certain German professor went even further 
than that: he chopped up a liverwort very fine into vegetable 
mincemeat, which he then spread thin over a saucerful of moist 
sand, and lo ! in a few days the whole surface of the mess was cov- 



A DESERT FRUIT. 115 

ered with a perfect forest of sprouting little liverworts. Roughly 
speaking, one may say that every fragment of every organism has 
in it the power to rebuild in its entirety another organism like 
the one of which it once formed a component element. 

Similarly with animals. Cut off a lizard's tail, and straight- 
way a new tail grows in its place with surprising promptitude. 
Cut off a lobster's claw, and in a very few weeks that lobster is 
walking about airily on his native rocks, with two claws as usual. 
True, in these cases the tail and the claw don't bud out in turn 
into a new lizard or a new lobster. But that is a penalty the 
higher organisms have to pay for their extreme complexity. 
They have lost that plasticity, that freedom of growth, which 
characterizes the simpler and more primitive forms of life; in 
their case the power of producing fresh organisms entire from a 
single fragment, once diffused equally over the whole body, is 
now confined to certain specialized cells which, in their developed 
form, we know as seeds or eggs. Yet, even among animals, at a 
low stage of development, this original power of reproducing the 
whole from a single part remains inherent in the organism ; for 
you may chop up a fresh-water hydra into a hundred little bits, 
and every bit will be capable of growing afresh into a complete 
hydra. 

Now, desert plants would naturally retain this primitive tend- 
ency in a very high degree ; for they are specially organized to 
resist drought being the survivors of generations of drought- 
proof ancestors and, like the camel, they have often to struggle 
on through long periods of time without a drop of water. Ex- 
actly the same thing happens at home to many of our pretty little 
European stone-crops. I have a rockery near my house over- 
grown with the little white sedum of our gardens. The birds 
often pick off a tiny leaf or branch ; it drops on the dry soil, and 
remains there for days without giving a sign of life. But its 
thick epidermis effectually saves it from withering ; and as soon 
as rain falls, wee white rootlets sprout out from the under side of 
the fragment as it lies, and it grows before long into a fresh small 
sedum plant. Thus, what seem like destructive agencies them- 
selves, are turned in the end by mere tenacity of life into a sec- 
ondary means of propagation. 

That is why the prickly pear is so common in all countries 
where the climate suits it, and where it has once managed to gain 
a foothold, The more you cut it down, the thicker it springs ; 
each murdered bit becomes the parent in due time of a numerous 
offspring. Man, however, with his usual ingenuity, has managed 
to best the plant, on this its own ground, and turn it into a useful 
fodder for his beasts of burden. The prickly pear is planted 
abundantly on bare rocks in Algeria, where nothing else would 



n6 THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

grow, and is cut down when adult, divested of its thorns by a 
rough process of hacking, and used as food for camels and cattle. 
It thus provides fresh moist fodder in the African summer when 
the grass is dried up and all other pasture crops have failed en- 
tirely. 

The flowers of the prickly pear, as of many other cactuses, 
grow apparently on the edge of the leaves, which alone might 
give the observant mind a hint as to the true nature of those 
thick and flattened expansions. For, whenever what look like 
leaves bear flowers or fruit on their edge or midrib, as in the 
familiar instance of butcher's broom, you may be sure at a glance 
they are really branches in disguise masquerading as foliage. 
The blossoms in the prickly pear are large, handsome, and yellow; 
at least, they would be handsome if one could ever see them, but 
they're generally covered so thick in dust that it's difficult prop- 
erly to appreciate their beauty. They have a great many petals 
in numerous rows, and a great many stamens in a rosette in the 
center ; and to the best of my knowledge and belief, as lawyers 
put it, they are fertilized for the most part by tropical butterflies ; 
but on this point, having observed them but little in their native 
habitats, I speak under correction. 

The fruit itself, to which the plant owes its popular name, is 
botanically a berry, though a very big one, and it exhibits in a 
highly specialized degree the general tactics of all its family. As 
far as their leaf -like stems go, the main object in life of the cac- 
tuses is not to get eaten. But when it comes to the fruit, this 
object in life is exactly reversed ; the plant desires its fruit to be 
devoured by some friendly bird or adapted animal, in order that 
the hard little seeds buried in the pulp within may be dispersed 
for germination under suitable conditions. At the same time, 
true to its central idea, it covers even the pear itself with deter- 
rent and prickly hairs, meant to act as a defense against useless 
thieves or petty depredators, who would eat the soft pulp on the 
plant as it stands (much as wasps do peaches) without benefiting 
the species in return by dispersing its seedlings. This practice is 
fully in accordance with the general habit of tropical or subtropi- 
cal fruits, which lay themselves out to deserve the kind offices of 
monkeys, parrots, toucans, hornbills, and other such large and 
powerful fruit-feeders. Fruits which arrange themselves for a 
clientele of this character have usually thick or nauseous rinds, 
prickly husks, or other deterrent integuments ; but they are full 
within of juicy pulp, imbedding stony or nutlike seeds, which 
pass undigested through the gizzards of their swallowers. 

For a similar reason, the actual prickly pears themselves are 
attractively colored. I need hardly point out, I suppose, at the 
present time of day, that such tints in the vegetable world act 



SKETCH OF ALESSANDRO VOLT A. 117 

like the gaudy posters of our London advertisers. Fruits and 
flowers which desire to attract the attention of beasts, birds, or 
insects, are tricked out in flaunting hues of crimson, purple, blue, 
and yellow ; fruits and flowers which could only be injured by 
the notice of animals are small and green, or dingy and incon- 
spicuous. Longman's Magazine. 



SKETCH OF ALESSANDRO VOLTA. 

YOLTA'S title to be remembered rests chiefly upon his appli- 
cation of the discovery of the production of electricity by 
contact, which has been fruitful and continues to be fruitful of 
results of the greatest importance in the progress of research in 
the domains of physical forces and of the constitution of matter, 
and is one of the most potent instruments in the hands of students 
for enlarging the boundaries of their knowledge of the material 
world. 

Alessandeo Volta was born at Como, Italy, February 19, 1745, 
and died in the same place March 5, 1827. He began his studies 
in the public school of his native town, where he distinguished 
himself among his fellow-pupils by his capability and his as- 
siduity at work. A passage in his first scientific paper shows 
that when he was eighteen years old he had been engaged in a 
correspondence with the Abbe" Nollet on subjects relating to elec- 
tricity. At nineteen years of age he composed a poem, in Latin, 
which has never been published, in which some of the more 
important discoveries of the time were described. In 1774 he 
was appointed to the chair of Physics in the Royal School at 
Como, for which his first two scientific papers on the Attractive 
Force of the Electric Fire, and on the Method of constructing 
the New Electrical Machine seem to have been among his 
strongest recommendations. He went out of Italy for the first 
time in 1777, to make a visit of several weeks in Switzerland, 
where he met Haller at Berne, Voltaire at Ferney, and Benjamin 
de Saussure at Geneva. The story of this excursion was related 
in a book* which was published at Milan in 1827. In 1779 
Volta was made a professor in the University of Pavia, where 
his instructions were attended by throngs of interested youths 
from all countries, proud to be his pupils, and where he con- 
tinued till 1819, when he retired to spend the rest of his days 
in his native town. In 1782 he made what appears to have been 
the longest journey of his life, in company with the surgeon 
Scarpa, and visited the capitals of Germany, Holland, England, 

* Relatione del Prof. Volta di un suo Viaggio lelterario nel Swizzera. 



u8 THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

and France, making the acquaintance of the most distinguished 
men of science in those countries. Volta's first scientific paper, 
on the Attractive Force of the Electric Fire {De Vi attractiva 
Ignis electrici), which "was addressed in 1769 to P. Beccaria, is 
described by M. Biot as giving only an imperfect explanation of 
electric phenomena, and as illustrating the characteristic trait 
of his mind, which led him rather to sure deductions from 
facts which he could experimentally follow out than to the 
formation of sound general theories. That part of the paper 
in which he showed the application of his theory to the gen- 
eration of electricity is mentioned by Prof. Arthur Schuster as 
being of historical importance, because in it can be traced the 
germ of many future discoveries. He supposed that all bodies in 
the natural state contain electricity in such proportions that they 
are in electrical equilibrium, and that this was shown in the ex- 
perimental results obtained by rubbing one metal with another. 
But when bodies are brought into close contact, as in friction, he 
considered that the attractions of electricity and matter might 
alter, according to Boscovich's theory that attraction and re- 
pulsion alternate at short distances, and that a new equilibrium 
would establish itself. He expressed a belief that a disturbance 
of electrical equilibrium takes place during the progress of chemi- 
cal action, in which the particles of matter change their position ; 
attributed the want of proof of the fact to experimental difficul- 
ties ; and hoped that he would succeed in obtaining evidence of it ; 
and he thought that atmospheric electricity might be accounted 
for in accordance with these views. 

In his second paper he attempted to explain electrical insula- 
tion by the supposition of a repulsion between the insulating 
matter and electricity. His experiments, made in 1775, on the in- 
sulating property which wood acquires when impregnated with 
oil, led to the construction of the electrophorus, an apparatus 
which acts as a permanent and inexhaustible source whence elec- 
tricity can be drawn at will. A letter of Volta's to Priestley is 
preserved, dated June 10, 1775, announcing the construction of 
this instrument, and asking the English chemist, as the historian 
of electricity, how far the discovery was new. Volta's experi- 
ments on the electrostatic capacity of conductors, described in a 
letter to De Saussure in 1778, were in advance of anything that 
had been published up to that time, although Cavendish had al- 
ready experimented on the subject ; but Cavendish's results were 
not published for a long time afterward. Volta's ingenious 
efforts, pursued continuously, to improve the electrophorus, led 
up to the discovery of the electric condenser, the description of 
which, and the account of its applications to the study of electri- 
cal phenomena, were published in the Philosophical Transactions 



SKETCH OF ALESSANDRO VOLT A. 119 

of 1782. By means of this apparatus, according to M. Biot, the 
smallest quantities of electricity, emanating from a source that 
can reproduce them constantly as they are taken away, were fixed 
and accumulated in a conductive plate by virtue of the mo- 
mentary attraction of electricity of a different denomination, 
from which they were withdrawn when it was desired to make 
them perceptible and to subject them to observation. During 
this time Volta was still trying to find signs of electricity during 
the processes of evaporation and boiling and changes of tempera- 
ture ; and he finally thought he had discovered electrical effects 
during the evaporation of water in the phenomena which are 
now attributed to the friction of the vapor. These results sug- 
gested the closer examination of the phenomena of atmospheric 
electricity, concerning which Meteorologia Elettrica he wrote a 
number of letters to Lichtenberg. Two of his letters related to 
electrical measurements and the straw electrometer, in which the 
angle of divergence of two electrified straws was measured. He 
also, according to Prof. Schuster, constructed the first absolute 
electrometer, and compared his other instruments with it, so that 
it would be possible now to refer all his measurements to absolute 
units. His electrometer consisted of a balance, one pane of which 
was a flat round disk. Below this disk was placed a large parallel 
plate, conducted away to earth, while stops were arranged so that 
the disk could not approach nearer than within two inches of the 
plate. In the unelectrified state the balance was in a condition of 
equilibrium. When the disk was electrified, it was attracted 
toward the plate, but kept at its proper distance by the stops; 
weights were then added in the other plate of the balance until 
the disk was pulled away from the stops. The letters also con- 
tain discussions on the action of points and flames in discharging 
electricity. To Volta are further owing the invention of the elec- 
tric eudiometer and of the inflammable air or hydrogen lamp. 
Prof. Schuster regards as worthy of mention also Volta's investi- 
gations on gas analysis and his paper on the expansion of gases 
by heat. He showed the causes which had led different experi- 
menters to inconsistent results, and established independently 
what is now known as the law of Charles. 

Volta's crowning discovery of the voltaic pile grew out of 
researches which were suggested by Galvani's famous experiment 
with the frog. Galvani attributed the phenomena which he 
observed in the frog's muscle to a new kind of electricity, which 
he called animal electricity. Volta, following up his experi- 
ments with more accurate instruments and by a more careful 
method, came to a different conclusion. He noticed that the con- 
vulsions of the frog's muscle were very rarely produced when a 
single metal was used, and then only under conditions of extreme 



120 THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

irritability ; but that they occurred with certainty and continued 
for some time when he had a circuit of two heterogeneous metals. 
From this he concluded that the exciting principle resided in the 
metals ; and as this principle was evidently electric, since its trans- 
mission was interrupted by all the substances that intercept the 
electric current, that the mere contact of heterogeneous metals 
would develop a quantity of electricity which, though weak, 
would be competent when transmitted through the organs of 
the frog, completing the chain, to produce the convulsions. He 
demonstrated the verity of his induction by positive and direct 
experiments through which this weak electricity was accumu- 
lated in his condenser and made perceptible. He further found 
that this mode of development of electricity by simple contact 
was applicable, not to metallic bodies only, but to all heterogene- 
ous bodies, although with different degrees of intensity according 
to their several natures ; and having discovered the general prin- 
ciple, which had not been suspected before, he applied it to the 
construction of a new apparatus which was capable of producing 
infinitely augmented effects. In order to increase the intensity of 
his contact electricity, he enlarged the number of the metallic 
disks or plates he employed to produce it. His efforts were for 
some time unfruitful. He remarked that when he placed a disk 
of copper between two disks of zinc, or a disk of zinc between 
two disks of copper, the electrization was neutralized. He then 
thought to separate the disks by a conducting body, and found 
that by placing moistened paper between two double metallic 
disks the electric intensity was doubled. It was after that easy, 
by increasing the number of disks and separating them by moist- 
ened cloth, to obtain an electric intensity corresponding with the 
number of pairs. Concerning this series of experiments, he wrote 
in a letter to a French philosopher, M. La Metherie, which was 
published in the Journal de Physique in 1801: "Having found 
what degree of electricity I obtained with one of these metallic 
couples, by the aid of the condenser I use, I proceed to show that 
with two, three, or four couples, properly arranged that is, all 
turned in the same direction and communicating with one another 
by as many moist layers (which are required, as I have shown, to 
prevent actions in the contrary direction) we have double, triple, 
quadruple, etc. ; so that if with a single couple we succeed in elec- 
trifying the condenser to the point of its causing the electrometer 
to indicate, for example, three degrees, with two couples we will 
get six, with three nine, and with four twelve degrees, if not ex- 
actly, nearly so." 

Although opinions may differ as to the interpretation of some 
of the experiments, Prof. Schuster remarks, in the Encyclopaedia 
Britannica, that there is not much in Volta's writings on the sub- 



SKETCH OF ALESSANDRO VOLT A. 121 

ject which, could be called incorrect, even at the present day. His 
first communication concerning his researches on the develop- 
ment of electricity by contact was addressed to the Royal Society 
of England in 1792. In his account of the pile, addressed to Sir 
J. Banks, and read before the Royal Society in June, 1800, Volta 
described some of the experimental results obtained with it, and 
showed that all the effects produced were the same as those which 
could be obtained from electrical machines, and that therefore 
galvanism and electricity were identical. 

Volta received the Copley medal of the Royal Society in 1791 
or 1792. In 1801 he visited Paris, upon the invitation of the First 
Consul, and there repeated his experiments on the development 
of electricity by contact before a commission of the Institute. 
According to M. Arago's story of the meeting, the First Consul 
desired to attend in person the session at which the commission- 
ers were to present a detailed account of the grand phenomena. 
Hardly had their conclusions been read, when he proposed to de- 
cree a gold medal to Volta as a testimonial of the appreciation in 
which he was held by French men of science. Custom and the 
academical regulations hardly permitted compliance with this de- 
mand ; but the regulations were made for ordinary conditions, 
and the professor from Pavia had placed himself beyond their 
line. The medal was voted by acclamation ; and on the same day 
Volta was given, by order of Napoleon, the sum of two thousand 
francs from the state funds toward the expenses of his journey. 
In 1808 he was made one of the eight foreign associates designated 
by the Institute. He was also decorated with the crosses of the 
Legion of Honor and of the Iron Crown ; was named a member 
of the Council of Lyon ; and in 1810 was raised to the dignity of 
a senator of the kingdom of Italy, with the title of count. When, 
in 1804, he desired to retire from the university, the Emperor said 
he could not consent to such a step. " If Volta's functions as a 
professor are fatiguing to him, let them be reduced. Let him, if 
he will, have to give only one lesson a year ; but the University 
of Pavia would be struck to the heart on the day that I should 
permit so illustrious a name to disappear from the list of its 
members. Besides," he added, " a good general ought to die on 
the field of battle." So Volta continued to attract young men to 
his lectures. In 1815 the Emperor of Austria made Volta Director 
of the Philosophical Faculty of Padua. 

Sir Humphry Davy, who visited Volta at Milan in 1814, when 
he was sixty-nine years old, found him a man well advanced in 
age and in poor health. "His conversation was not brilliant; 
his views were narrow, but marked by considerable ingenuity. 
His manners were of perfect simplicity. He had not the air of a 
courtier, or even that of a man who had lived in the world. In 



122 THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

general, Italian men of science are without affectation in their 
manners, although they lack grace and dignity." Arago draws a 
somewhat more favorable portrait of him, saying, "Volta was 
tall, and had noble and regular features like those of an ancient 
statue; a broad forehead, which laborious thought had deeply 
furrowed, a face on which were painted alike calmness of soul and 
a penetrating intellect. . . . His manners always retained traces 
of rustic habits contracted during his youth. Many persons 
recollect having seen Volta, when in Paris, going daily to the 
bake-shop, and afterward eating in the streets the bread he had 
bought there, without imagining that he was an object of re- 
mark. . . . Strong and quick intelligence, large and just ideas, 
and an affectionate and sincere character were his dominant 
qualities. Ambition, the thirst for gold, the spirit of rivalry, dic- 
tated none of his actions. With him the love of learning, the 
only passion which he had experienced, continued free from all 
worldly alliance." 

A collection of Volta's writings, drawn from the journals and 
periodical transactions in which they first appeared, was pub- 
lished at Florence in 1816, in five volumes. It is pronounced 
valuable by M. Biot, on account of the fidelity with which we 
may trace in it the succession of his ideas on the most important 
subjects in which he was interested during his long career. 



There are still natives in the Melanesian Islands, Dr. Codrington relates in his 
studies of their anthropology and folk lore, who remember when a white man 
was first seen and what he was taken to be. When Bishop Patteson landed at 
Mota, for instance, he entered an empty house, the owner of which had lately 
died. This settled the question : he was the ghost of the late householder. The 
visitor, especially if he is a whaler, is soon discovered by his behavior not to be a 
ghost, but he can not be a living man, for in that case he would be black ; he is, 
therefore, probably a mischievous spirit, bringing disease and disaster. Shooting 
at these spirits could not do them much harm, they not being men, but might 
drive them away. Consequently, in this belief, the Santa Cruz people shot at 
Bishop Patteson's party in 1864. 

Mr. Jones's report in the British Association on the Elbolton Cave, near Skip- 
ton, was of unusual interest. Long-headed human skulls were found with burned 
bones and charcoal in the upper stratum, associated with domestic animals and 
pottery ornamented with diamond and herring-bone patterns ; while at a much 
lower level from thirteen to fifteen feet below the floor there were round 
skulls, much more decayed, in connection with ruder and thicker pottery than 
has been found in any other part of the cave. No flints or metal have been found, 
and bone pins and other worked bone are the only human implements hitherto 
discovered. The remains of bear and hare have been found in cave-earth below 
this level. 



COBBESP ONDENCE. 



'23 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



SURVIVAL OF ANCESTRAL TRAITS. 

Editor Popular Science Monthly : 

SIR : Being greatly interested in the sub- 
ject treated by Dr. Louis Robinson in 
the March Popular Science Monthly, and 
having had some opportunity to study in- 
fant life, I would like to call attention to 
some observations which I have made in 
that line and which may interest others. 

The toes of the new-born babe are pro- 
portionately longer and more flexible than 
are those of the adult, and instinctively close 
around the finger or any object not cold 
enough to repel them which may be placed 
under them, thus approaching somewhat the 
type of a probable tree-climbing ancestor. 

Still earlier ancestry is strikingly sug- 
gested by the nails of the young infant. 
The long, tapered, and curved finger-nails, 
so commonly considered refined, at this age 
exhibit a degree of elegance leaving nothing 
to be desired. Should the transformation in 
this feature after birth proceed at the same 
rate that it now does, but in the inverse di- 
rection, the results might startle those who 
pursue nail culture as a fine art. It is not 
uncommon to see the growth of nail beyond 
the new babe's finger so long and so sharply 
curved that the lateral edges almost meet, 
showing a decided resemblance to a claw. 
This is most particularly the case with the 
little finger, which maintains the same de- 
gree of difference from the others as may 
be observed on the hand of the adult. I 
have never seen an exception in persons of 
any age but that the nail of the little finger 
the least used of all the fingers most 
nearly approaches (probably retains through 
neglect) the proportions of a claw. The 
third finger (not counting the thumb) com- 
monly shows an intermediate degree of form 
and service. 

As the consciousness of the outside world 
and of their relations to it dawns upon the 
youngsters, there is something in their man- 
ner akin to alertness. I have often seen 
babies four or five months old, while mak- 
ing animated efforts toward the acquaint- 
ance of some simple object, such as a drawer- 
knob, spindle of a bedstead, or the like, sud- 
denly turn from it with a frightened look as 
if some slight sound or sensation which they 
had associated with it had transformed it 
iuto an enemy. Another baby propensity 
which can not be accounted for in its indi- 
vidual training is the disposition, on being 
startled (not greatly agitated), to press the 
body against the nurse, drop the face against 
her, and for an instant remain perfectly 
quiet, not breathing apparently, the quiet 
being followed by a deep-drawn breath. 



When we need not go back of the age of 
man to find these instincts operating as im- 
portant preservative factors, it is not unrea- 
sonable to read therein relationship to the 
lower orders in which they operate yet more 
prominently, as illustrated by the case of the 
calf and colt in Dr. Robinson's article. 

Fear is the first and for some time the 
only emotion whose workings I perceive in 
the infant mind. Anger comes next. 

There are some indications that the sense 
of smell is at birth more strongly developed 
than are the senses which come to be vastly 
more important to the man e. g., a certain 
odorous remedy which had been constantly 
used on the inflamed breast of a mother 
was found to be a sure reminder to the babe 
(then under five weeks old) that it was din- 
ner-time. A drop of it placed on the babe's 
upper lip would immediately start her to 
reaching and nestling for her food. I have 
never tried but the one case. 

What in ancestral habit or condition (or 
is there anything now in animal life anal- 
ogous to it ?) will account for the position of 
the infant thumb, which is so peculiar to 
this age and so persistent, the thumb being 
much bent at the first joint and lying close 
to the palm of the hand ? Apparently it is 
the last of the five fingers to yield to the 
will of the babe in grasping things, acting 
rather as an obstruction than a help for six, 
seven, or eight months. L. H. C. 

Minneapolis, Minn., March 5, 1892. 



SAVAGE SUPERSTITIONS. 
Editor Popular Science Monthly : 

Sir: In the November issue of the 
Monthly (vol. xl, page 103) some facts are 
cited as proving that "the savage is con- 
vinced that an injury done to the image is 
inflicted upon the original." This reminds 
me of an observation I read some years ago 
in Biard's Viaje al Brasil (La Vuelta al 
Mundo, 1863, page 212). This traveler re- 
lates that some of his Indian models would 
run away as soon as he tried to make their 
portraits. It was discovered that an Indian 
servant of his had told them that in the 
land of the white men there were many indi- 
viduals without a head, and that the traveler 
was charged with collecting as many heads 
as he could, so that the imprudent Indian 
who would serve him as a model would after 
some time find that his head abandoned him 
and went to place itself upon the shoulders 
of the white man for whom it was destined. 
Respectfully yours, 

A. Roiz Cadalso. 

Havana, Citba, March 1, 1892. 



124 



THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 



EDITOR'S TABLE. 



MEANS OF INTELLECTUAL CULTURE. 

THE question of the just distribution 
of material wealth is one which 
to-day is engaging many minds, and 
which in some quarters is being dis- 
cussed with no small amount of passion. 
"We are not aware, however, that there 
is any theory now before the world in 
the light of which any material change 
could hopefully be made in the existing 
structure of society. The only theory 
or doctrine, so far as we can see, that is 
at all hopeful is that which proclaims 
that governments should not, by arbi- 
trary interferences with the course of 
trade, do anything to promote inequali- 
ties of fortune. It seems to us possi- 
ble, however, and not only possible but 
probable, that if we would concern our- 
selves more than we do with the ques- 
tion of a better distribution of culture 
or intellectual wealth, some of the diffi- 
culties that beset the other question 
might be sensibly diminished. If culture 
means anything, it means adequate 
knowledge and orderly thought, and it 
is difficult to see how, if there were a 
marked improvement in the general in- 
tellectual condition of a community 
a raising of the level of its culture 
there should not also be an improve- 
ment in its economic condition. An in- 
crease in culture of the right sort would 
mean an abatement of the feverish thirst 
for wealth which is a characteristic of our 
time, and a more or less general adop- 
tion of more rational modes of life. It 
would mean the development of a high- 
er public opinion and the purification 
of political methods and principles. It 
would mean an elevation of social man- 
ners, and would call into existence a 
finer individual self-respect. It would 
make people intolerant of abuses that 
admitted of remedy and more sensitive 
to every form of social injustice. In a 



word, as the inner man was renewed 
from day to day, so he would renew his 
environment, justifying anew the words 
of the poet Spenser : 

" For of the soul the body form doth take, 
For soul is form aud doth the body make." 

"What are the means of culture at our 
disposal at the present day? "We have 
first of all the public schools. Of these 
as instruments of culture in any high 
sense it is impossible to speak enthusi- 
astically. It is not because they deal 
only with the elements of knowledge, 
because much of true culture could be 
imparted in connection with " the three 
r's." It is simply because they are not 
to any wide extent dominated by the 
spirit of culture, but on the whole tend 
rather to antagonize culture by attach- 
ing vulgar ideas of mere personal gain 
to the acquisition of knowledge. In say- 
ing this we are fully prepared to make 
all needful exceptions. Here and there, 
no doubt, teachers are to be found who, 
with high aims, throw their whole soul 
into their work, and thus confer a ben- 
efit on the community which, in most 
cases, is far from being adequately rec- 
ognized or compensated. 

Then we have our high schools, col- 
leges, and universities. Here, no doubt, 
much excellent work is done, along with 
much that is altogether inferior and 
inefficient. The result of the Boston 
Herald's prize essay competition of a 
couple of years ago is probably still in 
the recollection of some of our readers. 
Two hundred and twenty youths of 
both sexes taken from the graduating 
classes of New England grammar 
schools competed for two prizes, one of 
six hundred dollars and one of four hun- 
dred dollars, and with what result? 
Let the judges who examined and pro- 
nounced upon the compositions an- 
swer : 



EDITOR'S TABLE. 



125 



" Two hundred and twenty com- 
positions of all sorts and sizes, the work 
presumably of the best boys and girls 
of the schools of literary New England ! 
What anticipations the first sight 
aroused ! What originality, what fresh 
sincerity of thought and expression 
must lie in all this new work of new 
minds, unconfined by any narrow limi- 
tation of subject! Yet the end was 
almost absolute disappointment. The 
faults are greater than of mere im- 
maturity. There is a painful con- 
straint, a self-consciousness almost in- 
variably present. There is an effect 
of insincerity, an inability or disincli- 
nation to write out real thought, that 
gives to the whole work a wearisome, 
perfunctory appearance. It may fairly 
be claimed that these compositions are 
typical. This, then, the best work that 
the best scholars of our schools can ac- 
complish fails so completely of its ob- 
ject that the fault must be essential 
either to system or subject." 

The general result was that, of the 
two hundred and twenty who com- 
peted, the vast majority simply made 
themselves ridiculous. What, then, may 
we infer of those who did not com- 
petethe remaining members of the 
graduating classes, whose number must 
have been to that of the competitors as 
at least ten to one ? We can only sup- 
pose that their average condition of 
culture would be markedly below that 
of the competitors. It is evident, then, 
that our grammar schools, indispensable 
as their work is, are not adequately 
providing for the culture even of the 
comparatively limited class attending 
them. It would indeed be making an 
altogether excessive demand upon them 
to require that they should. As to our 
universities, they are all doing useful 
and many of them excellent work, and 
if we looked only at the ever-extending 
recognition which our scholars and 
savants are receiving in the centers of 
learning of the Old World, we should 
have every reason to be satisfied with 



the intellectual progress of our country. 
More than this is wanted, however, for 
the object we have now in view the 
spread of true culture throughout the 
mass of the community. As lately 
noticed in these columns, a hopeful at- 
tempt in this direction is being made by 
the university-extension system, which 
we can not doubt has a great and useful 
future before it ; but, in view of the 
very recent articles we have published 
on this subject, we need not dwell 
specially on it to-day. 

Another agency for the spread of 
culture is the public library, an institu- 
tion existing in nearly every town of 
any size, and which might be turned to 
very good account. A generation ago 
the lecture system was in full activity, 
and was an important agent of popular 
education. In the present day it has 
been to a large extent supplanted by 
the newspaper and magazine press, the 
extraordinary development of which is 
one of the marvels of the age. The 
lecture had, however, one advantage 
which the magazine or newspaper does 
not possess, and that is that it drew 
people together and gave them a com- 
mon interest in the subjects treated. 
This we consider to be a more hopeful 
foundation for culture, as far as it goes, 
than individual reading of books and 
papers ; and here we are brought to the 
main point we desire to make on the 
present occasion which is that culture 
can only become general by being so- 
cially pursued. Every educated man 
and woman who has a living interest 
in the things of the intellect might and 
should carry on a kind of university- 
extension work in a quiet way among 
his or her own friends. Let little in- 
formal societies be formed for mutual 
help let us say, in the understanding 
and appreciation of works of literature, 
or in the comprehension of social ques- 
tions, or in intellectual effort of any 
kind and let it be understood that the 
ulterior object is to promote in some 
small measure the great end of right and 



126 



THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 



rational living, and we are persuaded 
that much good will be done and much 
social enjoyment obtained. Of course, 
there is a good deal of this kind of 
thing going on in different places, but 
there might be a great deal more. Too 
many " cultured " people think of their 
culture mainly, if not wholly, as a 
valuable personal possession, and an 
enviable mark of distinction from the 
crowd. That is a wrong and selfish 
view to take of it. The world is full of 
people who are starving for the bread 
of intellectual life. They may not know 
they are starving, but they are, all the 
same. Their lives are poor, empty, 
frivolous, and wholly unideal. Yet the 
sources of intellectual wealth are at 
their doors, and those who could open 
up these sources to them are among 
their acquaintance. Such at least is 
often the case, and what we are anxious 
to do is to rouse the possessors of cult- 
ure to a sense of their responsibility in 
the matter. Freely they have received, 
why should they not freely give ? Why 
should they not institute a propaganda of 
culture, and strive to redeem here and 
there a mind from the slavery of igno- 
rance and commonplace? 

"We take this opportunity of making 
a long-delayed apology to a correspond- 
ent who wrote to us some four or five 
years ago, suggesting that a portion 
of each Sunday should be devoted to 
purposes of intellectual improvement 
in a social way. His letter was an in- 
teresting one, and we had ordered it 
for publication, when an accident de- 
stroyed both the manuscript of the let- 
ter and the writer's name and address, 
a circumstance which we much regretted 
at the time and should have referred to 
in these columns. We are aware of 
cases in which what our correspondent 
recommended has been done with very 
good results. Friends have met on 
Sunday evenings at one another's houses 
for profitable discourse, sometimes of a 
spontaneous and sometimes of a pre- 
arranged character. In one group with 



which we are acquainted, each person 
is supposed to read during the week 
as much as he or she has opportunity for 
and to bring to the meeting an extract 
of from one hundred to two hundred 
words taken from some favorite author. 
In this way the little society gathers an 
anthology of its own of more or less 
memorable passages. Other readings 
are given in prose or poetry, and the 
various topics or thoughts presented are 
freely discussed. In this way a com- 
mon proprietorship is created in ideas 
which would else have remained isolated 
in particular minds, and it is needless to 
say that much correction of individual 
errors is at the same time made pos- 
sible. 

Now, what is wanted for the popu- 
larization of culture is a great extension 
of work, if work it can be called where 
so much pleasure is involved, of pre- 
cisely this kind. Where university- 
extension classes are established, small 
social gatherings such as we have de- 
scribed would carry on their work 
admirably, and, where they are not 
established, would to some extent take 
their place. The signs are abundant 
that our people need more culture, and 
if those who possess culture were only 
animated with a little of the missionary 
spirit which very uncultivated people 
sometimes possess, they might turn 
their gifts and accomplishments to much 
better purpose than, speaking generally, 
they now do. What is wanted to vivi- 
fy culture is a social aim an aim of 
social usefulness: give it that, and it 
will become a power for the regenera- 
tion of the world. 



An Index to Volumes I to XL of The 
Popular Science Monthly is well ad- 
vanced in preparation, and will be pub- 
lished probably in the course of the com- 
ing summer. In the new Index the con- 
tents of the whole forty volumes will be 
entered both by author and by subject in 
one alphabetical list. It will possess all 



LITERARY NOTICES. 



127 



the best features of the most recent in- 
dexes, and will be a thoroughly practical 
guide to the store of information which 
the volumes of the magazine contain. 
The compiler is Mr. Frederik A. Fernald, 
of the editorial staff of the Monthly. 

LITERARY NOTICES. 

New Fragments. By John Tyndall, F. R. S. 
New York : D. Appleton & Co. Pp. 500. 
Price, $2. 

The contents of this volume consist of 
essays and addresses prepared for various 
occasions and embracing a considerable 
range of topics. Among those dealing with 
natural science are a review of Goethe's 
Farbenlchre, a magazine article on Atoms, 
Molecules, and Ether Waves, another with 
the title About Common Water, and a paper 
on the Origin, Propagation, and Prevention 
of Phthisis. Tyndall's well-known power of 
making scientific subjects luminous and fas. 
cinating is abundantly shown throughout this 
volume. Take this passage from About 
Common Water: 

The most striking' example of the color of water 
is probably that furnished by the Blue Grotto of 
Capri, in the Bay of Naples. Capri is one of the isl- 
ands of the bay. At the bottom of one of its sea- 
cliffs there is a small arch, barely sufficient to admit 
a boat in fine weather, and through this arch you 
pass into a spacious cavern, the walls and water of 
which shimmer forth a magical blue light. This 
light has caught its color from the water through 
which it has passed. The entrance, as just stated, is 
very small, so that the illumination of the cave is al- 
most entirely due to light which has plunged to the 
bottom of the sea, and returned thence to the cave. 
Hence the exquisite azure. The white body of a 
diver who plunges into the water for the amusement 
of visitors is also strikingly affected by the colored 
liquid through which he moves. 

The wonderful style above illustrated con- 
tributes a great part to the effectiveness of 
Prof. Tyndall's teachings in science. Many 
a student, using one of Tyndall's treatises on 
Heat, Light, or Electricity as a text-book, 
has found himself drawn on to read far be- 
yond the limits set for the next lesson. Ob- 
viously the books that get themselves read 
are the ones that produce results ; hence it is 
probably safe to say that no book has done 
more to spread an understanding of the na- 
ture and behavior of one of the great forces 
of Nature than his Heat as a Mode of Motion. 



Tyndall is still more fascinating and be- 
comes even inspiring when he discourses of 
his favorite recreation, climbing the Alps. 
There are two essays dealing with Alpine 
experiences in this collection, and many of 
the phenomena of glaciers, snow-fields, and 
mountain mists are introduced into the 
scientific papers. The following is a de- 
scription of the sort with which his Alpine 
chapters abound : 

At half past one o'clock on the morning of the 
11th we started from the Wengern Alp. No trace 
of cloud was visible in the heavens, which were sown 
broadcast with stars. Those low down twinkled 
with extraordinary vivacity, many of them flashing, 
in quick succession, lights of different colors. . . . 
Over the summit of the Wetterhorn the Pleiades 
hung like a diadem, while at intervals a solitary 
meteor shot across the sky. We passed along the 
Alp, and then over the balled snow and broken ice 
shot down from the end of a glacier which fronted us. 
Here the ascent began ; we passed by turns from 
snow to rock and from rock to snow. The steepness 
for a time was moderate, the only thing requiring 
caution being the thin crusts of ice upon the rocks 
over which water had trickled the previous day* 
The east gradually brightened, the stars became 
paler and disappeared, and at length the crown of 
the adjacent Jungfrau rose out of the twilight into 
the purple of the rising sun. The bloom crept grad- 
ually downward over the snows, until the whole 
mountain world partook of the color. It is not in 
the night nor in the day it is not in any statical 
condition of the atmosphere that the mountains 
look most sublime. It is during the few minutes of 
transition from twilight to full day through the 
splendors of the dawn. 

Among the New Fragments are several 
biographical sketches, and these are fully as 
vivid as the essays already mentioned. The 
power of expression that can so greatly en- 
liven inanimate objects is naturally no less 
potent in dealing with subjects that have 
lived. It is well for science that Tyndall's 
bent was turned so strongly toward scien- 
tific matters, for otherwise biography would 
long since have monopolized him. In read- 
ing his sketch of Count Rumford one is 
made to feel that the investigator of a cent- 
ury ago was also a man, and, moreover, what 
manner of man he was. The same applies 
to the account of Thomas Young; and when 
our author speaks of one whom he has known 
in the flesh, as in his Personal Recollections 
of Thomas Carlyle, and his address on un- 
veiling the statue of Carlyle, the image of 
his subject stands out with marvelous dis- 
tinctness. 

Among the miscellaneous papers in this 



128 



THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 



volume should be mentioned an address on 
the Sabbath, in which a strict and dismal 
mode of observing the day is deprecated ; 
and an address delivered at the Birkbeck In- 
stitution, which tells much of Tyndall's own 
student-life. Persons who have read the 
Fragments of Science by Tyndall will find 
the present volume no less interesting. 

A Treatise on the Ligation of the Great 
Arteries in Continuity, with Obser- 
vations on the Nature, Progress, and 
Treatment of Aneurism. By Charles 
A. Ballance, F. R. C. S., and Walter 
Edmunds, F. R. C. S. London and New 
York : Macmillian & Co. Pp. 568. 
Price, $10. 

This elegant volume embodies the results 
of extended researches and of many experi- 
ments upon the lower animals undertaken 
with the view of lessening the liability to 
haemorrhage after the ligation of an artery. 
After two brief introductory chapters the 
nature of arteries and the processes of physi- 
ological occlusion and pathological oblitera- 
tion are described. Then the conduct and 
fate of the corpuscles, the clot, the coats, 
and the ligature are successively discussed. 
The phenomena of suppuration and haemor- 
rhage are next examined, and a chapter on 
the conduct and fate of the aneurism follows. 
Taking up the surgery of the arteries in de- 
tail, the authors give the views and practice 
of the earlier and later surgeons, and discuss 
the choice of the operation, the ligature, the 
knot, and the force. A concluding chapter 
treats of the conduct of the operation and 
the fate of the patient. The work is printed 
in large type, with wide margins, and is il- 
lustrated with ten plates, including a front- 
ispiece portrait of Scarpa, and 232 figures. 

The Genesis of Genesis. A Study of the 
Documentary Sources of the First Book 
of Moses, in Accordance with the Results 
of Critical Science, illustrating the Pres- 
ence of Bibles within the Bible. By 
Benjamin Wisner Bacon. Hartford : 
The Student Publishing Company. Pp. 
352. Price, $2.50. 

In preparing this book, the author has 
assumed that the reading public are entitled 
to judge for themselves concerning the value 
of what is called the higher criticism. For 
this end they require, not controversial argu- 
ment, but explanation ; and he does not con- 



sider it necessary that the presentation of 
the case should be made from the point of 
view of hostility to the new theory, or even 
from one of indifference. An introduction 
by Prof. George F. Moore, of Andover The- 
ological Seminary, gives the history of the 
higher criticism, or of questions of the au- 
thorship of Genesis from the time it was 
started by Aben Ezra, in the twelfth century. 
The introductory part of the work proper 
contains chapters on Higher Criticism and 
the Science of Documentary Analysis, The 
Science of Biblical Criticism, and The Docu- 
mentary Theory of To-day. In Part II is 
shown the text of Genesis according to the 
Revised Version, in varieties of type to ex- 
hibit the constituent sources and method of 
their compilation according to the general 
consensus of critical analysis, with notes ex- 
planatory of the phenomena of reduction. 
Part III presents the separate documents 
designated as J, E, and P, conjecturally re- 
stored, with revised translation according to 
emended text and conjectural readings of 
good authority. In the appendix are given 
" the great flood interpolation and connected 
passages, placed in juxtaposition with a 
translation of their cuneiform parallels." 



A Text-Book of Bacteriology. By Carl 
Fraenkel, M. D., Professor of Hygiene, 
University of Kbnigsberg. Translated 
and edited from the third German edi- 
tion by J. H. Linsley, M. D., Professor of 
Pathology and Bacteriology in the Uni- 
versity of Vermont. New York : Will- 
iam Wood & Co. Pp. 380. Price, $3.75. 

Systematic study of the bacteria is in- 
cluded at present not only in the curriculum 
of medical schools, but also forms part of a 
biological course in many of our universities. 
Its interpretation of the causes of disease 
has led to a sense of its value, and the meth- 
ods of German and French investigators are 
followed with increasing eagerness by stu- 
dents. A considerable number of volumes 
consisting of translations and original lect- 
ures upon the subject is already accessible in 
English, but no one of these is perhaps an 
adequate text-book. Dr. Linsley has there- 
fore translated and adapted to use Fraenkel's 
Orundriss der Bakterienkunde, a manual 
whose worth is attested by its rendering into 
six different languages. 

In this work little space is allowed for 



LITERARY NOTICES. 



129 



argument. The bacteria are classified at 
once as " the lowest members of the vegeta- 
ble kingdom, closely related to the algse." 
Separate species are found among them, dif- 
ferentiated by growth and shape. Accord- 
ing to their forms they are divided into the 
globular bacteria or micrococci, the rod- 
shaped or bacilli, and the screw-like or spi- 
rilla. Their structure, multiplication, con- 
ditions necessary for growth, and resultant 
phenomena are next considered. 

The benefits of oil immersion and of the 
Abbe illuminating apparatus are unfolded in 
Methods of Investigation, and the learner is 
instructed in the handling of the microscope 
and making of stains. Even the common 
errors of beginners are outlined for the stu- 
dent, and he is warned not to mistake the 
broken nuclei of white blood-cells for ba- 
cilli, when the glasses have been too hastily 
pulled apart, or to fancy he has discovered a 
colony of micrococci when some plasma-cells 
betray idiosyncrasies in absorbing aniline 
colors. 

Full directions are given for the various 
processes involved in successful breeding, 
sterilization, and the preparation of liquid 
and solid food media. 

The noxious character of pathogenic bac- 
teria is shown to consist not in the mechani- 
cal effect of their presence, nor in the hospi- 
tality they may exact from their host, but in 
the alkaloidal poisons they generate. Fraen- 
kel inclines to the belief that the organ- 
ism resists through a germ-killing power 
which resides in the living albumin of the 
serum, and that victory over invading ba- 
cilli is a chemical one and not the pitched 
battle of the phagocytes. Some of the inter- 
esting experiments of Metschnikoff in de- 
fense of his theory are not quoted, but his 
views are fairly represented. The author ad- 
mits as pathogenic bacteria only those which 
comply with three conditions : first, that they 
are invariably present with the morbid affec- 
tion ; second, that they can be cultivated 
outside of the organism ; thirdly, when the 
same pathological effects follow inoculation 
of the artificial culture. Petri's method of 
finding the number of bacteria in a given 
quantity of air is preferred. Only three to 
five germs in a litre is the average amount 
computed for an ordinary dwelling. Bacte- 
riological examination of the soil is compli- 

VOL. XLI. 12 



cated and of little use, but that of water is 
extremely important, although the determi- 
nation of species is difficult. " Water may 
be harmless and contain five thousand germs 
of the hay bacillus to the cubic centimetre, 
but ten germs among which are two cholera 
vibrios and two typhoid bacilli render it dan- 
gerous." 

The principal mold and yeast fungi are 
briefly noticed in the appendix. The book 
is indexed, but lacks illustrations. Minute 
descriptions atone for this ; however, the 
student is expected to illustrate for himself 
in the best way by observation of the liv- 
ing object. 

The Electric Railway in Theory and Prac- 
tice. By Oscar T. Crosby and Louis 
Bell, Ph. D. New York : W. J. John- 
ston Co., Limited. Pp. 400. Illustrated. 
Price, $2.50. 

Although electric traction in the United 
States only dates from 1884, its development 
has been so rapid that for public transit in 
towns and cities it would seem that the days 
of the horse are numbered. Of electric loco- 
motion as a science and art this book is a 
clear and thorough presentation. Beginning 
with an outline of electrical theory, the au- 
thors proceed at once to practical details. 
The considerations which should determine 
the placing of a station are first discussed, 
as also the economical adaptation of plant to 
a specific volume of traffic and frequency of 
service. Steam-engines and water-wheels of 
the best models are described and their mer- 
its carefully discriminated. Motors and car 
equipment are then canvassed, and the vari- 
ous approved methods of building lines and 
track are illustrated. The trolley, under- 
ground conduit, and storage-battery systems 
are next compared, with a complete array of 
evidence pro and con. 

Mr. Crosby, one of the authors, has con- 
ducted the only series of experiments ever 
undertaken with intent to double railroad 
speeds. In one of the most interesting chap- 
ters in the book he gives all the facts in the 
case, with cautiously deduced estimates. His 
conclusion is, that with electric motors of 
the highest efficiency, there is an advantage 
over the locomotive at all speeds. This ad- 
vantage is fifteen per cent at twenty miles 
an hour, and steadily increases as the rate 
is quickened. Where motors are liable to a 



13 



THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 



loss of one fifth in efficiency they are on an 
equality with locomatives at sixty miles an 
hour ; below that speed the locomotive is to 
be preferred ; beyond it, the motor is the 
cheaper servant. 

While this work shows evidence on every 
page of the scientific mastery of its subject, 
the authors are plainly men desirous of meet- 
ing the practical difficulties which the opera- 
tion of electric railways presents every day. 
They are also fully aware that the investor 
is less interested in the analysis of electrical 
machinery than in the simple question, Will 
it pay ? Commercial considerations receive 
full and sensible treatment. Others than 
superintendents and investors can read this 
work with profit. It is as good an example 
as American literature contains of scientific 
principles applied to the solution of practical 
problems problems, too, as important in 
their social as in their commercial bearings. 
Progress in electric traction means the relief 
of congested cities, the expansion of whole- 
some suburbs, on a scale impossible to the 
steam locomotive. In long-distance service 
it stands for an advance second only to that 
due to George Stephenson. 

Scientific Correspondence of Joseph 
Priestley. Edited, with Copious Notes, 
by Henry Carrington Bolton. New 
York : privately printed. Pp. 240. 
Price, $2.50. E. F. Brown, 180 Warren 
Street, Brooklyn, Agent. 

The " Father of Pneumatic Chemistry " 
expected to be remembered chiefly for the 
theological views which he put forth, having 
been in early life a Unitarian minister, and a 
writer on theological subjects throughout his 
career. Hence his modest autobiography, 
which was expanded into two volumes, with 
the addition of several hundred letters, by 
his son and J. T. Rutt, contains almost noth- 
ing about his scientific investigations. To 
supply the lack of material relating to his 
work in the latter field, Dr. Bolton has col- 
lected ninety-seven letters, nearly all written 
by Priestley, his correspondents being Josiah 
Wedgwood, Captain James Keir, Sir Joseph 
Banks, and others in England, and Dr. Ben- 
jamin Rush and others in America after he 
came to this country. They contain many 
interesting details concerning the progress of 
his researches on the gases, several of the 
most important of which were discovered by 



him. The letters are supplemented by many 
biographical, bibliographical, and explana- 
tory notes by the editor, and the volume con- 
tains a portrait of Priestley and one of Jo- 
siah Wedgwood. There is also a synopsis 
of correspondence of Dr. Priestley, consist- 
ing chiefly of letters from him to his brother- 
in-law, Mr. Wilkinson, from 1790 to 1802. 
An appendix contains a descriptive list of 
the likenesses of Joseph Priestley in oil, ink, 
marble, and metal, embracing ninety-three 
items ; an account of the Lunar Society, in 
Birmingham, founded by Matthew Boulton, 
Erasmus Darwin, and others, and of which 
Priestley was a member ; and an inventory 
of Dr. Priestley's laboratory, which was 
sacked by rioters in 1791. 

Diphtheria: its Natural History and Pre- 
tention. By R. Thorne Thorne, F. R. S. 
London and New York : Macmillan & Co. 
Pp. 266. Price, $2. 

Statistics show that the death-rate from 
diphtheria in England and Wales has been 
increasing during the last twenty years, and 
more rapidly in the cities than in the coun- 
try. This disease thus presents a contrast 
to the majority of zymotic diseases, the death- 
rate from which has been lessened as physi- 
cians have gained more knowledge of their 
nature and as sanitary conditions have been 
improved. In view of its fatal and little un- 
derstood character, the author has under- 
taken to collect what is known in regard to 
diphtheria. It appears that the broad geo- 
logical features of a district have no influ- 
ence on the development or diffusion of the 
disease. A chart prepared by Dr. G. B. 
Longstaff shows that the death-rate has been 
high in some counties and low in others on 
the same geological formation. Yet the au- 
thor is convinced that a surface soil which 
retains wetness and organic refuse, together 
with an aspect exposed to cold wet winds, 
tend to the fatality of diphtheria. He fur- 
ther discusses' the general nature of the dis- 
ease, its relation to scarlet fever and to croup, 
the influence of schools in spreading the in- 
fection, and milk as a vehicle in which it may 
be carried. The measures of prevention 
which are suggested by his study of the sub- 
ject are stated in detail, and his general con- 
clusions as to the natural history of diph- 
theria are also given. The volume contains 



LITERARY NOTICES. 



131 



three folded plates illustrating the relation 
of diphtheria to geology and topography. 

Direct Legislation by the Citizenship 
through the initiative and referen- 
DUM. By J. W. Sullivan. New York : 
Twentieth Century Co. Pp. 120. Price, 
cloth, 75 cents ; paper, 25 cents. 

When an American learns that Switzer- 
land is far in the lead of her sister republics 
in the practice of democratic government, 
many questions arise in his mind. This lit- 
tle book is designed to answer them. Mr. 
Sullivan concisely recounts the progress of 
Switzerland in direct legislation during the 
past sixty years, and shows the remarkable 
influence of this legislation on the institu- 
tions of the country. The statistics he cites 
prove a very notable diffusion of prosperity. 
He next shows that to a considerable length 
direct legislation is practiced in the United 
States in township, county, and State gov- 
ernments, as well as in the national trades 
and labor organizations. In his concluding 
chapter Mr. Sullivan, although a strenuous 
individualist, argues that in direct legislation 
lies an open way to a peaceful political and 
economic revolution. To the Swiss referen- 
dum it is often objected that many legisla- 
tive questions are above the ordinary voter's 
comprehension, and demand the specially 
trained mind of his representative. But 
would not this check of comprehensibility 
keep law-making within legitimate bounds, 
and abolish the antagonism which so often 
exists between the interests of the people 
and those of their legislators ? 

Elementary Text-Book of Zoology. By 
Dr. C. Claus. Translated and edited by 
Prof. Adam Sedgwick. Second edition. 
London and New York : Macmillan & Co. 
Two vols. Price, $8. 

Among the German scientific text-books 
that have won high favor among American 
instructors is this work on zoology by 
Dr. Claus. It is in two volumes, the first 
comprising the General Part and the first 
Special Part Protozoa to Insecta ; the sec- 
ond volume containing the other Special 
Part Mollusca to Man. In the General 
Part a bird's-eye view of the organization 
and development of animals in general is 
given, and this is followed by a brief histori- 
cal review of the science of zoology, an ex- 



planation of the classification of the present 
day, and a statement of the evidence in favor 
of Darwin's theory of descent. In the spe- 
cial chapters which constitute the rest of the 
work, types of the several families are de- 
scribed with considerable detail. The text 
is illustrated with seven hundred and six 
woodcuts in Volume I and two hundred and 
five in the smaller Volume II. 

Besides the list of towns and cities hav- 
ing water- works, and accounts of their works, 
The Manual of American Water - Works con- 
tains summaries and statistical information 
of great value to persons who are concerned 
in this subject. From it we learn that there 
were 2,037 water-works in operation on July 
1, 1891, supplying 2,187 cities, towns, and 
villages ; while in Canada there are 95 
works, supplying 102 towns. Tables are 
given showing the distribution of this supply 
in the several States and provinces and 
groups of the same; towns having more 
than one plant; summaries of populations 
supplied ; miles of mains, etc., also by States 
and groups. The last tables show that 22,- 
814,061, or about 36 per cent of the inhab- 
itants of the United States, live in towns 
having public water-works, and that only a 
few towns having 8,000 or more inhabitants 
are without works. The reported cost of 
1,802 of the water-works in the United 
States and Canada aggregates $504,035,492. 
Other tables represent growth by number of 
works and populations supplied ; dates of 
construction by groups of States and half 
decades ; like summaries of works com- 
pleted or under construction since 1880, and 
of works projected ; information respecting 
the management of public water-works and 
tenure of office of governing bodies; con- 
sumption of water and use of metres ; own- 
ership, whether by the public or by private 
companies; franchises of water-works com- 
panies ; and other facts of related character. 
The main part of the book comprises the list 
of water-works, given by States according to 
their geographical arrangement and by towns 
alphabetically, and comprising the items of 
history, source of supply, mechanism, finan- 
cial condition, and managing boards. 

A Preliminary Report on the Coal De- 
posits of Missouri has been prepared by the 
State Geologist, Arthur Winslow, in order 



132 



THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 



that something may be at hand to meet im- 
mediate calls upon the survey for information 
concerning the coal deposits of the State. It 
embodies part of the results of such obser- 
vations in the coal-fields as the author was 
able personally to make in 1890 and 1891. 
While the descriptions of the details of sec- 
tions, the correlation of the different coal- 
beds, the definition of the individual areas 
of the coal-beds, and the adaptabilities of 
the coals for steaming purposes are reserved 
for future reports or only briefly touched 
upon, and the report is not exhaustive or 
elaborate, it is comprehensive. It aims to 
present, in general terms, an outline of the 
conditions of occurrence and distribution of 
coal in the entire State, and contains a de- 
scriptive reference to every county in which 
coal is known to exist. Special effort has 
been made to obtain and include all infor- 
mation and results particularly relating to 
coal that were not obtainable at the time 
the earlier surveys of the State were in op- 
eration. Of especial value are the records 
of the various deep shafts and drill-holes 
which are included in the report. The well- 
executed sectional diagrams of the several 
coal mines described contribute much to the 
satisfactory impression made by the re- 
port. 

The principles of sound physical develop- 
ment, graceful carriage, and easy posture 
are taught in the little manual on Dclsarkan 
Physical Culture, which has been prepared 
for seminaries, classes, private teachers, and 
individuals by Carrica Le Favre, and is pub- 
lished by the Fowler & Wells Company. The 
rules and exercises prescribed are simple 
and plain, and such as, with patience and 
attention, are easily carried out. 

In The Modern Cook-book (Mast, Crowell 
& Kirkpatrick, Springfield, Ohio) an accept- 
able addition has been made to this class 
of books by Mrs. T. J. Kirkpatrick. The 
recipes are numerous, various, and simple, 
and are classified. The author has found 
that all the cook-books that have come under 
her observation lack something of complete- 
ness, and has endeavored to fill the want so 
far as she could by presenting a book con- 
taining a moderate number of recipes, all 
practical and working. The recipes are tabu- 
lated wherever it is possible ; the bills of 
fare are not for state occasions, but for 



plain, every-day cooking ; and the directions 
are full, minute, and systematic. 

In the series of catalogues compiled by 
W. M. Griswold (Cambridge, Mass.), we no- 
tice the Descriptive List of Romantic N. vels, 
the object of which is to direct readers, who 
would enjoy books of this kind, to a num- 
ber of novels, easily obtainable, but which, 
in many cases, have been forgotten within a 
year or two after publication. The purpose 
has been to include only such works as are 
well written, interesting, and free from sen- 
sationalism, sentimentality, and pretense. 
The list is alphabetical, by titles, and is sup- 
plemented by an alphabetical index of au- 
thors. 

A pamphlet on Roads Improvement, pub- 
lished by the League of American Wheelmen, 
contains three papers enforcing the impor- 
tance of good roads, and showing by citations 
of what has been accomplished abroad what 
can be done toward making them. The 
papers are : The Common Roads of Europe 
and America, by Isaac B. Potter ; Highways 
and National Prosperity, by Edward P. 
North ; and The Importance of Good Wagon- 
roads, by Prof. Lewis M. Haupt. The argu- 
ments of these papers are re-enforced in the 
most striking style by contrasted photo- 
graphic views of scenes on the common 
roads of the United States, even near large 
cities, and the finished highways, even in 
rural districts, of England, Ireland, and Brit- 
tany. 

A summary of Recent Advances in Elec- 
tricity, Electric Lighting, Magnetism, Telegra- 
phy, Telephony, etc., edited by Henry Greer 
and published at the New York Agent College 
of Electrical Engineering, contains articles on 
The Storage of Electricity ; The Brush Stor- 
age System ; other notices of storage bat- 
teries, accumulators, etc. ; Telegraphing from 
a Moving Railway Train (Phelps's system) ; 
Navigable Trains of Air-ships (electricity 
being the motive power) ; and Edison's paper 
on his Pyromagnetic Dynamo, or machine 
for producing electricity directly from fuel, 
Price, $1. 

A second series of Papers in Penology, 
compiled by the Editor of the Summary, and 
published at the New York State Reforma- 
tory at Elmira, contains papers on The Pris- 
ons of Great Britain, by Jay S. Butler; Mod- 
ern Prison Science, by Prof. Charles A. Col- 






LITERARY NOTICES. 



133 



lin; The Philosophy of Crime, by William 
T. Harris ; Criminal Anthropology, by Ham- 
ilton D. Wey ; New York's Prison Laws, by 
Eugene Smith ; Prison Labor Systems ; and 
The Elmira Reformatory of To-day. The 
mechanical work upon the publication, in- 
cluding the etching of the cover, has been 
done by inmates of the reformatory. 

The Report on the Coal Measures of the 
Plateau Region of Alabama, made to the 
State Geologist by Mr. Henry McCalley, 
treats of all the coal measures of the plateau 
region, except those that were included in 
the Report of the Warrior Coal-field, pub- 
lished in 1886 ; and also speaks of the coal 
measures of St. Clair and Shelby Counties, 
whose measures are principally of plateau 
strata, and have not been considered as a 
whole in any previous report. A general 
description of the plateau region is given in 
the introduction ; and notes and a short re- 
port by General A. M. Gibson are added on 
the Coal Measures of Blount and Berry 
Mountains. Some parts of this plateau re- 
gion are likely to prove important coal areas. 
A map of the coal-fields and two geological 
sections are inserted in the volume. 

The Report of S. P. Lane/leg, Secretary 
of the Smithsonian Institution, for the year 
ending with June, 1891, includes the work 
placed under its charge by Congress in the 
National Museum, the Bureau of Ethnology, 
the International Exchanges, the National 
Zoological Park, and the Astro-Physical Ob- 
servatory. By saving in other quarters, the 
Institution has been able to revert in some 
measure to an early practice of offering aid 
in original research. It has made grants 
for work on a universal standard of meas- 
ure, founded on the wave-length of light ; 
for determinations of the densities of oxy- 
gen and hydrogen ; for photographs of the 
moon ; and for investigations upon chemical 
compounds. In the Bureau of Ethnology 
efforts are made to secure records of Indian 
languages before they pass away. 

A Catalogue of Prehistoric Works East 
of the Rocky Mountains, preliminary to a 
complete and thorough catalogue to be made 
as soon as the work can be accomplished, 
has been prepared by Dr. Cyrus Thomas, 
and is published by the Bureau of Eth- 
nology. It contains lists of all the works 
. within the territory described, of which 



mention has been found in any books or 
reports, as accurately located and described 
as the accounts given in the original or 
other best authorities will permit. The no- 
tices are perhaps often indefinite and fre- 
quently incorrect, on account of defects in 
these original authorities ; but it is hoped 
that their appearance in the present shape 
will lead to more careful examination and 
to the preparation of the complete catalogue 
which it is hoped to make. The list is ac- 
companied by a map of the distribution of 
mounds in the United States, and by State 
maps showing the location of prehistoric 
works. 

The Report of the Botanical Department 
of the New Jersey Agricultural Experiment 
Station, by Byron D. Halsted, botanist, is 
one of the most valuable publications that 
have yet issued from the experiment sta- 
tions. A considerable part of the report is 
devoted to the record of the study of fungus 
forms injurious to crops, made during a 
season in which fungoid growths were very 
prevalent including cranberry scald, sweet- 
potato rots, etc. The causes of the failure 
of the peach crop in 1890 are investigated. 
Considerable space is devoted to the account 
of the work done on the weeds of the State, 
including a listing of them with botanical 
and local names, estimates by different ob- 
servers of their relative degrees of noxious- 
ness, and twenty-four page plates of the 
worst weeds. 

In a Doctor's Thesis on The Right of the 
State to Be, an attempt is made by Prof. F. 
M. Taylor to determine the ultimate human 
prerogative on which government rests. 
The author assumes that most previous 
efforts to answer the question presented in 
the title have referred to incidentals and have 
not been sufficiently directed to the main 
question. He seeks the solution of this. 
First, he maintains the reality of the prob- 
lem and defines its nature ; next he reviews 
previous theories, and points out their de- 
fects ; and, finally, he explains and defends 
his own theory. This theory bases the right 
on the prerogative which is assumed to be- 
long to every person as such to rule, or to 
interfere coercively with the liberty of other 
persons in order to maintain his version of 
the jural ideal. Government then becomes 
the collective exercise by the community of 



134 



THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 



their individual prerogatives combined into 
a single authority. 

The third edition of Prof. Simon Henry 
Gage's manual of The Microscope and His- 
tology has been entirely rewritten, enlarged, 
and more fully illustrated; and, while ele- 
mentary matters have received fuller treat- 
ment than in previous editions, special effort 
has been made in this to give more adequate 
accounts of certain apparatus which are 
coming to be used more and more in the 
higher fields of investigation in pure science 
and in practical medicine. In order to en- 
courage students to do their own work, exer- 
cises illustrating the principles of the micro- 
scope and the methods of employing it have 
been made an integral part of the treatise. 
To this branch of the subject the volume 
now before us, constituting Part I of the 
work The Microscope and Microscopical 
Methods is largely devoted. (Printed and 
for sale by Andrus & Church, Ithaca, N. Y. 
Price $1.) 

In the report of Mr. Tlieodore B. Corn- 
stock, On the Geology and Mineral Resources 
of the Central Mineral Region of Texas for 
1890, about a thousand miles are added to 
the area given in the previous report as that 
of the pre-carboniferous rocks comprising 
the regions described, Silurian and Cambrian 
strata having been discovered in fields that 
were supposed to be covered by the Creta- 
ceous. In order to give special prominence 
to economical results, the outline of the 
stratigraphy introduced is prepared with the 
primary object of affording a kind of key to 
those whose practical needs preclude the task 
of selecting from the mass of technical de- 
scription the particular details which apply 
to individual cases. For the benefit of the 
same class of persons a most useful series of 
directions are given for finding in the re- 
port at once the information concerning the 
reader's particular locality, by the aid of 
which he may judge what method of develop- 
ment may be most economical and profitable. 

Part II of the fourth volume of The 
Journal of the College of Science, Imperial 
University, Japan, contains seven papers, 
five of which are by Japanese authors, while 
one is a joint production. They are On some 
Fossil Plants from the Coal-bearing Series 
of Nagato, and On some Cretaceous Fossils 
from Shikoku, by Matajiro Yokoyama ; Com- 



parison of Earthquake Measurements made 
in a Pit and on the Surface Ground, by 
Prof. S. Sekiya ; Laboratory Notes, by Prof. 
C. G. Knott ; Diffraction Phenomena pro- 
duced by an Aperture on a Curved Surface, 
and Effect of Magnetization on the Perma- 
nent Twist of Nickel Wire, by H. Nagaoka ; 
and On Certain Thermo-electric Effects of 
Stress in Iron, by Prof. Knott and S. Kimura. 

Edward Fliigel's study of Thomas Car- 
lyWs Moral and Religious Development is 
published in a translation by Jessica Gilbert 
Tyler, by M. L. Holbrook & Co. The main 
object of the book is defined by the author 
to be to consider Carlyle as a moral force. 
Before turning attention, however, to his 
moral and religious views, a brief considera- 
tion is given to the history of his inner life, 
especially with reference to its moral and 
religious side. In this sense chapters are 
given among the others to Carlyle's Belief, 
his Relation to Christianity, his Position with 
Reference to Science, and especially to Phi- 
losophy, to Poetry, and Art, his Attitude to- 
ward History, and his Ethics. 

A series of articles upon the trees of 
Salem, Mass., and its neighborhood, pre- 
pared by Mr. John Robinson, in 1890 and 
1891, for one of the newspapers of that city, 
have been published by the Essex Institution 
in book form under the title of Our Trees. 
They give a popular account of the trees in 
the streets and gardens of the city and of the 
native trees of Essex County, with the loca- 
tion of the trees and historical and botanical 
notes. They were written wholly with an 
eye to popular entertainment and instruction, 
but prepared with considerable care and a 
regard to scientific accuracy. In them we 
have accounts of the character of the mag- 
nolias, tulip tree, lindens, tamarix, sumachs, 
horse - chestnuts, maples, locusts, apples, 
pears, cherries, dogwoods, tupelo, witch- 
hazel, ashes, catalpa, sassafras, elms, box- 
tree, mulberries, buttonwood, walnuts, hick- 
ories, birches, hornbeams, chestnut, beech, 
oaks, willows, poplars, pines, spruces, fir, 
hemlock, larches, cedar, gingko, and yew. 
One hundred and fifteen species grow in the 
region, of which fifty-six are natives of Essex 
County. 

A collection of papers on the Quaternary 
Geology of the Hudson River Valley is in- 
tended as a preliminary contribution by Mr. 



LITERARY NOTICES. 



135 



Frederick J. H. Merrill to that subject. 
The papers relate to the historic and eco- 
nomic geology of the field. The first paper, 
on the Post-Glacial History of the Valley, is 
the result of several seasons' study by the 
author. The papers on Brick Clays and the 
Manufacture of Brick were prepared under 
the author's direction by Mr. Heinrich Ries, 
after a detailed investigation of the region 
between Croton and Albany. 

A study of the Evolution of the Myth 
of Satan is presented by Mr. William Henry 
Hudson in a paper which was originally de- 
livered as a Sunday evening lecture, on The 
Satan of Theology and how we came by 
him. The author finds that the Satan of 
the Book of Job bears no resemblance to 
the spirit of evil in our modern theology, 
while the tempter, or serpent in the garden 
of Eden, was not identified with Satan till 
Persian influence had begun to operate. 
The real origin of the theological devil is 
then sought in the dualistic conception of 
the Zoroastrian religion, which was trans- 
planted into Judaism and has been built 
upon till it has grown into the^ present ac- 
cepted figure. 

Of two Addresses on Anatomy, reprinted 
by the author, Dr. Harrison Allen, of the 
University of Pennsylvania, for more con- 
venience in reading, the first, On Compara- 
tive Anatomy as a Part of the Medical Cur- 
riculum, was delivered before the American 
Association for the Advancement of Science, 
at its Boston meeting, in 1880; and the 
second, On the Teaching of Anatomy to Ad- 
vanced Students, before the Association of 
American Anatomists, at Washington, in 
1S91. The second address outlines a plan 
for a thorough fundamental course of in- 
struction in the science, representing the 
idea which the author has long cherished for 
having medical biologists as systematically 
trained as those who elect the more general 
field of natural history. 



PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED. 

Agriaultural Experiment Stations. Bulletins and 
Reports. Iowa : Sugar Beets, etc. Pp. 9G. Ne- 
braska: Farm Notes. Pp. 12. and Sugar Beets. 
Pp. 44. Annual Report of Cornell University Station. 
Pp. 400. 

American Society of Naturalists, Records of. 
Vol. I, Part IX. Pp. 26. 

Armstrong and Norton. Laboratory Manual of 
Chemistry. New York: American Book Company. 
Pp. 144. 50 cents. 



Au'.de, John. The Pocket Pharmacy. New 
York : D. Appleton & Co. Pp. 204. $2. 

Buckley, A. B. Moral Teaching of Science. New 
York: D. Appleton & Co. Pp.122. 75 cents. 

Burnstein, M. J. Ideality of Medical Science. 
Reprint. Pp. 14. 

Carus, Paul. Monism : Its Scope and Import. 
Chicago : Open Court Publishing Co. Pp. 44. 

Colbert, E. Humanity in its Origin and Early 
Growth. Chicago : Open Court Publishing Co. Pp. 
409. $150. 

Cowperthwait, J. H. Money, Silver, and Finance. 
New York : G. P. Putnam's Sons. Pp. 292. $1.25. 

Crookes and Fischer. Wagner's Manual of 
Chemical Technology. New York : D. Appleton & 
Co. Pp. 90S. $7.50. 

Denning, D. The Art and Craft of Cabinet-mak- 
ing. London : Whittaker & Co. Pp. 320. $1.50. 

Dewey, F. P. Catalogue of the Collections in 
Economic Geology and Metallurgy in the United 
States National Museum. Smithsonian Institution. 
Pp. 256. 

Dominion Illustrated Monthly. Pp. 64. Mon- 
treal : Sabiston Publishing Co. $1.50 a year. 

Dorsey, J. O. The Cegiha Language. Contribu- 
tions to North American Ethnology. Vol. VI. Pp. 
794. Washington: Government Printing-Offlce,1890. 

Dorsey, J. O. Omaha and Ponka Letters. 
Smithsonian Institution. Pp. 127. 

Drummond, A. T. Temperatures in the Great 
Lakes and St. Lawrence. Pp. 9. And Some Lake 
and River Temperatures. Pp. 7. Reprints. 

Du Bois, W. B. Fiat Money Lunatics. New 
York: Twentieth Century Publishing Co. Pp. 16. 

Evans, T. American Citizenship. Tribune 
Print. Oakland, Cal. Pp. 210. 

Flick, T. The Three Circuits. A Study of the 
Primary Forces. The Author: Washington, D. C. 
Pp. 263. $1.50. 

Frank, Henry. The Evolution of the Devil. H. 
L. Green, Buffalo, N. Y. Pp. 66. 25 cents. 

Gilbert, C.H. Fishes collected among the Santa 
Barbara Islands and in the Gulf of California. Smith- 
sonian Institution. Pp. 26. 

Goode, G. Browne. Writings of Dr. Charles 
Girard. Smithsonian Institution. Pp. 141. 

Hale, E. M. Ilex Cassene. Government Print- 
ing-Office. Pp. 22. 

Howard. L. O. Hymenopterous Insects of the 
Family Chalcididte. Smithsonian Institution. 
Pp. 21. 

Ingersoll, R. G. Address before the Unitarian 
Club, New York. H. L. Green, Buffalo, N. Y. Pp. 
12. 6 cents. 

James, Joseph F. The Genus Scolithus. 
Reprint. 

Journal of Physiology, February, 1892. 
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Journal of the United States Artillery. 
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Knowles, E. R. The Supremacy of the Spiritual. 
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Leland Stanford, Jr., University. Circular of In- 
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Litchworth, William P. Memorial to the New 
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Insane. Pp. 12. 

Levett and Davison. Plane Trigonometry. New 
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Logan, Celia. How to reduce your Weight or 
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Longman's New School Atlas. Edited by G. G. 
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Macdonald, G. Diseases of the Nose. New 
York: Macmillan & Co. Pp. 331. $2.50. 



Pp.44. 
Cam- 



Vol. I. 



136 



THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 



Massachusetts Agricultural College. Twenty- 
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Mays, T. J. Observation and Experiment iu 
Phthisis. Pp. 9. Reprint 

Merz, C. H. A Possible Source of Contagion. 
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Meyer, Lothar. Outlines of Theoretical Chem- 
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Public Reservations. First Annual Report of 
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Remondino, P. O. Climatology of Southern Cali- 
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POPULAR MISCELLANY. 

Origin of Greenland A r egetation. Some 
interesting conclusions are drawn by Mr. 
Clement Reid from a comparison of the 
views of Prof. Warming and Prof. Nathorst 
concerning the origin of the flora of Green- 
land. Prof. Warming fixes the boundary 
between the European and American prov- 
inces of the arctic flora as in Denmark 
Strait, and not in Davis Strait, as botanists 
have generally placed it. The flowering 
plants of Greenland include three hundred 
and eighty-six species, none of which are 
confined to that country. Of these, exclud- 
ing the circumpolar forms, Prof. Warming 
finds in the list thirty-six characteristic 
Western against forty-two Eastern species ; 
but suggests that as the flora of arctic Ameri- 
ca is better known, the balance will prob- 
ably be in favor of the Western forms. He, 
however, includes among the Eastern plants 
only those now living in Europe, while he 
classes the Asiatic-American species as 
Western. Prof. Nathorst reviews these con- 
clusions on the basis of a map of the local 
distribution of Eastern and Western forms in 
Greenland. He thus finds that the coast 
nearest to Iceland contains European forms 
alone, the southern coast contains European 
forms in a majority, and that part of the west 
coast nearest to America yields principally 
Western species ; but taking Greenland as a 
whole the flora is more European than 
American. He also finds that the Ameri- 
can element of the flora of Greenland is not 
entirely cut off by the Denmark Strait, but 
extends eastward as far as Iceland. Prof. 
Warming believes that the nucleus of the 
present flora of Greenland represents part 
of the original flora which was able to live 
through the Glacial epoch on the non-glaci- 
ated areas ; but Prof. Nathorst shows that 
the few non-glaciated mountain-tops must 
have been far too high for any phanerogams 
to exist on them, and all the lowlands were 
then covered with ice and snow. Both the 
Eastern and Western elements of the present 
flora of Greenland must, therefore, be sup- 
posed to have entered the country in post- 
glacial times. The tables of distribution 
show at what points a large number of the 
plants entered ; they came from the nearest 
land, whether European or American. The 



POPULAR MISCELLANY. 



*37 



ice-foot, which collects in winter beneath 
the sea-cliffs, is placed in the best possible 
position to receive any seeds or masses of 
soil which may fall during the winter. This 
shore-ice is drifted away in the spring, and 
may easily discharge its burden on some far- 
distant shore uninjured, and with the seeds 
just ready to germinate. Winds, migrating 
birds, and migrating mammals, would all 
help to transport seeds across the straits. 

Early Title-pages. In the earliest print- 
ed books and in manuscripts any information 
on the workmanship of the book was written 
at the end, in what is called the colophon. 
It was not till 1470, according to Mr. A. W. 
Follard, in his History of the Title-page, that 
a title-page was introduced, and in England 
not till shortly before 1490, when W. de 
Machline issued one to his little book on the 
pestilence. Caxton never used them, but 
Wynkyn de Worde employed them in nearly 
all his books. At the beginning of the next 
century are found the most interesting, if 
not the most artistic, titles. Popular de- 
mand then required a large woodcut on the 
front page, whatever was the subject of the 
book. Even school-books were adorned with 
representations of masters and scholars, the 
most striking object in the cut being a for- 
midably large birch. The nature of most of 
the religious books required a frontispiece 
containing devils. The little books of poetry 
and romance which issued from the press by 
hundreds contain the best specimens of this 
kind of art. Looking at these title-pages 
from the artistic side alone, England makes 
but a poor show against France and Italy. 
Nothing could be finer than the title-pages of 
the Parisian books in the early part of the 
sixteenth century. After this time the deca- 
dence began, and the printers finally became 
" dreadfully utilitarian and unromantic." 

The Primary Color of Leaves. Having 
concluded, as has already been mentioned in 
the Monthly, that the primary color of flow- 
ers is white, from which the characteristic 
hue is developed as a secondary color, E. 
Williams Hervey asks, in Garden and For- 
est, What is the primary color of the green 
parts of the plant? Leaves do not gener- 
ally have a different color at the base from 
the usual one, as has been shown to be 



the case with flowers ; and they rarely, ex- 
cept in the purplish leaves of vigorous sap- 
lings and a few cultivated plants, have any 
other color than green. But the leaves of 
some cultivated plants are spotted, striped, 
or bordered with white ; bleached celery 
stalks are white, and the inner leaves of 
cabbages are white. From these instances 
'" we get pretty strong hints that green is 
derived from white. There remains one 
more clew. Every botanist knows that the 
seed contains a miniature and rudimentary 
plant; that generally the most prominent 
parts of the seed are the cotyledons or seed- 
leaves, and these are, of course, the first 
leaves of every species of plants. Now, if 
we ascertain the color of these seed-leaves, 
we find the original color of all leaves. 
This color is uniformly white ; ... of course, 
we do not refer to the colored integument of 
the seed, which, as in the case of garden 
leaves, may be white, red, yellow, blue, black, 
or of mixed colors, but to the kernel, or 
meat. There are a very few instances only 
where the green color has impressed, some- 
what, that characteristic upon the seed, as 
in peas, nasturtiums, and maples, which pre- 
sent a pale-green color in the pod or shell. 
In some instances these cotyledons appear 
above the surface of the ground, changing 
from white to green ; while in others they 
remain below." We learn from this study 
of color, therefore, the author adds, " that 
white is the primary color of root, stem, and 
flower, and the foundation of all color." 

A New Electric Light. A vast improve- 
ment in artificial illumination is promised in 
the light which Mr. Tesla, " the able lieuten- 
ant of Mr. Edison," has been exhibiting in 
London. An experiment performed by him 
before the Royal Institution consists, accord" 
ing to the Spectator's account, in joining two 
sheets of tin- foil, one over the lecturer's head, 
the other on the table, to the poles of the 
generator. The space between these two 
sheets immediately became electrified, and a 
long vacuum-tube waved about in it, without 
attachment to any conductor, glowed in the 
darkness like a flaming sword. The experi- 
ment was intended to illustrate the possibili- 
ty of rendering an entire room so electric, 
by plates in the ceiling or under the floor, 
that vacuum-bulbs placed anywhere within it 



i 3 8 



THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 



would yield a light. Thus we shall be able 
to fill our rooms with the potentiality of 
light, and then, by the simple introduction 
of vacuum-tubes, to obtain any quantity of 
it. Those who want a daylight without heat 
will be able to run a vacuum-tube round the 
whole length of the cornice, and so obtain a 
diffused illumination of almost any brilliancy. 
The fact is noticed, in connection with the 
experiments, that the lecturer stood in an 
" electrostatic field " capable of illuminating 
a lamp without wires, and felt nothing. 
More, he held a vacuum-tube in one hand and 
touched a " terminal " with the other, a pro- 
cess which made him " the channel for a 
current of something like fifty thousand 
volts," and yet did not receive any injury. 

Venerable Trees. A very interesting 
work is in course of publication by M. Ga- 
deau de Kerville, on the ancient trees of Nor- 
mandy. The most remarkable trees so far 
described are the two yews of La Haye de 
Koutot, in the department of the Eure. They 
are respectively 9^ and 8y metres in circum- 
ference at the base of the trunk, and 17 
and 14 metres high. Their ages are esti- 
mated by the author to be not less than 
fifteen hundred years. A chapel has been 
constructed in the hollow trunk of one of 
these yews, three metres high and two me- 
tres deep. Before it was transformed into 
a chapel the hollow would hold forty per- 
sons, and eight musicians have played in it 
in concert. The beech of Montigny, esti- 
mated by the author to be between six hun- 
dred and nine hundred years old, is 18 me- 
tres high and 8 - 20 metres in circumference 
at the base. There are oaks from two hun- 
dred to nine hundred years old, one of which 
is nearly forty metres high. 

Curions Effects of an Earthqnake. 

Some striking features are described by 
Prof. John Milne as marking the recent de- 
structive earthquake in Japan, by which 
nearly 8,000 persons were killed and at 
least 41,000 houses were leveled. The move- 
ments of the wave were horizontal, and a 
defect of the seismograph was noticed in its 
failure to record anything of them except 
the " dip." In many places so-called " for- 
eign" buildings of brick and stone fell in 
heaps of ruin ^between Japanese buildings 



yet standing. " Cotton-mills have fallen in, 
while their tall brick chimneys have been 
whipped off at about half their height. 
Huge cast-iron columns, which, unlike chim- 
neys, are uniform in section, acting as piers 
for railway bridges, have been cut in two 
near their base. In some instances these 
have been snapped into pieces much as we 
might snap a carrot, and the fragments 
thrown down upon the shingle beaches of 
the rivers. The greatest efforts appear to 
have been exerted where masonry piers 
carrying two - hundred - foot girders over 
lengths of eighteen hundred feet have been 
cut in two, and then danced and twisted over 
their solid foundations to a considerable dis- 
tance from their true positions. These piers 
have a sectional area of twenty-six by ten 
feet, and are from thirty to fifty feet in 
height. Embankments have been spread 
outward or shot away, brick arches have 
fallen between their abutments, while the 
railway line itself has been bent into a 
series of snakelike folds and hummocked 
into waves. . . . Here and there a temple 
has escaped destruction, partly perhaps on 
account of the quality of materials employed 
in its construction, but also in consequence 
of the multiplicity of joints which come be- 
tween the roof and the supporting columns. 
At these joints there has been a basket-like 
yielding, and the interstice of the roof has 
not, therefore, acted with its whole force in 
tending to rupture its supports." 

Meteorology Five Centuries ago. "What is 
probably the oldest journal of the weather in 
existence has recently been recovered, printed 
in photographic transcript, and translated. 
It was kept by the Rev. William Merle, rec- 
tor of Driby, Lincolnshire, England, from 
1337 to 1344, or during seven years of the 
earlier part of the reign of Edward III. 
The author was evidently a keen observer, 
and recorded his facts succinctly and intel- 
ligently, so as to give a graphic, even pict- 
uresque description of the weather by the 
week or month ; and a reference in one of 
his notes to a feature of the season of 1331 
shows that he had been watching the changes 
of the seasons for a longer time than was 
covered by his journal. Some of the entries 
are suggestive of the conditions and ways 
of thinking of the times. The frequent men- 



POPULAR MISCELLANY. 



139 



tion of weather conditions and phenomena 
in other parts of the kingdom indicates that 
there were other observers in England who 
corresponded with Merle. A comet was 
seen in the second week of September, 1343, 
appearing about sunset. Our author called 
it " ardens draco,' 1 '' or burning dragon, but 
did not seem terrified by it. He merely re- 
marked that it was a sign of dry weather. 
In the same year, on the 28th of March, is 
entered a notice of an earthquake so violent 
that the stones of the chimneys in certain 
parts of Lindsey were thrown down. The 
motion lasted while one might say the an- 
gelic salutation, which was about half as long 
then as it is now. The mention of stones 
falling in the stone chimneys " lapides 
in caminis lapideis " is interesting, as it 
proves the fallacy of the belief that chimneys 
are a late invention, and that the English 
of those times were so barbarous that the 
smoke was got rid of by means of a hole in 
the roof. The recovery of the journal is due 
to a mention of it by Dr. Plot, of the Royal 
Society, in 1685, as being in the Bodleian 
Library. It was looked for and found. 

Drops of Fog. Advantage was taken by 
Mr. John Aitken, during a visit to the Righi, 
of the opportunities that were afforded there 
for investigating the water particles in 
clouds. With an instrument the author has 
invented those particles were distinctly seen 
showering down, and the number falling on 
the micrometer was easily counted. The 
number was observed to vary greatly from 
time to time. The greatest rate actually 
counted was sixty drops per square milli- 
metre in thirty seconds, but for a few sec- 
onds the rate was much quicker. The maxi- 
mum rate named gives twelve thousand drops 
per square centimetre per minute, or sev- 
enty-seven thousand four hundred drops per 
square inch per minute. The drops are so 
extremely small that they rapidly evaporate, 
more than two or three being seldom visi- 
ble at the same time on one square of the 
micrometer. The denser the cloud the quick- 
er was the rate of fall, and as the cloud 
thinned away the drops fell at longer inter- 
vals, and they diminished in size at the 
same time. It was frequently observed 
when the mountain-top was in clouds, par- 
ticularly if they were not very dense over- 



head, that the surfaces of all exposed ob- 
jects were dry not only the stones on the 
ground, which might have received heat from 
the earth, but also wooden seats, posts, etc. 
and if wetted they soon dried. And while 
everything was dry, the fog-counter showed 
that fine rain-drops were falling in immense 
numbers, and the air, on testing, was found 
to be saturated. A few observations were 
therefore made to explain the apparent con- 
tradiction of surfaces remaining dry while 
exposed to a continued shower of fine rain 
and surrounded by saturated air. The ex- 
planation was found to be, simply, radiant 
heat. A considerable amount of heat, as 
also of light, was found to penetrate the 
clouds, notwithstanding their density. This 
radiant heat is absorbed by all exposed sur- 
faces and heats them, while they in turn 
heat the air in contact with them, and the 
fine drops of water are either evaporated in 
this hot layer of air or after they come in 
contact with the heated surfaces. Other 
observations made on Mount Pilatus pointed 
to the same conclusion. All large objects, 
such as seats, posts, etc., were dry in cloud 
when there was any radiation ; while small 
objects, such as pins, fine threads, etc., were 
covered with beads of water. The large sur- 
faces being more heated by radiation than 
small ones, when surrounded by air, these 
surfaces evaporate the drops falling on 
them, while the small ones, being kept cool 
by the passing air, are unable to keep them- 
selves free. The observations made with 
the fog-counter point to the conclusion that 
the density or thickness of a cloud depends 
more on the number of water particles than 
on the number of dust particles in it. 

Mortality and Morbidity by Professions. 

M. Jacques Bertillon recently communi- 
cated to the French Society of Public Medi- 
cine a table of mortality by professions, 
compiled from official documents of the city 
of Paris from 1885 to 1889. This is the 
first table of the kind that has been made 
in France. Other tables have been made in 
England by Mr. William Farr and by Mr. 
Ogle, compiled from the returns of census 
years, and in Switzerland by M. Kummer 
for the years 1879 to 1882. On a comparison 
of the results of these four tables, made with 
special reference to the relative number for 



14 



THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 



each profession, and taking the general aver- 
age of each country observed, the author has 
found that the same professions give nearly 
the same results in the three countries. When, 
however, we compare these results with the 
tables of morbidity or liability to disease by 
professions, drawn up by M. Bodio, from 
the observations of the Italian societies of 
mutual aid, we find them at times apparent- 
ly contradictory. L This confirms the prin- 
ciple that in the existing condition of things 
a table of morbidity is not of as much value 
as a table of mortality as a means of deter- 
mining the sanitary condition of a popula- 
tion. This arises from the fact that it is a 
very delicate matter to distinguish a disease 
from a simple indisposition, as well as to 
distinguish an acute from a chronic disease, 
and the latter, again, from an infirmity. 

Meteoric Iron. Native meteoric nickel 
iron, according to Prof. Ledebur, of Frei- 
berg, is too costly to be available for prac- 
tical use. The market prices are about 6c?. 
per gramme for ordinary qualities, and from 
Is. 6c?. to 2s. 6c?. per gramme for the rarer 
qualities, and from 17s. to 26s. per gramme 
for iron the fall of which has been observed. 
Still it is not extremely rare, at least not in 
museums. The museum at Vienna has 1,033 
kilogrammes of it, of specimens that were 
found in 145 different places ; the collection of 
the University of Berlin is rich in specimens ; 
the Natural History Museum at Paris has a 
considerable quantity of it ; and the British 
Museum has 3,600 kilogrammes in a single 
block. The largest piece in any collection is 
one weighing 5,000 kilogrammes, from Bem- 
dego, Bahia, in the museum at Rio de Ja- 
neiro. It is believed to be a fragment of a 
meteor of 9,000 kilogrammes which was dis- 
covered in 1784. A mass described by Hum- 
boldt was estimated to weigh from 15,000 to 
20,000 kilogrammes. Evidence is adduced 
by Herr Otto Vogel, of Dusseldorf, to show 
that meteoric or nickel iron is found over 
most of the world, and has been worked to 
the most recent times ; and that it was also 
worked and used in the middle ages and in 
a remote antiquity. The negroes on the 
Senegal River were found working it by 
Buchner ; the Namaquas of South Africa 
made weapons from it ; and the Indians of 
Islahuaca manufactured agricultural imple- 



ments and other tools from it as early as 
1784. Captain Ross, in 1819, found the 
Eskimos of Greenland using meteoric iron 
in making lines and other tools ; and there 
is a knife-blade of this iron in the Natural 
History Museum at Vienna, where is also 
preserved an arrow-head of it from Mada- 
gascar. The author suggests that it may 
easily be assumed that the first iron that 
was ever wrought was cosmic iron that is 
to say, an iron derived from another world. 
" On such foundlings," says Mehrtens, " the 
uncultured inhabitants of our earth may 
first have tried their skill out of curiosity, 
and perhaps by chance have discovered the 
properties of iron." 

The Power of Assertion. A political 
article in a recent number of The Spectator 
is prefaced by some general remarks on the 
power that mere assertion exerts. The ma- 
jority of persons, whether of high or low 
degree, have little inclination or opportunity 
for verifying statements. Hence an asser- 
tion that is made strongly and circumstan- 
tially enough passes with these persons for 
solid fact. The task of exposing and rebut- 
ting a misstatement is almost a waste of 
labor. In political affairs, especially, there 
is very little to lose and a great deal to gain 
in making reckless statements. Even if clear- 
ly disproved, no damaging blame attaches 
to the politician who makes them. He, if 
adroit (and the politician who is not has 
missed his calling), will not be found to 
have perpetrated an absolute falsehood. 
There are always plenty of political rumors 
afloat, and one of these can be easily dressed 
up and given out as " a matter of common 
knowledge," or "what everybody is saying, 
you know." The success of such devices 
shows that mankind has not yet outgrown 
its pristine credulity. 

Instinctive Criminality. In a paper on 
instinctive criminality, Dr. S. A. K. Strahan 
holds that the criminal belongs to a decaying 
race, and is only found in families whose 
other members show signs of degradation ; 
in fact, it is only one of the many signs of 
family decay. Besides being hereditary, 
criminality is interchangeable with other 
degenerate conditions, such as idiocy, epi- 
lepsy, suicide, insanity, scrofula, etc. ; and it 



POPULAR MISCELLANY. 



141 



is a chance whether the insanity or drunken- 
ness, say, of the parent, will appear as such 
in the child or be transmuted in transmission 
to one or other of the alternate degenerate 
conditions. The present system of treatment 
has proved a disastrous failure ; short pe- 
riods of punishment can have no effect, 
either curative or deterrent. Everything 
points in the direction of prolonged or in- 
definite confinement in industrial peniten- 
tiaries. 

Oscillations in Latitude. At the recent 
anniversary meeting of the Royal Society, the 
president, Sir William Thomson, spoke of the 
investigation of oscillations of latitude which 
has been instituted under the auspices of the 
International Geodetic Union. Comparative 
observations have been begun at Berlin, and 
at Honolulu, which is very near the opposite 
meridian to Berlin. The first several hun- 
dred determinations of latitude made at 
Honolulu during three months of a proposed 
year of observations, compared with the 
corresponding results at Berlin, showed that 
the latitude during that time had increased 
in Berlin and decreased at Honolulu by 
about one third of a second. " Thus we 
have decisive demonstration that motion, 
relatively to the earth, of the earth's in- 
stantaneous axis of rotation, is the cause of 
variations of latitude which have been ob- 
served at Berlin, Greenwich, and other ob- 
servatories, and which can not be wholly at- 
tributed to errors of observation." This, Prof. 
Foerster remarks, gives observationalproof of 
a conclusion which the author had expressed 
in 1876, to the effect that irregular move- 
ments of the earth's axis to the extent of half 
a second may be produced by the temporary 
changes of sea-level due to meteorological 
causes. It is proposed that four permanent 
stations for regular and continued observa- 
tion of latitude at places of approximately 
equal latitude and on meridians approxi- 
mately 90 apart, be established under the 
auspices of the International Geodetic Union. 
The reason for this arrangement is, that a 
change in the instantaneous axis of rotation 
in the direction perpendicular to the merid- 
ain of any one place would not alter its 
latitude, but would alter the latitude of a 
place 90 from it hx longitude by an amount 
equal to the angular change of the position 



of the axis. Thus two stations in meridians 
differing by 90 would theoretically suffice, 
by observations of latitude, to determine the 
changes in the position of the instantaneous 
axis ; but differential results, such as those 
already obtained between Berlin and Hono- 
lulu, differing by approximately 180 in lon- 
gitude, are necessary for eliminating errors 
of observation sufficiently to give satisfactory 
and useful results. 

Swedish Wood and Iron. According to 
our minister in Stockholm, the two great 
products of Sweden after agriculture are 
wood and iron. The Norland is still covered 
for the most part with an extensive black 
forest, consisting largely of pine and spruce. 
Upon the great water-shed called the fjdd 
or Kblen (the keel of the country likened to 
a boat turned bottom upward) stand the 
chief timber forests ; and extensive lumber- 
ing operations are carried on along the nu- 
merous rivers and their tributaries that flow 
thence. At the mouths of most of the rivers 
are towns which take their names as well 
as their business and prosperity from the 
streams where are large saw-mills. Lumber 
operations are also conducted south of Stock- 
holm on both coasts, and there is a consid- 
erable export from Gothenburg; but the 
great bulk of the timber is cut and sawn in 
Norland, and eighty-five per cent of the lum- 
ber exports come from the north of Stock- 
holm. The Swedish lumber trade has as- 
sumed its present importance only within 
the present century, and in fact during the 
past thirty years. More than one quarter of 
the wooded area of Sweden, or 14,300,000 
acres, belongs to the crown. The forests are 
supervised with great care, and all Sweden 
is divided into forest districts, and these, in 
turn, into revirs. Each district is under the 
supervision of a chief forest inspector, and 
each revir is guarded by a forest ranger and 
a number of under-keepers. Our minister 
thinks that the vast forests of Sweden will 
be preserved and maintained substantially 
as they stand to-day, and that Sweden's lum- 
ber export her greatest source of reve- 
nue will be maintained and kept good for 
ages to come. The Swedish iron, celebrated 
throughout the world, is soft and ductile, 
and preserves great pliability and strength. 
It still furnishes the raw material for the 



142 



THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 



best tools and weapons, the finest springs 
and drawn wire, and the best kind of nails 
for riveting and clinching. Its excellence 
depends partly on its being free from phos- 
phorus and sulphur, and partly on the supe- 
rior manner of the smelting, which is done 
with charcoal. The supply of ore is practi- 
cally inexhaustible. It is found all over the 
country ; it occurs in the thick strata of the 
rock and forms the bulk of great mountains 
in various parts of the kingdom. The largest 
of these iron mountains is Gellivare, situ- 
ated in Swedish Lapland, beyond the Arctic 
Circle. The ore occurs here chiefly in four 
gigantic strata, and covers so large an area 
that it is estimated that, if only one metre 
in depth is taken out a year, the yield would 
be 943,600 tons, nearly equal to the amount 
now produced by all the mines in Sweden. 
The ore contains seventy per cent of iron. 
Much of it, however, contains apatite, and 
in such large quantities that the question of 
turning to account the phosphoric acid held 
in that mineral is entertained. Iron is chiefly 
mined in central Sweden, but the best iron 
comes from the Dannemora mines, a little 
east of the chief area. Besides making the 
rougher forms of iron, the Swedes build iron 
steamships of fine quality, and are very skill- 
ful in the manufacture of cutlery, for which 
they have a dozen factories. 

Suspended Matter in Flame. In a com- 
munication to the Royal Society of Edin- 
burgh, Mr. G. C. Stokes announces that he 
has secured an optical proof of the exist- 
ence of suspended matter in flames. Pass- 
ing a beam of sunlight, condensed by a 
lens, through the flame of a candle, he no- 
ticed that where the cone of rays cut the 
luminous envelope there were two patches 
of light brighter than the general flame, 
which were evidently due to sunlight scat- 
tered by matter in the envelope which was 
in a state of suspension. The patches cor- 
responded in area to the intersection of the 
double cone by the envelope, and their thick- 
ness was insensibly small. Within the en- 
velope, as well as outside, there was none of 
this scattering. When the beam was passed 
through the blue base of the flame, there 
was no scattered light. A luminous gas- 
flame showed the patches indicating scat- 
tered light like the flame of a candle, but 



less copiously. They were not seen in a 
Bunsen flame or in the flame of alcohol, but 
were well seen in the luminous flame of 
ether. The phenomenon shows the separa- 
tion of carbon, associated, it may be, with 
some hydrogen, in the flame, and the ex- 
treme thinness of the layer which this forms. 
It shows, too, the mode of separation of the 
carbon namely, that it is due to the action 
of heat on the volatile hydrocarbon or vapor 
of ether, as the case may be. At the base, 
where there is a plentiful supply of oxygen, 
the molecules are burned at once. Higher 
up, the heated products of combustion have 
time to decompose the combustible vapor 
before it gets oxygen enough to burn it. 
Since making his communication, Prof. Stokes 
has found that he was anticipated in part of 
his observation in a paper published a few 
years ago by Mr. Busch. 

The Ylachs of Turkey. The Vlachs of 
Turkey are described by Mrs. L. M. J. Gar- 
nett, in her Women of Turkey and their 
Folk Lore, as a nomadic people, shepherds or 
traders, who leave a great deal of responsi- 
bility to their wives. The women, besides 
managing their households, have to cultivate 
the vineyard and garden, herd the sheep, 
shear the wool, weave the cloth, and gen- 
erally perform every variety of labor, " not 
the least arduous part of which is the assid- 
uous attention required by their lords and 
masters when they return from their wan- 
derings for a spell of domestic repose." 
The customs of this people are a mixture of 
Greek and Roman tradition. They belong 
to the Orthodox Church, and their cere- 
monies at birth and baptism are essentially 
similar to those of the Greeks. The marriage 
forms (save the sacred rite) are more like 
the Roman. These ceremonies are very mi- 
nute and protracted ; and " it must require 
a liberal education to master all the details 
of a Ylach or Greek wedding: to find the 
five-twigged branch and decorate it with an 
apple and tufts of red wool and fix it on the 
top of the bride's house; to prepare the 
ring-cake and then engage in a hot struggle 
for it. . . . The unfortunate Vlach must be 
perpetually trying to remember what func- 
tion he or she has to perform each week. 
On New Year'3 day come the children with 
olive branches ; on the morrow every visitor 



NOTES. 



H3 



must throw salt on the fire, and then put an 
egg in the hen-house in prayerful hope that 
a considerate fowl may sit on it ; in Febru- 
ary all the dogs must be thoroughly beaten 
as a precaution against hydrophobia in- 
deed, there is always some ceremony to the 
fore, generally accompanied by songs and 
ballads." To the Greek, too, every accident 
has its interpretation. To drop oil is un- 
lucky, but wine may be spilt with advan- 
tage ; a rainbow over a cemetery means a 
coming epidemic ; and the recipe concerning 
" the hair of the dog that bit you " is prac- 
tically enforced by inserting tufts of the 
dog's hair in the wound made by his teeth. 

India-rubber Trees. India-rubber trees, 
according to W. R. Fisher, in Nature, are 
extensively cultivated in flourishing planta- 
tions in the Charduar forest, at the foot of 
the Himalaya Mountains, in Assam. The 
climate of the place is essentially damp. 
The forest contains a great number of woody 
species, both evergreen and deciduous, with 
a few enormous old rubber trees dissemi- 
nated through it. Trees have been measured 
here 129 feet high, with a girth around the 
principal aerial roots of 138 feet, while the 
girth of the crown was 611 feet. As rubber 
trees can not stand shade, and the seeds 
damp off unless fully exposed to light and well 
drained, the natural reproduction of Ficus 
elastica generally takes place in the forks of 
stag-headed or lightly foliaged trees high up 
in the crown, where the seeds are left by 
birds ; and from such a site the aerial roots 
in process of time descend to the ground 
and develop into a vast hollow cylinder 
around the foster-stem, and it is speedily in- 
closed and killed by the vigorous crown of 
the epiphyte, which eventually replaces it 
in the forest. In its epiphytic growth the 
aerial roots of Fiats elastica may take sev- 
eral years to reach the ground, but, once 
well rooted, nothing can probably surpass it 
in its native habitat for rapidity of growth 
and vigor. At first attempts were made to 
propagate by cuttings, which struck easily ; 
but it was soon discovered that rubber seed 
germinates freely on well-drained beds cov- 
ered with powdered charcoal or brick-dust, 
and that the seedlings, though at first as 
small as cress, grew rapidly, and became 
about two feet high in twelve months, and 



were much hardier against drought than 
plants produced from cuttings. The base 
of the stem of the seedlings swells out like 
a carrot, and this probably enables them to 
tide through the dry season in safety. 

Tin Production of Cornwall. A review, 
by Mr. J. H. Collins, of the tin production 
of Cornwall during seven centuries shows 
how rapidly it has grown. An extensive com- 
merce in the metal was already carried on 
in extremely ancient times. In the thirteenth 
century of our era, 486 tons of tin were 
taken annually from the mines ; in the four- 
teenth century, 828 tons ; in the fifteenth 
century, 732 tons ; in the sixteenth century, 
802 tons ; in the seventeenth century, 1,300 
tons ; in the eighteenth century, 3,93S tons ; 
and in the nineteenth century (ninety years), 
8,795 tons. The total quantity raised is not 
less than 1,938,800 tons. The mean aver- 
age for the fifty years ending in 1849 was 
6,008 tons per year, and for the fifty years 
ending in 18S9, 12,278 tons per year. This 
remarkable increase during the last forty 
years has been in the face of extensive pro- 
duction in the Strait of Malacca and Aus- 
tralia. Of sudden advances in production, 
the most noticeable, in the latter part of 
the fourteenth century, was probably occa- 
sioned by the great demand for bell-metal. 
The second period of rapid advance was in 
the latter part of the eighteenth century, 
when bronze was commonly used for can- 
non. The third period is that of the general 
use of tinned metals. 



NOTES. 

Involuntary Movements. The article 
on Involuntary Movements, by Prof. Jas- 
trow, published in the April number, will 
appear in a more extended form in the forth- 
coming issue of the American Journal of 
Psychology. 

A promising account is given of the cop- 
per mines of French Congo. They lie in the 
district around the source of the Ludima- 
Niadi, about two days south of Stephanie- 
ville. The ore, a malachite, is brought to 
the surface by about three hundred and fifty 
negroes, whose methods of work are ex- 
tremely simple. They reach the mineral by 
digging out, with implements of hard wood, 
holes or shafts three feet wide and twice 
as deep. The malachite is broken on the 
ground, and afterward when pulverized is 
put into a furnace on a tray with charcoal, 



144 



THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 



on which bellows arc made to play. In due 
time the tray is removed by means of pieces 
of bamboo and the metal is poured into sand 
molds. The entire distiict is said to be rich 
in copper, and masses of malachite are fre- 
quently found in the Ludima. 

It has been shown by Mr. Aitken that 
the presence of dust, affording a free surface 
on which vapor may condense, is essential to 
the production of fog. The specific action 
of the dust varies considerably according to 
its composition and to the size and abun- 
dance of the particles present. Sulphur 
burned in the air is an active fog-producer ; 
so are salt and hygroscopic bodies generally. 
Non-hygroscopic bodies also produce it, es- 
pecially if they are good radiators of heat. 
The exceedingly minute amount of matter 
capable of inducing fog is a noticeable feat- 
ure in the investigation. The condensation 
of moisture upon dust offers an effective 
process for removing all kinds of impurities 
from the air, for the floaticles are weighted 
by the moisture settling upon them. 



OBITUARY NOTES, 
Sir Andrew Crombie Ramsay, an emi- 
nent British geologist of the last generation, 
died December 9, 1891, at the age of about 
seventy-six years. He was first brought into 
notice by a geological model of the isle of 
Arran, constructed from his own survey, 
which he exhibited at the Glasgow meeting 
of the British Association in 1840. He was 
afterward appointed, through the influence 
of Sir Roderick I. Murchison, on the Geo- 
logical Survey, with which he labored in 
"Wales. His monograph on the geology of 
North "Wales presented the results of his 
labors in this field. Between 1848 and 1851 
he was Professor of Geology in University Col- 
lege, London; in 1851 he was chosen one of 
the professors of the newly founded School 
of Mines. As a geological lecturer, the Athe- 
nffium says, he probably never had an equal. 
He retired from active life about ten years 
ago. 

Herr J. W. Ewald, a well-known Ger- 
man geologist, died in Berlin in December, 
1891, aged eighty-one years. He was the 
traveling companion of Leopold von Buch 
in his scientific expedition ; succeeded him 
as a member of the Berlin Academy of Sci- 
ences ; and issued, in conjunction with Roth 
and Eck, a collected edition of his works. 

Mr. Henry "YV. Bates, an English natu- 
ralist, died February 27th, in the sixty-eighth 
year of his age. In 1848 he went with Al- 
fred Russel Wallace on a natural-history ex- 
ploration of the Amazons, where he remained 
for several years after Mr. Wallace returned 
home. On his return he published a paper 
on "mimetic resemblance" in animals, re- 
cording some of the first observations made 
on that subject. After 1864 he was As- 
sistant Secretary of the Royal Geographical 



Society, and editor of its journal and pro- 
ceedings. He was the author of the books, 
The Naturalist on the River Amazon, Illus- 
trated Travels, The German Arctic Expedi- 
tion of 1869-'70, and Central America, West 
Indies, and South America. 

The death is announced from St. Peters- 
burg of the African traveler and naturalist, 
Dr. Wilhelm Junker. He made several valu- 
able explorations in central Africa, in the 
country west of the Nile, and between the 
Bahr-el-Gazel and the equator; among the 
Niam Niams ; and of the course of the river 
Welle. 

Prof. "William Guy Peck, of Columbia 
College, died suddenly, February 7th, in the 
seventy-third year of his age. Besides sev- 
eral text-books in mathematics, he published 
The Elements of Mechanics in 1859, an edi- 
tion of Ganot's Physics in 1860, and was 
joint editor with Charles Davies of the 
Mathematical Dictionary and Cyclopaedia of 
the Mathematical Sciences. 

John Francis Williams, Professor of 
Geology and Mineralogy in Cornell Universi- 
ty, who died last November, was only twenty- 
nine years old ; yet he had, after taking his 
degree at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Insti- 
tute, studied three years at Gottingen, acted 
as assistant to Dr. Klein in Berlin, served 
as curator of the mineralogical and geologi- 
cal collection of Pratt Institute, participated 
in an important part of the State survey of 
Arkansas, collecting minerals for a complete 
report on the mineralogy and petrography 
of the State, and published several impor- 
tant papers and two (including one in press) 
large works on subjects within the sphere of 
his specialty. 

Prof. Sereno Watson, Curator of the 
Harvard Herbarium, died in Cambridge, 
Mass., March 9th, in the seventy-second year 
of his age. He was graduated from Yale Col- 
lege in 1847 ; served as a tutor in Iowa Uni- 
versity; studied medicine and practiced it 
for two years ; was engaged in business in 
Alabama, where he also paid some attention 
to botany ; afterward co-operated in literary 
work with Dr. Henry Barnard at Hartford, 
Ccnn. ; was botanist of the surveying expe- 
dition of the fortieth parallel, or Clarence 
King Expedition; and after 1870 passed 
most of his time at Cambridge in the study 
of the North American flora. He published 
an Index to North American Botany; in 
conjunction with Prof. Gray and Prof. Brewer, 
the Botany of California; completed the 
work of Lesquereux and James on Ameri- 
can Mosses; and after Prof. Gray's death 
became curator of the university herbarium, 
and continued the editing of the Synoptical 
Flora of North America. He was botanical 
editor of the earlier volumes of the Century 
Dictionary, and published many papers in 
the Proceedings of the American Academy 
of Arts and Sciences. 







WILLIAM HUGGINS. 



-tofRuttiTiLE Libra 1 " 

NEW YORK. 
THE 

POPULAR SCIENCE 
MONTHLY. 



JUNE, 1892. 



NEW CHAPTERS IN THE WARFARE OF SCIENCE. 

XVI. THE KETREAT OF THEOLOGY IN THE GALILEO CASE. 
By ANDREW DICKSON WHITE, LL.D., L. H. D., 



EX-PRESIDENT OF CORNELL UNIVERSITY. 



ANY history of the victory of astronomical science over the- 
- ology would be incomplete without some account of the 
retreat made by the Church from all its former positions in the 
Galileo case. 

The retreat of the Protestant theologians was not difficult. A 
little skillful warping of Scripture, and a little skillful use of that 
time-honored phrase attributed to Cardinal Baronius, that the 
Bible is given to teach us, not how the heavens go, but how men 
go to heaven, sufficed. 

But in the older Church it was far less easy. The retreat of 
the sacro-scientific army of Church apologists lasted through two 
centuries. 

In spite of all that has been said by these apologists, there no 
longer remains the shadow of a doubt that the papal infallibility 
was committed fully and irrevocably against the double revolu- 
tion of the earth. As the documents of Galileo's trial now pub- 
lished show, Paul V pushed on with all his might the condemna- 
tion of Galileo in 1616, and the condemnation in that same year 
of the works of Copernicus and all others teaching the motion of 
the earth around its own axis and around the sun. So, too, in the 
condemnation of Galileo in 1633, and in all the proceedings which 
led up to it and which followed it, Urban VIII was the central 
figure. Without his sanction no action could have been taken. 

True, the Pope did not formally sign the degree against the 
Copernican theory then; but this came later: in 1664 Alexander 
VII prefixed to the Index containing the condemnations of the 

VOL. XLI. 13 



146 THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

works of Copernicus and Galileo and " all books which affirm the 
motion of the earth/' a papal bull signed by himself, binding the 
contents of the Index upon the consciences of the faithful. This 
bull confirmed and approved in express terms, finally, deci- 
sively, and infallibly, the condemnation of " all books teaching 
the movement of the earth and the stability of the sun." * 

The position of the mother Church, then, was especially diffi- 
cult. The first important move in retreat by the apologists was 
the statement that Galileo was condemned, not because he affirmed 
the motion of the earth, but because he supported it from Script- 
ure. There was a slight appearance of truth in this. Undoubt- 
edly, Galileo's letters to Castelli and the grand duchess, in which 
he attempted to show that his astronomical doctrines were not 
opposed to Scripture, gave a new stir to religious bigotry. For 
a considerable time, then, this quibble served its purpose ; even a 
hundred and fifty years after Galileo's condemnation it was re- 
newed by the Protestant, Mallet du Pan, in his wish to gain favor 
from the older Church. 

But nothing can be more absurd, in the light of the original 
documents recently brought out of the Vatican archives, than to 
make this contention now. The letters of Galileo to Castelli and 
the grand duchess were not published until after the condemna- 
tion ; and, although the Archbishop of Pisa had endeavored to 
use them against him, they were but casually mentioned in 1616, 
and entirely left out of view in 1633. What was condemned in 
1616 by the Sacred Congregation held in the presence of Pope 
Paul V, as " absurd, false in theology, and heretical, because abso- 
lutely contrary to Holy Scripture," was the proposition that " the 
sun is the center about which the earth revolves" ; and what was 
condemned as " absurd, false in philosophy , and from a theologic 
point of view, at least, opposed to the true faith," was the propo- 
sition that " the earth is not the center of the universe and immov- 
able, but has a diurnal motion." 

And again, what Galileo was made, by express order of Pope 
Urban, and by the action of the Inquisition under threat of torture, 
to abjure in 1633 was " the error and heresy of the movement of 
the earth." 

What the Index condemned under sanction of the bull issued 
by Alexander VII in 1664 was, " all boohs teaching the movement 
of the earth and the stability of the sun." 

* See Rev. William W. Roberts, The Pontifical Decrees against the Doctrine of the 
Earth's Movement, London, 1885, p. 94; and for the text of the papal bull, Speculators 
domus Israel, pp. 132, 133. See also St. George Mivart's article in the Nineteenth Century 
for July, 1885. For the authentic publication of the bull, see preface to the Index of 1664, 
where the bull appears, signed by the Pope. The Rev. Mr. Roberts and Mr. St. George 
Mivart are Roman Catholics, and both acknowledge that the papal sanction was fully given. 



NEW CHAPTERS IN THE WARFARE OF SCIENCE. 147 

"What the Index, prefaced by papal bulls, binding its contents 
upon the consciences of the faithful, for two hundred years stead- 
ily condemned, was "all books which affirm the motion of the 
earth." 

Not one of these condemnations was directed against Galileo 
" for reconciling his ideas with Scripture." * 

Having been dislodged from this point, the Church apologists 
sought cover under the statement that Galileo was condemned, not 
for heresy, but for contumacy, and for wanting in respect to the 
Pope. 

There was a slight chance, also, for this quibble: no doubt 
Urban VIII, one of the haughtiest of pontiffs, was induced by 
Galileo's enemies to think that he had been treated with some 
lack of proper etiquette : first, by Galileo's adhesion to his own 
doctrines after his condemnation in 1616 ; and, next, by his sup- 
posed reference in the Dialogue of 1632 to the arguments which 
the Pope had used against him. 

But it would seem to be a very poor service rendered to the 
doctrine of papal infallibility to claim that a decision, so immense 
in its consequences, could be influenced by the personal resent- 
ment of the reigning pontiff. 

Again, as to the first point, the very language of the various 
sentences shows the folly of this assertion ; these sentences speak 
steadily of " heresy," and never of " contumacy." As to the last 
point, the display of the original documents settled that forever. 
They show Galileo from first to last as most submissive toward 
the Pope, and patient under the papal arguments and exactions. 
He had, indeed, expressed his anger at times against his traducers ; 
but to hold this the cause of the judgment against him is to de- 
grade the whole proceedings, and to convict Paul V, Urban VIII, 
Bellarmin, the other theologians, and the Inquisition, of direct 
falsehood, since they assigned entirely different reasons for their 
conduct. From this position, therefore, the assailants retreated, f 

The next rally was made about the statement that the perse- 
cution of Galileo was the result of a quarrel between Aristotelian 
professors on one side and professors favoring the experimental 



* See the original trial documents, copied carefully from the Vatican manuscripts ; see 
the Roman Catholic authority, L'Epinois, especially p. 35, where the principal document is 
given in its original Latin ; see, also, Gebler, Die Acten des Galilei'schen Processes, for 
still more complete copies of the same documents. For minute information regarding these 
documents and their publication, see Favaro, Miscellanea Galileana Inedita, forming vol. 
xxii, part iii, of the Memoirs of the Venetian Institute for 1887, and especially pp. 891 
and following. 

f The invention of the " contumacy " quibble seems due to Monsignor Marini, who ap- 
pears also to have manipulated the original documents to prove it. Even Whewell appears 
to have been somewhat misled by him, but Whewell wrote before L'Epinois had shown all 
the documents, and under the supposition that Marini was an honest man. 



148 THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

method on the other. But this position was attacked and car- 
ried hy a very simple statement. If the divine guidance of the 
Church is such that it can he dragged into a professorial squabble, 
and made the tool of a faction in bringing about a most disas- 
trous condemnation of a proved truth, how did the Church at that 
time differ from any human organization sunk into decrepitude, 
managed nominally by simpletons, but really by schemers ? If 
that argument be true, the condition of the Church was worse 
than its enemies have declared it : amid the jeers of an unfeeling 
world the apologists sought new shelter. 

The next point at which a stand was made was the assertion 
that the condemnation of Galileo was "provisory"; but this 
proved a more treacherous shelter than the other. When doctrines 
have been solemnly declared, as those of Galileo were solemnly 
declared by the highest authority in the Church, " contrary to the 
sacred Scriptures/' " opposed to the true faith," and " false and 
absurd in theology and philosophy ; " to say that such declara- 
tions are " provisory," is to say that the truth held by the Church 
is not immutable; from this, then, the apologists retreated.* 

Still another contention was made in some respects more 
curious than any other ; it was, mainly, that Galileo " was no 
more a victim of Catholics than of Protestants ; for they more 
than the Catholic theologians impelled the Pope to the action 
taken." \ 

But if Protestantism could force the papal hand in a matter of 
this magnitude involving vast questions of belief and far-reach- 
ing questions of policy what becomes of " inerrancy," of special 
protection and guidance of the papal authority in matters of faith ? 

While this retreat from position to position was going on, 
there was a constant discharge of small-arms, in the shape of 
innuendoes, hints, and sophistries : every effort was made to 
blacken Galileo's private character ; the irregularities of his early 
life were dragged forth, and stress even was laid upon breaches 
of etiquette ; but this succeeded so poorly that even as far back 
as 1850 it was thought necessary to cover this retreat by some 
more careful strategy. 

This strategy is instructive. The original documents of the 
Galileo trial had been brought during the Napoleonic conquests 
to Paris ; but in 1846 they were returned to Rome by the French 
Government, on the express pledge by the papal authorities that 

* This argument also seems to have been foisted upon the world by the wily Monsignor 
Harini. 

f See the Rev. A. M. Kirsch on Professor Huxley and Evolution, in The American 
Catholic Quarterly, October, 1877. The article is, as a whole, remarkably fair-minded, and 
in the main just, as to the Protestant attitude, and as to the causes underlying the whole 
action against Galileo. 



NEW CHAPTERS IN THE WARFARE OF SCIENCE. 149 

they should be published. In 1850, after various delays on vari- 
ous pretexts, the long-expected publication appeared. The per- 
sonage charged with presenting them to the world was Monsignor 
Marini. This ecclesiastic was of a kind which has too often 
afflicted both the Church and the world at large. Despite the 
solemn promise of the papal court, the wily Marini became the 
instrument of the Roman authorities in evading the promise. By 
suppressing a document here, and interpolating a statement there, 
he managed to give plausible standing-ground for nearly every 
important sophistry ever broached to save the infallibility of the 
Church and destroy the reputation of Galileo. He it was who 
supported the idea that Galileo was " condemned, not for heresy, 
but for contumacy," and various other assertions as groundless. 

The first effect of Monsignor Marini's book seemed useful in 
covering the retreat of the Church apologists. Aided by him, 
such vigorous writers as Ward were able to throw up temporary 
intrenchments between the Roman authorities and the indigna- 
tion of the world. 

But some time later came an investigator very different from 
Monsignor Marini. This was a Frenchman, M. L'Epinois. Like 
Marini, L'Epinois was devoted to the Church ; but, unlike Marini, 
he could not lie. Havrhg obtained access in 1867 to the Galileo 
documents at the Vatican, he published fully several of the most 
important, without suppression or piously-fraudulent manipula- 
tion. This made all the intrenchments based upon Marini's 
statements untenable. Another retreat had to be made. 

And now came the most desperate effort of all. The apolo- 
getic army, reviving an idea which the popes and Church had 
spurned for centuries, declared that the popes as popes had never 
condemned the doctrines of Copernicus and Galileo ; that they 
had condemned them as men simply ; that therefore the Church 
had never been committed to them ; that the condemnation was 
made by the cardinals of the Inquisition and Index ; and that the 
Pope had evidently been restrained by interposition of Providence 
from signing their condemnation. Nothing could show the des- 
peration of the retreating party better than jugglery like this. 
The facts are, that in the official account of the condemnation by 
Bellarmin, in 1616, he declares distinctly that he makes this con- 
demnation " in the name of his Holiness the Pope." * 

Again, from Pope Urban downward, among the Church au- 
thorities of the seventeenth century, the decision was always 
acknowledged to be made by the Pope and the Church. Urban 
VIII spoke of that of 1616 as made by Pope Paul V and the 
Church, and of that of 1633 as made by himself and the Church. 



* See the citation from the Vatican manuscript given in Gebler, p. T8. 



i 5 o THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

Pope Alexander VII in 1G64, in his bull " Speculatores," solemnly 
sanctioned the condemnation of all books affirming the earth's 
movement.* 

When Gassendi attempted to raise the point that the decision 
against Copernicus and Galileo was not sanctioned by the Church 
as such, an eminent theological authority, Father Lecazre, rector 
of the College of Dijon, publicly contradicted him, and declared 
that it " was not certain cardinals, but the supreme authority of 
the Church," that had condemned Galileo ; and to this statement 
the Pope and other Church authorities gave consent either openly 
or by silence. When Descartes and others attempted to raise the 
same point, they were treated with contempt. Father Castelli, 
who had devoted himself to Galileo, and knew to his cost just 
what the condemnation meant and who made it, takes it for 
granted in his letter to the papal authorities that it was made by 
the Church. Cardinal Querenghi, in his letters ; the ambassador 
Guicciardini, in his dispatches ; Polacco, in his refutation ; the 
historian Yiviani, in his biography of Galileo all writing under 
Church inspection and approval at the time, took the view that 
the Pope and Church condemned Galileo, and this was never 
denied at Rome. The Inquisition itself, backed by the greatest 
theologian of the time, Bellarmin, took the same view. Not only 
does he declare that he makes the condemnation " in the name of 
his Holiness the Pope," but we have the Roman Index, contain- 
ing the condemnation for nearly two hundred years, prefaced by 
a solemn bull of the reigning Pope binding this condemnation on 
the consciences of the whole Church, and declaring year after 
year that " all books which affirm the motion of the earth " are 
damnable. To attempt to face all this, added to the fact that 
Galileo was required to abjure " the heresy of the movement of 
the earth " by written order of the Pope, was soon seen to be im- 
possible. Against the assertion that the Pope was not responsi- 
ble we have all this mass of testimony, and the bull of Alexander 
VII in 1664. f 

This contention, then, was at last utterly given up by honest 

* For references by Urban VIII to the condemnation as made by Pope Paul V, see pp. 
136, 144, and elsewhere in Martin, who much against his will is forced to allow this. See 
also Roberts, Pontifical Decrees against the Earth's Movement, and St. George Mivart's 
article, as above quoted ; also Reusch, Der Index verbotenen Biicher, Bonn, 1885, vol. ii, 
pp. 29 et seq. 

j- For Lecazre's answer to Gassendi, see Martin, pp. 146, 147. For the attempt to 
make the crime of Galileo a breach of etiquette, see Dublin Review, as above. Whewell, 
vol. i, p. 283. Citation from Marini : " Galileo was punished for trifling with the authori- 
ties, to which he refused to submit, and was punished for obstinate contumacy, not heresy." 
The sufficient answer to all this is that the words of the inflexible sentence designating the 
condemned books are " Libri omnes qui affirmant telluris motum." See Bertrand, p. 59. 
As to the idea that " Galileo was punished, not for his opinion, but for basing it on Script- 



NEW CHAPTERS IN THE WARFARE OF SCIENCE. 151 

Catholics themselves. In 1870 a Roman Catholic clergyman in 
England, the Rev. Mr. Roberts, evidently thinking that the time 
had come to tell the truth, published a book entitled The Pontifi- 
cal Decrees against the Earth's Movement. In this were exhib- 
ited the incontrovertible evidences that the papacy had committed 
itself and its infallibility fully against the movement of the earth. 
The Rev. Mr. Roberts showed from the original record that Pope 
Paul V, in 1G1G, had presided over the tribunal condemning the 
doctrine of the earth's movement, and ordering Galileo to give up 
the opinion. He showed that Pope Urban VIII, in 1633, pressed 
on, directed, and promulgated the final condemnation, making 
himself in all these ways responsible for it. And, finally, he 
showed that Pope Alexander VII, in 1664, by his bull, Specula- 
tores domus Israel, attached to the Index, condemning " all books 
which affirm the motion of the earth," had absolutely pledged the 
papal infallibility against the earth's movement. He also con- 
fessed that under the rules laid down by the highest authorities 
in the Church, and especially by Sixtus V and Pius IX, there was 
no escape from this conclusion. 

Various theologians attempted to evade the force of the argu- 
ment. Some, like Dr. Ward and Bouix, took refuge in verbal 
niceties ; some, like Dr. Jeremiah Murphy, comforted themselves 
with declamation. The only result was, that in 1885 came an- 
other edition of the Rev. Mr. Roberts's work, even more cogent 
than the first ; and, besides this, an essay by that eminent Catholic, 
St. George Mivart, acknowledging the Rev. Mr. Roberts's position 
to be impregnable, and declaring virtually that the Almighty 
allowed Pope and Church to fall into complete error regarding 
the Copernican theory, in order to teach them that science lies 
outside their province, and that the true priesthood of scientific 
truth rests with scientific investigators alone.* 

In spite, then, of all casuistry and special pleading, this sturdy 
honesty ended the controversy among Catholics themselves, so 
far as fair-minded men are concerned. 

ure," the answer may be found in the Roman Index of 1704, in which are noted for con- 
demnation "Libri omnes docentes mobilitatem terra? et immobilitatem solis." For the 
way in which, when it was found convenient in argument, Church apologists insisted that 
it was " the Supreme Chief of the Church by a pontifical decree and not certain cardinals " 
who condemned Galileo and his doctrine, see Father Lecazre's letter to Gassendi, in Flam- 
marion, Pluralit6 des Mondes, p. 427, and Urban VIII's own declarations as given by 
Martin. For the way in which, when necessary, Church apologists asserted the very con- 
trary of this, declaring that " it was issued in a doctrinal decree of the Congregation of the 
Index, and not as the Holy Father's teaching," see Dublin Review, September, 1865. 

* For this crushing answer, and by two eminent Roman Catholics, to the sophistries 
cited an answer which does infinitely more credit to the older Church than all the per- 
verted ingenuity used in concealing the truth or breaking the force of it see Roberts and 
St. George Mivart, as already cited. 



152 THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

In recalling it at this day there stand out from its later phases 
two efforts at compromise especially instructive, as showing the 
embarrassment of militant theology in the nineteenth century. 

The first of these was made by John Henry Newman in the 
days when he was hovering between the Anglican and Roman 
Churches. In one of his sermons before the University of Oxford 
he spoke as follows : 

" Scripture says that the sun moves and the earth is stationary, 
and science that the earth moves and the sun is comparatively at 
rest. How can we determine which of these opposite statements 
is the very truth till we know what motion is ? If our idea of 
motion is but an accidental result of our present senses, neither 
proposition is true and both are true : neither true philosophi- 
cally ; both true for certain practical purposes in the system in 
which they are respectively found." 

In all anti-theological literature there is no utterance more 
hopelessly skeptical. And for what were the youth of Oxford 
led into such bottomless depths of disbelief as to any real exist- 
ence of truth or any real foundation for it ? Simply to save an 
outworn system of interpretation into which the gifted preacher 
happened to be born. 

The other utterance was suggested by De Bonald and devel- 
oped in the Dublin Review, as is understood, by one of Newman's 
associates. This argument was nothing less than an attempt to 
retreat under the charge of deception against the Almighty him- 
self. It is as follows : " But it may well be doubted whether the 
Church did retard the progress of scientific truth. What re- 
tarded it was the circumstance that God has thought fit to ex- 
press many texts of Scripture in words which have every appear- 
ance of denying the earth's motion. But it is God who did this, 
not the Church ; and, moreover, since he saw fit so to act as to re- 
tard the progress of scientific truth, it would be little to her dis- 
credit, even if it were true, that she had followed his example." 

This argument, like Mr. Gosse's famous attempt to reconcile 
geology to Genesis by supposing that for some inscrutable pur- 
pose God deliberately deceived the thinking world by giving to 
the earth all the appearances of development through long periods 
of time, while really creating it in six days, each of an evening 
and a morning seems only to have awakened the amazed pity of 
thinking men. This, like the argument of Newman, was the last 
desperate effort of Anglican and Roman divines to save some- 
thing from the wreckage of theology.* 

* For the quotation from Newman, see his Sermons on the Theory of Religious Belief, 
sermon xiv, cited by Bishop Goodwin in Contemporary Review for January, 1892. For the 
attempt to take the blame off the shoulders of both Pope and cardinals, and place it upon 
the Almighty, see the article above cited, in the Dublin Review, September, 1865, p. 419, 



NEW CHAPTERS IN THE WARFARE OF SCIENCE. 153 

All these well-meaning defenders of the faith have but wrought 
into the hearts of great numbers of thinking men the idea that 
there is a necessary antagonism between science and religion. 
Like the landsman who lashes himself to the anchor of the sink- 
ing ship, they have attached Christianity by the strongest cords 
of logic which they could spin to these mistaken ideas in science, 
and, could they have had their way, the advance of knowledge 
would have ingulfed both together. 

On the other hand, what has science done for religion ? 
Simply this: Copernicus, escaping persecution only by death; 
Giordano Bruno, burned alive as a monster of impiety ; Galileo, 
imprisoned and humiliated as the worst of misbelievers ; Kepler, 
hunted alike by Protestant and Catholic gave to religion new 
foundations, new and more ennobling conceptions. 

Under the old system, that princely astronomer, Alphonso of 
Castile, seeing the inadequacy of the Ptolemaic theory, yet know- 
ing no other, startled Europe with the blasphemy that, if he had 
been present at creation, he could have suggested a better order 
of the heavenly bodies. Under the new system, Kepler, filled with 
a religious spirit, exclaimed, " I do think the thoughts of God." 
The difference in religious spirit between these two men marks 
the conquest made in this long struggle by Science for Religion.* 

Nothing is more unjust than to cast especial blame for all this 
resistance to science upon the Roman Church. The Protestant 
Church, though rarely able to be so severe, has been more blame- 
worthy. The persecution of Galileo and his compeers by the 
older Church was mainly at the beginning of the seventeenth 
century ; the persecution of Robertson Smith, and Winchell, and 
Woodrow, and Toy, and the young professors at Beyrout, by 
various Protestant authorities, was near the end of the nineteenth 
century. Those earlier persecutions by Catholicism were strictly 
in accordance with principles held at that time by all religionists, 
Catholic and Protestant, throughout the world ; these later per- 
secutions by Protestants were in defiance of principles which all 
Christendom to-day holds or pretends to hold, and none make 
louder claim to hold them than the very sects which persecuted 
these eminent Christian men of our day, whose crime was that 
they were intelligent enough to accept the science of their time, 
and honest enough to acknowledge it. 

and July, 1871, pp. 157 et seq. For a good summary of the various attempts, and for 
replies to them in a spirit of judicial fairness, see Th. Martin, Vie de Galilee, though there 
is some special pleading to save the infallibility of Pope and Church. The bibliography at 
the close is very valuable. For details of Mr. Gosse's theory, as developed in his Om- 
phalos, see my chapter on Geology. 

* As a pendant to this ejaculation of Kepler may be cited the words of Linnaeus : 
" Deum omnipotentem a tergo transeuntem vidi et obstupui." 



i 5 4 THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

Nor can Protestantism rightly taunt Catholicism for excluding 
knowledge of astronomical truths from European Catholic uni- 
versities in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, while real 
knowledge of geological and biological and anthropological truth 
is denied or pitifully diluted in so many American Protestant 
colleges and universities in the nineteenth century. 

Nor has Protestantism the right to point with scorn to the 
Catholic " Index/' and call attention to the fact that nearly every 
really important book in the last three centuries has been for- 
bidden by it, so long as young men in so many American Protest- 
ant universities and colleges, and university extension schemes, 
and " approved courses of reading/' are filled with " ecclesiastical 
pap " rather than with real thought, and directed to the works of 
" solemnly constituted impostors," while they are studiously kept 
away from such leaders in modern thought as Darwin, Spencer, 
Huxley, Draper, and Lecky. 

It may indeed be justly claimed by Protestantism that some of 
the former strongholds of her bigotry have become liberalized ; 
but, on the other hand, Catholicism can point to the fact that 
Pope Leo XIII, now happily reigning, has made a noble change 
as regards open dealing with documents. The days of Monsignor 
Marini, it may be hoped, are gone. The Vatican Library, with its 
masses of historical material, has been thrown open to Protestant 
and Catholic scholars alike, and this privilege has been freely 
used by men representing all shades of religious thought. 

As to the older errors, the whole civilized world was at fault 
Protestant as well as Catholic. It was not the fault of religion ; 
it was the fault of that short-sighted linking of theological dogmas 
to scriptural texts which, in utter defiance of the words and works 
of the Blessed Founder of Christianity, narrow-minded, loud- 
voiced men are ever prone to substitute for religion. Justly is it 
said by one of the most eminent among contemporary Anglican 
divines that " it is because they have mistaken the dawn for a 
conflagration that theologians have so often been foes of light." * 

* For an exceedingly striking statement, by a Roman Catholic historian of genius, as to 
the pojndar demand for persecution and the pressure of the lower strata in ecclesiastical or- 
ganizations for cruel measures, see Balmes's Le Protestantisme compare au Catholicisme, 
etc., fourth edition, Paris, 1855, vol. ii. Archbishop Spaulding has something of the same 
sort in his Miscellanies. L'Epinois, Galilee, pp. 22 et seq., stretches this as far as possible 
to save the reputation of the Church in the Galileo matter. As to the various branches of 
the Protestant Church in England and the United States, it is a matter of notoriety that 
the smug, well-to-do laymen, whether elders, deacons, or vestrymen, are, as a rule, far 
more prone to heresy-hunting than are their better-educated pastors. As to the cases of 
Messrs. Winchell, Woodrow, Toy, and the professors at Beyrout, with details, see the 
chapter in this series on The Fall of Man and Anthropology. Among Protestant histori- 
ans who have been recently allowed full and free examination of the treasures in the 
Vatican Library, and even those involving questions between Catholicism and Protestant- 



FIRST ACTIONS OF WOUNDED SOLDIERS. 155 
FIRST ACTIONS OF WOUNDED SOLDIERS. 

By GEOEGE L. KILMER. 

AFTER observing for thirty years the questions of the curi- 
ous on the subject of battle-field experiences, I should say 
that nine times out of ten the one first asked by a layman, old or 
young, relates to the sensations of a soldier when wounded. 
Even though the questioner has been maimed in a railway 
smash-up, or torn or fractured or bruised in some peaceful and 
therefore safe (?) occupation, the interest is the same, on the sup- 
position, doubtless, that to be hurt by one of the engines of 
destruction in war is productive of unique sensations. 

First of all, generalizations will not cover this intricate and 
expansive subject. An infantry soldier at Gaines's Mill, who 
was hit in the knee by a bullet and ultimately died of the wound, 
said that he thought he had run against a standing thistle ; and 
the fact that he marched on, until his comrades drew his attention 
to blood flowing down his leg, indicates that he did not make too 
light of the first sensation. An officer, whose ankle was shattered 
by a bullet as he stood upon a pile of fence-rails to reconnoitre, 
thought that a rail had turned under his weight and sprained the 
joint. He felt only a slight burning sensation, although the 
wound proved a mortal one in the end. On the other hand, a 
strapping, coarse-grained fellow, whom I knew well, and often 
remarked making light of the very idea of pain and suffering, 
quickly collapsed under a wound that he survived. And well he 
might. He was hit by a section of mortar-shell weighing three 
or four pounds that cut edgewise through his thigh, bone and 
all. He happened to be resting with his thighs across a small 
log that served as a block to the jagged cleaver. I was look- 
ing into his face, about to speak to him, at the very moment the 
missile struck, and, despite his callous fiber and almost brutal 
stoicism, he winced as though he felt exactly as a human being 
might be supposed to feel under such a blow all " broken up " 
by the calamity. 

"Wounds that almost kill on the spot seem to be the least felt 
at the outset. Slight ones often produce enough disturbance to 
suggest the work of a dozen death-hurts. A spent missile that 
only raises a lump will make the victim feel as though an arsenal 
full of balls had struck him ; and often soldiers with ghastly mor- 

ism, are Von Sybel, of Berlin, and Philip Schaff, of New York. And it should be added 
that the latter went with commendatory letters from eminent prelates of the Catholic 
Church in Europe and America. For the closing citation, see Canon Farrar, History of 
Interpretation, p. 432. 



156 THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

tal wounds insist that nothing serious is the matter, and act up to 
the idea until death or nervous exhaustion lays them low. 

This much, however, may be said in a general way : When 
felt at all, bullets through the flesh usually produce a burning 
sensation more or less acute. "When bones are broken, stinging 
accompanies the burning. When bones are hit but not broken, 
there is a numbing sensation in the whole region involved in the 
shock, followed very soon by severe and sometimes intense pain. 
When muscles and tendons are involved, there is a tugging sen- 
sation, sometimes very slight, and shell-wounds produce feelings 
similar to those by bullets, more or less exaggerated, according to 
the size of the missile and the degree of velocity. Bayonet- 
wounds I never saw except upon corpses for I was not a hospital 
attendant and as for cannon-balls, they do not, as a rule, leave 
anything behind to exhibit feelings.* 

Again, a soldier may receive two or even more hits so close 
together as to produce counter-sensations. I once saw my com- 
manding officer prostrated by a piece of shell that shattered his 
thigh-bone. While he was falling, pieces of another shell hit 
him in the arm and hand, and a piece of a third shell quickly fol- 
lowing grazed the crown of his head. He has always believed 
that he felt three ways at once during those few seconds, and he 
is very positive that he felt badly hurt, and cordially wished to be 
out of it. 

Not infrequently, too, when a victim has been spared the 
smallest amount of vitality after the impulse of anger is cut 
short by a slashing wound, he feels very much as did an enthusi- 
astic tar upon a trying occasion. In an affair now memorable in 
history, a certain war-vessel's crew was compelled by the eti- 
quette of the service to stand by and see their country's flag 
hauled down in contempt, without being given a chance to strike 
in its defense. " It was the saddest hour of my whole life," said 
one of them, " and for quite a spell I alternated between a desire 
either to cry like a baby or swear like a pirate." 

All this preliminary to a paper the scope of which is only 
partially suggested by the title. Poets and orators, who take a 
wholly sentimental point of view, ask the world to accept the 
notion that it is a glorious fortune for the individual man to 
suffer punishment in honorable warfare ; but between the wound 
and the sequence, whether death or the hospital and the scalpel, 

* Experts affirm that a cannon-ball having velocity to keep it in the air will make a 
clean cut of flesh, bones, and ligaments, and not simply tear them, or push them aside as 
with a punch ; and that a ball slowing up and rolling along the ground at the rate at which 
a man moves in rapid walking will crush the bones of a foot or leg that resists it. In 
the civil war spherical and elongated shells usually served the stead of solid cannon- 
balls. 



FIRST ACTIONS OF WOUNDED SOLDIERS. 157 

what are the symptoms, what the actions, ahove all, what the 
conscious feelings of the victim himself, or, as poetical fancy in- 
sists he shall be named, the hero ? How wide or how narrow to 
his vision is the interval between the hard reality and the senti- 
mental ideal ? Flesh and bone of themselves can not be expected 
to rise to the height of the strained occasion. Torn and broken, 
glory never heals the one or sets the other ; and so men's bodies 
will not forever remain insensible to the claims of Nature, even 
though in the excitement of war the mind may be superior to 
every consideration less than heroic. Yes, there must be a time 
when the will of the soldier is at odds with the forces that nor- 
mally rule the sinews and tendons of his frame a time, dear 
poet, when the hero proves to be only a man a creature inspired 
after the flesh as well as after the spirit. 

And now, looking at the soldier as a warring machine, does a 
missile fired into the delicate apparatus bring the whole engine 
quickly to a dead halt ? The world hears so much about the 
Light Brigade at Balaklava that it should be familiar with the 
tragic story of the most noted victim of that affair, Captain No- 
lan. Nolan, as aide-de-camp of the division general, assumed 
to guide the Light Brigade in its awful charge, and, with frantic 
exclamation and vehement gestures with his uplifted sword, he 
rode to the right oblique beyond the head of the reckless column, 
in order to draw the six hundred out of the valley of death, 
which lay directly in their course, off toward a line of flanking 
redoubts which they had been ordered to attack, and where vic- 
tory and not disaster doubtless awaited them. When he was a 
few paces to the right of the leading ranks a piece of shell struck 
him on the chest, tearing into the heart. 

" The sword dropped from his hand," says the minute chroni- 
cle of Kinglake, " but the arm with which he was waving it the 
moment before still remained high uplifted in the air, and the 
grip of the practiced horseman, remaining as yet unrelaxed, still 
held him firm in his saddle. Missing the perfect hand of his 
master, and finding the accustomed governance now succeeded by 
the dangling reins, the horse all at once wheeled about and began 
to gallop back upon the front of the advancing brigade. Then, 
from what had been Nolan and his form was still erect in the 
saddle, his sword-arm still high in the air there burst forth a 
cry so strange and appalling that the hearer who rode nearest 
him called it unearthly. And in truth, I imagine/' continues 
the historian, "the sound resulted from no human will, but 
rather from those spasmodic forces which may act upon the 
bodily frame when life as a power has ceased. The firm-seated 
rider, with arm uplifted and stiff, could hardly be ranked with 
the living. The shriek men heard rending the air was scarce 



i 5 8 THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

other than the shriek of a corpse. The dead horseman rode on 
till he passed through the interval of the Twelfth Light Dra- 
goons. Then at last he dropped out of the saddle/' 

The line between Nolan living and Nolan dead was very nar- 
row, yet the uplifted arm * and the battle-shout ending in an un- 
earthly yell would indicate that the soul of the warrior domi- 
nated every element of activity so long as any activity remained. 
Had Nolan been trotting along in the ranks of the six hundred 
with no other thought than that of keeping in line and getting 
ahead, he would doubtless have gone to the ground like a bolt 
under that blow. 

An experience of the same nature, but at the other extreme, 
was that of General Joseph Hooker at Antietam. On the morn- 
ing of the 17th of September, being in the presence of the enemy 
with his corps, he began a movement to seize high ground on his 
front, and was compelled to pass lengthwise of the Confederate 
line within range of hostile batteries. Soon a strong body of the 
enemy showed itself in his pathway, and in the excitement of 
making new dispositions, and routing and pursuing the Confed- 
erates, the general, to use his own language, " was lifted to the 
skies." " The whole morning has been one of unusual animation 
with me," he wrote also. Yet at the end of the successful attack 
he was removed from his saddle just as he was in the act of falling 
from it, weakened by the loss of blood from a wound of which 
he had not been conscious at all. A musket-ball had passed di- 
rectly through the foot between the arch and the muscles of the 
sole, the seat, as every one knows, of very sensitive nerves. Had 
the general been in a state of moderate repose, as, for instance, 
quietly watching the execution of some movement, the blow 
would have unmanned him, for the moment at least. Intensely 
preoccupied as he was and he had good reason to be, at that 
stage of the battle he did not notice the blow or the sensations 
that accompanied and followed it. He may have carried the 
wound an hour or more before succumbing to the faintness. 

My attention was first drawn to this subject by a strange per- 
sonal experience suspended animation in the body combined with 
partial mental clearness. The facts were of a kind that could be 
recorded with accuracy, and I am able to state them in detail. 
We were in front of the enemy at Fredericksburg Heights, May 
3, 1863, and were lying under the shelter of a low ridge, ex- 
pecting to charge or to repel a charge. The term of service of 
our regiment would expire the day following, and the troops 

* External pressure the weight of the sword and the pulling of the horse at the bit 
would cause relaxation of grip in both sword and bridle hand, and collapse of the chest- 
walls the strange expiratory cry. 



FIRST ACTIONS OF WOUNDED SOLDIERS. 159 

be sent home to disband, and with others I speculated not a little 
on the chances of escape in the impending fight. There had been 
times in my career as a soldier when I was "too anxious for 
wounds and scars/' as General Grant once remarked of Ned 
Buntline, and even at the eleventh hour, with the prospect, as I 
believed, of a speedy return home, I consoled myself with the 
thought that if wounded I would carry a glorious badge on the 
homeward march. But I went into action that day, convinced on 
the whole, that the fellows across the line would not pay special 
attention to me, for I held that I was an indifferent mark for 
good ammunition a lad of seventeen years, small inches, and 
light weight. 

It turned out that our position, though supposed to be well 
sheltered, was closely inspected by a number of Confederate sharp- 
shooters, but, as it was very important that we remain at that 
point, we had to make the best of it. I was near the head of the 
line of the regiment, and, as we lay strung along on the slope of 
the ridge, I could see every man in the command. One after an- 
other the sharpshooters' bullets began to tell. I noticed a lieu- 
tenant in one of the companies moving about on some official 
errand and making a splendid target, and, while I was thinking 
how cool he was, something struck him and twisted his body 
around so that I detected the break in his locomotion. He did not 
halt, but went on calmly and freely for some paces, and in a few 
minutes, having delivered some orders and exchanged words with 
some of his men, he went to the rear with a decided limp. Be- 
tween the moment of his wounding and the accomplishment of his 
purpose he did not limp at all, and probably did not know that he 
was hit (it was a flesh-wound in the thigh) until told of it. Then, 
when he knew what had happened, he yielded to new mental pro- 
cesses and acted as wounded men are supposed to do. When the 
lieutenant had disappeared from view, I turned my face to the 
front, bolstering my trembling hopes with the thought that this 
last victim was a shining mark, as I certainly was not. Besides, 
I believed that the sharpshooters could not get the range on our 
end of the line. Then followed a " thud " close to me, and my 
next sensation was that I was prostrate on the ground, pierced 
through my left arm, heart, and spine with a rod, and pinned to 
the earth. This was the physical sensation, but, of course, was 
not the fact. Then through my brain there flitted quickly a vision 
such as the thought of a battle most commonly brings to mind 
masses of warring men struggling individually for the mastery. 
I seemed to be in the midst of the melee, and with all the indigna- 
tion I could express was shouting to the men in gray, " There, 
you have hit me ! " Next I was being lifted and supported by 
some one, and a voice said, " He isn't hit, but something is the 



160 THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

matter/' " Yes/' said another voice sternly, " he is hit, and as 
good as dead. Take him to the rear." I had so far recovered as 
to comprehend these remarks, and instantly concluded that I was 
the subject of a practical joke. In another moment I was seized 
with the keenest pain I have ever experienced in my life, in the 
region where it had seemed in my swoon that I was run through 
with a rod. Now, what had happened was this : I had been in a 
sitting posture, resting partly on the ground, partly upon my legs 
doubled beneath me, the left hand holding my weapon, the arm 
well braced across my chest so that the middle of the upper bone 
pressed against the heart. On my arm were two shirt sleeves, a 
jacket sleeve, an overcoat sleeve, and the overcoat cape ; and a 
musket-ball moving in the direction of my heart and spine that 
is, obliquely to the front of my person had ticked the limb of a 
bush a few feet away, keeled over, and struck flatwise on the arm, 
imbedding itself in the flannel and the flesh. The bone, protected 
by the clothing, had been the resistant, and the shock, carried to 
the heart and spine, had rendered my body senseless for a time ; 
but the brain, depleted by the ^sudden stoppage of circulation, had 
been abnormally active. The man who exclaimed that I was as 
good as dead had reason to think so. He was on the slope above, 
and was looking at me at the time. He heard the bullet, and saw 
me go down under it " like an ox hit on the head with an axe," as 
he expressed it. He also said that my face changed colors rapidly 
from ghastly white to deep purple, and that I lay on the ground 
so still that he believed for the moment that I was dead. It is 
evident that the fancies of the brain immediately following the 
wound were closely connected with the previous thoughts, for the 
burden of them was surprise and disappointment that, after all, I 
had been hit. It was somewhat singular that in my delirium I 
located my hurt correctly, and had the physical sensation of being 
pinned to the earth by a rod running through the very spot where 
the shock of the blow was keenest.* 

An experience, similar in many respects, befell one of my com- 
panions in arms, Captain W. R. Helms, (Fourteenth New York 
Heavy Artillery, and Sixteenth New York Volunteers) at the battle 
of Gaines's Mill. Helms was a lieutenant at the time, and while 
the regiment was charging to recapture a battery that the Confed- 
erates had just taken and were about to open upon its late owners 
he was hit and went down. He heard his captain give the com- 
mand, " Take his body to the rear," and saw men leave the ranks 

* Statistics on this point have not been widely gathered, but numerous instances have 
been noted where severely wounded men who retained consciousness did not know the loca- 
tion of the hurt until sight or touch revealed it. Physiology accounts for the phenomenon 
in many ways. In my case an unusual area of skin and bone surface received pressure and 
the sensations were unusually strong. 



FIRST ACTIONS OF WOUNDED SOLDIERS. 161 

to respond. He thought that his head only was lifted from the 
ground, and tried to speak, but could not. He recognized a fellow- 
officer who passed at the moment, and remarked upon the accident. 
Then he concluded that the battery had been fired, and that his 
head had been shot off. This puzzled him, and he began to specu- 
late upon the phenomenon of a head carrying on reasoning pro- 
cesses while separated from the body. Was it not a mistake, after 
all, to believe that the soul is located in the body ? Was not the 
experience he was passing through proof that the seat of all con- 
sciousness, will, and reason, and every spiritual attribute was in 
the head ? (Helms was orthodox, and a remark from a skeptical 
physician, some time before, to the effect that dissection revealed 
no such an organ as the soul, had left a strong impression upon 
his young mind. He was yet in his teens.) Metaphysical thoughts 
were at length interrupted by a pricking and stinging sensation 
in the neck, and gradually full consciousness and motor power 
returned. He had been lifted and carried out of the reach of 
balls, head and all intact. A bullet had hit the leather straps of 
his haversack and canteen where they crossed his shoulders, cut- 
ting two and stopping at the third, as they lay close to the neck. 
(The flying ends of the severed straps caught his eye the moment 
it was done.) The collar-bone was broken, and the large muscles 
and tendons of the neck were badly bruised. Evidently there was 
temporary paralysis caused by injury of certain nerves at the 
neck, with but slight derangement of the functions of the organs 
in the head, while the sensory functions of the body were cut off 
from participation in sensations registered at the brain.* 

In contrast with Captain Helms's counterfeit is a case of 
actual decapitation, noted vividly and vividly recalled by com- 
rades of my regiment, particularly by one who was a careful and 
sensitive observer, Captain A. H. De Graff, now an engineering ex- 
pert. On the 17th of June, in the charge of the Ninth Corps on 
the Confederate works east of Petersburg, a sergeant of the 
Fifty-seventh Massachusetts leaped upon the parapet, and, with 
his cap in his left hand and his musket in his right, stood cheer- 
ing and gesturing with his arms to incite his comrades to come 
on. Suddenly a shell took his head off as completely as a knife 
could have done, but the tall form continued erect for some 
seconds, the arms still waving frantically, but with ever-lessening 
sweep and power, until the forces of the body collapsed, when the 
headless trunk toppled over to the ground. f 

* Physiology assumes that complete separation may take place at the Deck and the 
functions of the divided parts go on for a space. A head freshly guillotined gave back 
mocking gestures of the mouth and eyes when a bystander made faces at it. 

f A swift bullet will pass through a pane of glass and not jar it enough to crack it. 
The shell did its work without upsetting the body by the force of the blow. Dr. S. G, 

VOL. XLI. 14 



i62 THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

Virtual subordination of the physical or material senses to the 
nervous centers controlling the intellectual or spiritual faculties, 
and for an appreciable length of time, seems to be quite common 
in wounded men, even in the severest cases. It is easily conceiv- 
able that a thoroughly mad man might ignore an ordinary wound 
until his anger cooled a little ; but that men wounded to the 
death should, even while actually dying, persist in their purposes 
as though nothing had happened, at first staggers belief. Yet 
such things do unquestionably occur. Every veteran of the field 
will recall instances, and history in one way or another records a 
great many. In the attack on the Ninth Corps lines at Peters- 
burg, known as the battle of Fort Steadman, I noticed a mounted 
Confederate officer leading a body of men in a charge upon a can- 
non near which I stood. The last view I had of him and that 
was across the sight of a Springfield rifle showed him riding 
boldly forward,' sword on high. Others saw him later and nearer, 
and his fearless action in riding a white horse under a storm of 
bullets, grape, and shells attracted much notice. Suddenly man 
and horse disappeared, and after the fight we found the bold 
rider lying dead about sixty to eighty yards from our parapet.* 
His form was prostrate, his sword-arm outstretched and grasping 
the weapon firmly, with its point toward the cannon he had aimed 
to capture. His face was partially upturned, as though he had 
struggled at the very last to see something or to speak. The 
horse had wheeled about and gone to the rear some distance, then 
had leaped at a breastwork and fallen dead across it. Whether 
this was after his rider had been hit or before couldn't be deter- 
mined. In any case the Georgia major breathed his last with 
his face to the foe, evidently warlike and defiant in death. His 
wound was in the head. 

An instance similar to the last was that of General Elon J. 
Farns worth, at Gettysburg. At a crisis in a charge, Farnsworth 
raised his saber and rode toward the ranks of the Fifteenth 

Cook, now President of the Board of Police Surgeons in New York city, witnessed a simi- 
lar instance in the Atlanta campaign, where he served as surgeon in the One Hundred and 
Fiftieth New York Volunteers. The doctor, with other officers of the medical corps, was 
riding rapidly across the range of a Confederate battery, which was shelling a column on 
the march. Hearing a " thud " behind, as a shell passed near him, he turned around and 
to his amazement saw that one of his companions, Surgeon H. S. Potter, of the One Hun- 
dred and Fifth Illinois, had been decapitated, and his horse was galloping on with a head- 
loss rider sitting perfectly erect and natural in the saddle. With a little steadying the 
body remained upright until shelter was reached, the pace being all the while a gallop. 

* From conversation with the late Henry W. Grady, respecting his father, who lost his 
life in this attack, I believe this officer to have been Major Grady, of Georgia. I did not 
shoot him. After drawing bead on him perhaps half a dozen times, admiration for his un- 
exampled daring got the better of me, and I lowered the weapon with the exclamation, 
" He is too brave I can't do it." 



FIRST ACTIONS OF WOUNDED SOLDIERS. 163 

Alabama Infantry, meeting a volley of balls. Shortly afterward 
his riderless horse dashed through the regimental lines. The 
general had fallen, with five mortal wounds, and when found 
still clutched his outstretched saber, and bore the appearance of 
having been unhorsed when dead or dying, much as in the case of 
Captain Nolan. 

In the excitement of such actions as those where the Georgia 
major and Farnsworth fell, it is not possible for any observer to 
note the symptoms minutely. The fact that a man is down and 
out of the fight is about all that friend or foe can take account of 
for the time being. It is reasonable to suppose, however, that 
some deaths are instantaneous, the men being literally killed in 
action. One such case I had an opportunity to study with un- 
usual care at Fort Haskell, in the Fort Steadman battle at Peters- 
burg. The action there was defensive on our part, the scene very 
small, and the fight prolonged, hence many things were observed 
that would escape notice on an open field. At one time, just in 
front of me as I looked toward the enemy, there was a soldier of 
our garrison firing his musket from a gun-staging that raised his 
head and shoulders above the parapet. He was the oldest man I 
ever saw in battle, and for that reason doubtless I observed him 
closely. His hair was white, and his form had reached the stage 
of unsteadiness. He fired very slowly, and after each shot would 
scan the enemy's lines, as though watching the results of his last 
ball or spying out a target for the next. Finally, when I had my 
attention almost wholly on him, he half turned to reload, and I 
saw his cap fly off smartly without any visible help, and the large 
and bony frame shrink together and sink down into a heap. 
There was no spasm, no agitation whatever. It seemed to me 
that he simply sat down slowly until he rested on his legs, bent 
under the body, his head going down to his knee, or to the trail 
of the cannon. A little stream of blood ran from his forehead 
and made a pool on the plank, and this blood reached the plank 
about the time that his frame settled itself down motionless. 
From the time that his cap flew off until the blood appeared on 
the staging, and the motionless body led me to say, " He is dead," 
could not have been more than thirty seconds, and was probably 
about twenty. The fatal ball had penetrated the left temple or 
near it. This was the only case where I noted all the external 
manifestations of a soldier killed " so quickly that he never knew 
what hit him," as the saying is. 

All that are found dead on the battle-field figure in the lists as 
" killed in action." Of these quite a percentage may meet with 
instantaneous death, but the majority show proof that both 
body and mind were at work after the fatal blow was received. 
One of the most convincing cases of the kind, and at the same 



164 THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

time the most terrible, that came to my personal knowledge was 
at Antietam, where General Hooker conducted the fight when he 
received his wound. The Confederates were massed in a field of 
tall corn, and Hooker ordered his batteries to open on them with 
canister. In his report he says that the shot cut every stalk of 
corn in the greater part of the field close to the ground as neatly as 
though done with a knife. Of course, the men in that field did not 
escape the biting hail. Neither did they stand like lambs and 
accept their doom. After the first cannon volley the survivors 
started toward Hooker's batteries, mounting a rail fence that 
barred their progress, and just in front of and along this fence 
several hundred lay dead after the action. The regiment in which 
I served took position at one end of the fence some hours after- 
ward, and as this field was between the lines the bodies had not 
been disturbed. About sundown there was a sort of truce to re- 
move some of the wounded, and with others I passed along the 
fence to see the line of the dead. Some of the poor fellows had 
passed over the fence and begun creeping forward, gun in hand ; 
some had gained the top of the fence, and death had left them 
balancing across the rails ; others, in the act of climbing, had 
died leaning against it or dangling from it head foremost, having 
passed partly over and been caught by the feet. Generally the 
sword or musket was held in firm grip, the eyeballs turned for- 
ward, and every muscle and organ bearing evidence of having 
been strained to get at the batteries that were making such dread- 
ful havoc. When I returned to the end of the line and glanced 
back again at the prostrate column, I said to my comrades who 
had not gone out to get a close view : " Boys, it is just as it looks 
from here. Those men were caught at it, and were struck down 
in the act." It is not to be wondered at that General Hooker 
was too much absorbed at the time of this fighting to notice 
his wound. He wrote of the action that the "slain (Confederate) 
lay in rows precisely as they had stood in the ranks a few 
moments before." * 

Very, very few of these dead bore the look of having passed 
away composedly. Yet, on the ordinary battle-field, where the 
killed outright number but two or three to every hundred of 
combatants, the exceptions are those who do not die in a quiet- 
state of mind or body. Men who are cut down in a charge, 
while the tide of heated action sweeps on, leaving them alone, 
bend their thoughts at once to themselves, and, if death is felt 
approaching, turn their faces up to the quiet skies, compose their 

* The scene here described was visible from two o'clock p. m. until sundown from 
the northern edge of the East Wood along the fence running from the East Wood westerly 
to the Sharpsburg pike, and separating a corn-field from the elevated cleared field lying 
south of the Miller farmstead. 



FIRST ACTIONS OF WOUNDED SOLDIERS. 165 

souls, and so breathe their last. It will be only in some such 
struggle as at Antietam, or before the stone wall at Fredericksburg, 
or in Pickett's charge at Gettysburg, and the front line at that, 
that men will die retaining full intensity of battle ardor so long 
as breath holds out. There we may expect to find men dead with 
their weapons poised and their colors held firm in the death-grip.* 
The manner in which men fall depends also upon the nature 
of the action in which they are engaged. Nearly every one is 
familiar with the traditional stage fall, where the victim of a 
supposed death-shot strikes an attitude, clasps his hand to his 
heart, stiffens every joint and muscle, breathes hysterically, and 
goes down like a log toppled over from the end. Another popular 
yet erroneous notion is that men shot through the vitals leap 
into the air and go down in a dramatic attitude. Sometimes men 
are found on the field in striking positions, but often an examina- 
tion shows that the position was taken after the fall. As a rule, 
a man who is hit above the hips goes down.f The slighter the 
wound the more commotion, for the body instinctively resists, 
just as it does when one slips or is pushed or collides with some 
object. But a wound in a vital spot weakens the resistance, and 
men sink at once, or reel and tumble with very little self-control. 
One reason why men are found dead in a variety of positions is 
that so long as consciousness remains they strive to help them- 
selves. The wound and the fall together create a temporary 
panic. Any one who knows the sensation of being temporarily 
arrested, when at a high rate of speed, by some accident, may 
imagine the general state of mind of a soldier when hit in action. 
Something has happened ; he is the victim ; how serious is it ? 
A man's first thought is of the rear of the column, and this not 
from fear, but because he expects surgical aid from that direction. 
So long as he can move he goes toward the place of help. When 
no longer able to move he makes himself as comfortable as he can 
and waits. In this waiting many die, and it is a question whether 
many do not die from over-anxiety that is, add to their hurt by 
fretting and struggling. There are soldiers of the civil war 
living to-day who received wounds as serious at the time as some 
who died on the field. Either their temperaments were more 
hopeful or their circumstances more favorable. 

* Physiological science recognizes, and in a measure accounts for, rigor mortis in cases 
of the kind cited. 

f There is an apparent, but, I think, not a real contradiction of thjs statement in the 
statistics collected by Dr. S. Weir Mitchell, in the United States Army Hospital at Phila, 
delphia, during the war. Out of fifty-six wounds involving the arm system of nerves, 
twenty-seven fell. But he had excluded all cases accompanied by " early and severe 
haemorrhage," and was not considering the dead and mortally wounded, nor those cases too 
severe for long-distance transportation. 



166 THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

Returning to the question of persistent aggressiveness in se- 
verely "wounded men, two instances remarkable in a special way 
are worthy of note. There was no warlike anger, but simply 
sudden excitement, for a cause. In one instance two soldiers 
were practicing at bayonet exercise and became very much 
warmed up, as men do in a boxing match. Finally, when one of 
them made a lunge at the breast of the other, the muzzle was 
knocked down slightly by the opposing piece and a discharge 
followed, the bullet going through the groin. With this fright- 
ful wound, given at a couple of feet at most, the unfortunate 
victim kept a tight grip on his piece, staggered forward, and 
made fitful lunges at his opponent, who dropped his gun and ran, 
terrified by the unearthly stare and grimace and the frenzied ac- 
tions of the other. It was supposed that the balls had been 
drawn, and the man whose piece went off did not know at once 
that the charge was fatal. The injured man gave chase for a 
few paces and then fell dead.* A case where there was even less 
external incitement to extraordinary endurance is recorded by 
Captain J. F. J. Caldwell, in a history of Gregg and McGowan's 
South Carolina Brigade. During the engagement at Sutherland's 
Station, below Petersburg, April 22, 1865, Captain Caldwell, while 
riding over the field on staff duty, met two Union soldiers who 
had broken through the Confederate lines with a charging col- 
umn that had been repulsed, and become separated from their 
comrades. Resistance was useless, and they dropped their guns 
and followed the captain toward the Confederate rear. One of 
the prisoners lagged on the march, and, on being told to step 
lively, he held up one arm and showed such a bloody and dis- 
tressing wound that the captain allowed him his own gait. All 
the time both prisoners chatted briskly about the Union tactics, 
and boasted that the tables would soon be turned upon the Con- 
federates. When the party came to a fence the wounded man 
helped to let down rails for the captain's horse, and in every way 
showed good spirits and fair condition. At the first medical 
bivouac Captain Caldwell turned his charge over to a surgeon, 
who found a second wound in the patient's breast, and in a few 
minutes after halting death ended his captivity. The man had 
borne up under a mortal wound, with the spur of personal enthu- 
siasm and expectation. He had hoped for a recapture by the ad- 
vance of the Union lines. 

The conduct of wounded men after an interval I do not pur- 
pose to describe. So soon as the mind gets settled down to the 



*Pare, the French surgeon, recorded the case of a duelist who received a sword-thrust 
through the heart, large enough to admit a finger, and who followed up his fleeing antago- 
nist, thrusting repeatedly, for two hundred yards before he fell. 



FIRST ACTIONS OF WOUNDED SOLDIERS. 167 

new order of things, individual temperament resumes entire con- 
trol. The phenomena of severely wounded soldiers continuing 
in action is correctly ascribed to abnormal mental excitement. 
Analogies are seen in every-day life. Contusions, incisions, and 
even fractures are sustained during excitement and no immediate 
impression is carried to the intellect. Yet how keen the suffering 
experienced under slighter hurts made by the surgeon's scalpel, 
forceps, or drill, when all is known beforehand! A soldier's life 
predisposes to intensity in either direction. He will stoically ig- 
nore or morbidly welcome injury. His mind, first of all, is made 
up not to notice danger or to be unmanned by wounds. So long 
as he can keep in action that is, so long as he may personally 
direct some expenditure of muscular energy his stoical purpose 
will hold out. As a matter of course, when he changes from a 
personality to a mere machine, manipulated by higher minds, 
fighting when told to, and again standing or lying still to receive 
blows and injuries with no chance to retaliate, he changes from a 
Stoic to a morbidly sensitive being. Familiar with deep and dis- 
tressing injuries to others, in hugging the hope that he will be 
spared the worst, he invites fears for the worst at the moment he 
receives a blow, and fears strike the mind as soon as the bullet hits 
the body. This may account for frequent aberrations of conduct 
that follow ordinary wounds. The bravest may be unmanned by 
them, and doubtless death-fright actually takes place with gal- 
lant souls ; or, if neither death nor delirium follow, then extrava- 
gant notions of pain, and violent wailing over trifles. 

Numberless cases might be cited showing that excellent sol- 
diers are thrown into sudden mental and physical panic by war 
wounds, just as civilians are by injuries and surgical operations. 
Exaggerated sensations of suffering and often quick delirium are 
reported from the battle-field, such as can not be the direct and 
necessary sequence of the actual injury, but take rise in the 
emotions. 

As a rule, reported war cases are confined almost wholly to 
injuries not necessarily fatal. Fatal ones rarely get on record, 
because the cool and observant surgeon does not study the symp- 
toms of the actual field of fighting.* Of those who are struck 
insensible and subsequently revive and survive, there are known 
to be many ; but of the number rendered insensible who revive 
and resume action and then die, there can only be conjecture. In 
this class must be placed many whose attitudes in death are ab- 
normal. But taking into account the symptoms of the wounded 
who have lived to report them, and of the dead whose cases have 

* In the civil war the proportion of deaths to the surviving injured was a tiifle more 
than one to three. 



168 THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

been recorded by spectators, there is a general agreement that 
symptoms do not at all correspond in kind or severity to the 
injury.* Hence phenomena appearing at first thought remarkable 
may be accepted as not uncommon, considering the unrecorded 
instances. 

I class as remarkable the cases of Nolan, Hooker, Farnsworth, 
the Georgia major, the beheaded sergeant, the wounded prisoner, 
and the man skylarking in bayonet practice, and will add that of 
General Albert Sidney Johnston, killed at Shiloh ; and it is proper 
to state that this collection sprang originally from an effort to 
bring together the same order of phenomena without reference to 
antecedent causes. Further investigation proved that, of these 
cases, Nolan, Hooker, Farnsworth, the Georgia major, and John- 
ston certainly, and presumably the Massachusetts sergeant, had 
the highest order of emotional stimulation at work before closing 
into the heat of action. 

It was Nolan's first chance in real war. He had served on rou- 
tine headquarters duty until that day, and being sent to the front 
in a crisis, he galloped his horse down a rocky steep where no hoof 
had ever before trodden. On delivering an order to the division 
commander, words ensued as to its meaning, and Nolan's excite- 
ment was increased. When at last the Light Brigade started and 
went wrong, he kept the intended course alone, saying, with all 
the powers of voice and gesture he could command : " This way, 
this way ! For Heaven's sake, not that way ! " While so engaged 
he was hit in the most vital spot in the body, yet warlike action 
was persistent to an almost supranatural extent. 

Hooker had just received command of a corps; there was 
rivalry between him and others ; he was honored with the lead in 
the most important attack ; the enemy's resistance was unexpect- 
edly stubborn, the carnage frightful above all experience on any 
American battle-field, and on him rested the responsibility of 
success that would glorify the whole army and the nation. 

Farnsworth, on being asked to lead a cavalry charge over a 
field strewed with bowlders and swept with cannon, demurred, and 
his chief said to him tauntingly, " If you will not lead your bri- 
gade in, I will." " Where my brigade goes, I will lead," was the 
answer, and he sounded the charge. He found a slaughter-pen as 
he had expected, was hemmed in, and with fifty followers started 
to cut his way through a double line of Confederate infantry. 



* The small missiles which inflict the majority of war wounds strike fewer nerves of 
pain than do the instruments of injury in ordinary collisions, where large areas of skin 
surface are bruised or lacerated ; their execution is also more rapid. The instantaneous 
collapse following violent symptoms of warlike vigor is also a peculiarity of battle-field 
life. Violent mental and muscular actions have swiftly depleted the reserve forces, and, 
where collapse would be slow under normal strains, it is swift in abnormal cases. 



FIRST ACTIONS OF Y/OUNDED SOLDIERS. 169 

Possibly his five mortal hurts were received simultaneously, hut 
probably he carried two or three of them while persisting in his 
fight. 

The Georgia major had been selected or had volunteered to 
lead a forlorn hope upon which the salvation of an enterprise de- 
pended, and he was called upon to pass eighty rods under cross- 
fire of cannon and muskets. That feat he essayed, conspicuously 
mounted upon a white horse. 

The attack in which the Massachusetts sergeant engaged was 
the third day of fierce and progressive onslaughts, and was di- 
rected against the last but one of Lee's interior lines around 
Petersburg. The stubbornness of the Confederate resistance had 
aroused the spirits of the assailants to the supremest pitch. 

General A. S. Johnston at Shiloh was engaged in a campaign 
for the recovery of territory valuable to the Confederacy ; he had 
been transferred from the East to supersede other generals ; his 
fame was at stake ; he had engaged upon one of the most daring 
and delicate enterprises known in warfare, a surprise of his enemy, 
to end in a wholesale slaughter or capture of the routed hosts on 
the banks of a bridgeless river. The movement carried well up 
to a point ; there, a Union division showed what Johnston pro- 
nounced stubbornness ; his men hesitated, and he went personally 
with one brigade in a charge ; the charge succeeded, and he drew 
back to bring up another brigade, when a musket-ball severed an 
artery in his leg. He made no sign, but kept on giving orders and 
watching events until spectators saw that he was pale. He was 
asked if he was wounded, and, as if acknowledging it to himself 
for the first time, said : " Yes ! And I fear seriously." He was 
then on the point of death from haemorrhage. 

Under normal conditions the symptoms in each of the cases in 
this recapitulation, except that of the headless man, should have 
been trembling, tottering, pallor, faintness, nausea, with expres- 
sion of anxiety and distress, the whole frame being instinctively 
sympathetic with the injured part. But the several nerve-cen- 
ters were not in a condition to perform normal functions. The 
mental excitement acting in the nature of a stimulant upon the 
center of the brain, monopolized the capacity for keen sensation, 
and centers that should have registered the hurt suspended their 
functions. So there was no concentrated shock, as ordinarily hap- 
pens. The shock was distributed and showed itself, when finally 
potent, in an instantaneous collapse. This is the theory generally 
accepted by science the theory of a law that two nerve-centers 
can not be excited at one and the same time. Is there not 
confirmation of it in the complicated case of the wounded pris- 
oner reported by Captain Caldwell ? The man doubtless suffered 
laceration in the arm and the cutting of an internal artery, by 



i 7 o THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

the same ball in the order named. His arm-wound would register 
its shock first upon the intellect, and it would be of a kind that a 
soldier in his situation would speedily resolve to " grin and bear " ; 
and the second, though mortal, would be overlooked, and suffered 
to do its quiet and fatal work. His first wound increased the ex- 
isting excitement at the chief nerve-center, and aided to suspend 
the functions of the center mosff vitally involved in the wounding. 
The case of the beheaded man is again anomalous. Spasmodic 
action or discharge of the motor-forces stored in the nerve-centers 
of the trunk may have produced the phenomena. 

Incidentally there arise from the consideration of the fore- 
going these two questions : First, could the expenditure of stored- 
up nerve force, either in sound or injured parts, or in both com- 
bined, generate all these erratic manifestations, or do impulses 
issue direct from the brain so long as life holds out ? Second, 
is there a battle frenzy peculiar to certain natures, and in cer- 
tain conditions to average men as well, that may lend them ab- 
normal powers of nervous vigor and endurance ? But, what- 
ever the efficient cause, at least one compensating thought follows 
a study of these phenomena, and the poet and orator may extract 
some comfort from it, cold and speculative though it may appear. 
The soldier in war bears up under a severer hurt than the same 
man could endure in every-day life, and collapses under a lesser 
one than would ordinarily be required to disable him. He bears 
up longer and collapses more quickly. Therefore, the provision 
of Nature that renders him insensible of wounds in heated action 
may be a twofold blessing, in that it spares him pain and terror 
at the moment of his hurt, and while doing this service rapidly 
exhausts in his system those reserve forces which might other- 
wise tide him over the inevitable prostration succeeding wounds 
and warlike ardor, and embitter him with a sense of his vulner- 
ability and weakness. How many noble fellows, missing the 
lethal stroke, have besought their comrades, their captors, and 
their medical officers to put them out of misery, annalists of the 
field would shudder to make known. So the hero's impulse, be it 
patriotism, fanaticism, or frenzy, in spurring him on, saves his 
high-strung soul from the rack of physical torture, and brings 
death in a moment of rapturous exaltation, weaving about his 
last deeds the halo of that glory which is the soldier's most 
coveted reward. Not alone soldiers, but men of action every- 
where, long for a death that shall be but a pause no, that could 
be perceptible a lightning leap between a fiery fullness of being 
on earth and the dazzling dawn of new life beyond the veil. 



THE YUCCA MOTH AND YUCCA POLLINATION. 171 
THE YUCCA MOTH AND YUCCA POLLINATION.* 

By C. V. RILEY, Ph. D. 

THE common belief, based upon the theological assumption 
that all things upon this terrestrial sphere are for man's espe- 
cial benefit, was, and perhaps yet is, that flowers were endowed 
with beauty and fragrance for our particular pleasure. Let us 
look somewhat more closely into this matter, and see what mod- 
ern science has to say about it. Ever since Linnseus used the 
sexual characteristics of flowers in classification, and Erasmus 
Darwin sang of the loves of the plants, the philosophy of fertili- 
zation in the plant kingdom has been fairly apprehended. It has 
long been recognized that plants are divisible into homomorphic 
or self-fertilizable, and heteromorphic or cross-fertilizable species. 
All diclinous plants, or those having separate male and female 
flowers, belong to the latter category, which is further classifiable 
according to the means by which cross-fertilization is effected. 
One class (termed anemojiliilcz) depend almost entirely on the 
wind, and in these, of which our pines and other conifers, our 
poplars, willows, grasses, etc., are examples, the pollen or male 
element obtains in enormous quantities, is easily detached, and is 
generally produced early in spring, when winds prevail, and fre- 
quently before the development of the leaves, which would tend 
to impede its dispersion. The flower is inconspicuous and the 
stigma or female organ generally branched or hairy, so as to in- 
crease the chance of catching the wind-borne pollen. "Water is an 
agency in the fertilization of a few plants, of which the singular 
Vallisneria is a striking illustration ; while a few are aided by 
birds and higher animals; but by far the greater number are fer- 
tilized, or, more strictly speaking, pollinized, by insects. 

The most casual observer of Nature must have appreciated, 
years ago, the fact that flowers are very important to insects, fur- 
nishing the essentials of life to those of several orders, and espe- 
cially to the Hymenoptera (bees, wasps, etc.) and Lepidoptera 
(butterflies and moths) in the form either of pollen or nectar. 
But that insects could be of any especial benefit to plants has 
only come to be acknowledged and fully appreciated of late years. 
Toward the close of the last century Christian Konrad Sprengel 
published an important work Das entdeckte Geheimniss der 
Natur in which he maintained that the color, form, odor, secre- 
tions, and the general structure of flowers had reference to insects 
which are essential as pollinizers. The importance of insects as 

* Adapted from advance sheets of the Annual Report of the Missouri Botanical Garden 
for 1891. 



172 



THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY 



agents in cross-fertilization was scarcely appreciated, however, 
until the late Charles Darwin published the results of his re- 
searches on Primula, Linum, Lythrum, etc., and his elaborate 
work on the fertilization of orchids. The publication of these 
works gave to flowers a new significance and to their study al- 
most as great an impulse as did his immortal Origin of Species 
to the general study of biology. Hooker, Bennett, Axell, Del- 




Fig. 1. Flower of Yucca aloifolia, showing stouter pistil and shorter style as compared 

with filamentosa. 

pino, Hildebrand, Hermann Muller, and others abroad, and Dr. 
Gray and Prof. William Trelease in this country, have followed 
up this subject ; and no one can familiarize himself with the results 
of their studies without a keen sense if not a conviction that in 
the vast number of cases Sprengel's early statement holds strictly 
true. By these deeper insights into the significances of the floral 
world, and their harmonies with the insect world, we learn to 
understand why night-blooming flowers are usually white, even 
where their day-blooming allies are brightly colored, as in the 
case of Lychnis vespertina and L. diurna ; or why the calyx, 
which is usually hidden and green, becomes bright when exposed, 
as in the berberry and larkspur. Many flowers are known to 
close or " sleep," and while most of them follow the animal world 
in taking this rest at night, yet there are marked exceptions. The 
dandelion goes to rest at 5 P. M. and wakes at 7 a. M ., while the popu- 
lar names of "four o'clock" and " John-go-to-bed-at-noon" suf- 
ficiently indicate the sleeping hours of Mirabilis and Tragopogon. 
Sir John Lubbock tritely asks, " What is the meaning of sleep in 
flowers, if it is not in reference to insects ? " The closing during 
those hours when the particular insects needed for pollination 



THE YUCCA MOTH AND YUCCA POLLINATION. 173 



are at rest, would protect the flower from spoliation by useless 
raiders. This belief is also strengthened by the fact that ane- 
mophilous flowers, or those fertilized by the wind, never sleep, 
and that flowers which attract insects by smell emit their odor at 
particular hours. 

But the most interesting fact not commonly understood, that 
has now been very fully established by the most thorough re- 
searches, is, that a very large number of plants, even where the 
sexes are united in the same flower, absolutely depend on insect 
aid for pollination, and that the contrivances to induce cross-fer- 
tilization are infinite in diversity, while the modifications in struct- 
ure which these insects have undergone the better to fit them to 
perform this service, are equally remarkable. Yet in most cases 
we have adaptation of the plant only, and except in a few in- 
stances, as, for instance, in that Madagascar orchid, Angrcecum 
sesquipedale, where the nectary is so deep that its nectar can be 
reached only by a moth (like Macrosila cluentius) with a very 
long tongue, our orchids are not dependent for pollination on any 
one Lepidopterous species, but may be aided by many which have 
tongues of sufficient length. 

There are, in fact, few plants which are dependent on a single 
species for pollination. So far as I know, the yuccas furnish the 
only instance of this kind, for they 
actually depend on some particular 
species of little white moths belong- 
ing to the Tineina and to the genus 
Pronuba. The yuccas are a very in- 
teresting genus of lily-like plants, so 
familiar to every one in our public 
and private gardens that I need not 
say very much about them (Fig. 1). 
There are numerous species and even 
sub-genera, but they are all character- 
ized by anthers not reaching any- 
where near the stigma, so that fertili- 
zation unaided can take place only by 
the merest accident. In other words, 
the stigmatic tube is nowhere within 
reach of the stamens, and the pollen either remains attached to 
the open and withered anthers or falls and remains in different- 
sized lumps on the inside of the perianth, and can not be intro- 
duced into the stigmatic tube without artificial aid. 

Our commoner garden yuccas, forms of ftlamentosa, depend on 
the commoner yucca moth, Pronuba yuccasella (Fig. 2, b, c), and 
so do all the different species found east of the Rocky Mountains, 
so far as we yet know. During the daytime we may, by knowing 




Fig. 2. Pronuba yuccasella : a, lar- 
va ; b, ? moth with closed wing ; 
c, $ moth with wings expanded 
natural sue ; d, side view of larval 
joint ; e, head of larva, beneath ; ,/", 
head of larva, above ; g, thoracic 
leg of same ; A, maxilla; *', mandi- 
ble ; y, spinneret and labial palpi ; 
k, antenna enlarged. 



174 



THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 



what and where to seek, often find this moth, either singly or in 

pairs, resting with folded wings within the half-closed flowers. 

It is then not only hidden from ordinary view, but well protected 

by the imitative color of the front wings with that of the flower, 

so that close scrutiny is necessary for its detection. If we visit 

the plant after 

"... the garish day 

Has sped on his wheels of light away," 

and when, with full-blown perianth, the yucca stands in all her 
queenly beauty, and sends forth her perfume more strongly upon 
the night air, we shall, with a little patience, meet with this same 
moth, flitting swiftly from flower to flower and from plant to 

plant the dusky nature 
of the hind wings and of 
the under surface of the 
front wings almost com- 
pletely offsetting and neu- 
tralizing, when in motion, 
the upper silvery white- 
ness of the latter, and 
thus still rendering the 
insect a little difficult of 
detection. It is principal- 
ly the male which we thus 
see flying and, by the aid 
of a " bull's-eye," we shall 
find the female for the 
most part busily at work 
in the flowers. He, with 
relatively stronger wing- 
power, can afford to spend 
in the most pleasurable way the few brief days allotted to him ; 
but she is charged with a double duty, and loses little time in its 
performance. As a part of the maternal task of continuing her 
race, she must act as foster-mother to the plant in order to insure 
a proper supply of food to her larva?, which, as we shall presently 
see, feed on its seeds. 

As preliminary to a better understanding of the habits of the 
female, it will be well to draw attention to those structural pecul- 
iarities which distinguish her from all other species of her order, 
and which so admirably fit her for the work she has to do. Fig. 
3 gives some details of the head (a), and an important structure 
which more particularly characterizes her and interests us is the 
maxillary tentacle, shown with its palpus at b. She has a pair of 
these organs, which are prehensile and spinous, and it is chiefly 
by means of these that she is able to collect and hold a relatively 




Fig. 3. Generic Characters of Pronuba yuccasella : 
a, side-view of head and neck of female denuded, 
showing how the collected load of pollen (1) is held 
by the tentacles (2) ; b, maxillary tentacle and pal- 
pus; c, an enlarged spine; d, palpus separated; e, 
scale from front wing ; /, front leg ; ff, labial palpus ; 
A, i, front and hind wings denuded ; j, anal joint of 
female with ovipositor all enlarged. 



THE YUCCA MOTH AND YUCCA POLLINATION. 175 



large load of pollen for the purpose of pollination. Another or- 
gan which is characteristic is the ovipositor (Fig. 4, b, d), which 
is delicate and ex- , . 



tensile, being a com- 
bination of lance 
and saw, and admi- 
rably adapted for 
cleaving through 
the young fruit and 
then running the 
long 
filiform, into 
the ovarian cavity. 
Though all the 



egg, which is 
and 




Fig. 4. Genital Characters of Pronuba yuccasella : a, tip 
of <j> abdomen rendered somewhat transparent; b, basal 
joint of ovipositor ; c, its sculpture ; d, terminal joint of 
same ; e, tip still more enlarged ; f, genitalia $ from side ; 
<7, genitalia $ from above ; h, undeveloped egg from ovary 
enlarged. 



acts of the female 
are nocturnal, it is 
not at all difficult 
to follow them with 
a la,ntern, for, albeit 
ordinarily shy, she may be closely approached when she is about 
to oviposit. Her activity begins soon after dark, but consists at 
first in assiduously collecting a load of pollen. She may be seen 
running up to the top of one of the stamens, and bending her head 
down over the anther, stretching the maxillary tentacles, so won- 
derfully modified for the purpose, to their fullest extent, the tongue 
uncoiled and reaching to the opposite side of the stamen (Fig. 6). 
In this manner she is able to obtain a firm hold of the same 
while the head is kept close to the anthers and moved peculiarly 
back and forth, something as in the motion of 
the head of a caterpillar when feeding. The 
maxillary palpi are Used in this act very much 
as the ordinary mandibles are used in other in- 
sects, removing or scraping the pollen from the 
anthers toward the tentacles. After thus gath- 
ering the pollen, she raises her head and com- 
mences to shape it into a little mass or pellet by 
using her front legs very much as a cat does 
when cleansing her mouth, sometimes using only 
one leg, at another time both, smoothing and 
pressing the gathered pollen, the tentacles mean- 
while stretching and curving. After collecting 
all the pollen from one anther, she proceeds to another and re- 
peats the operation, then to a third and fourth, after which, with 
her relatively large load often thrice as large as the head held 
firmly against the neck and front trochanters, she usually runs 
about or flies to another plant : for I have often noticed that ovi- 




Fig. 5. Pronuba yuc- 
casella : I, male ; 
77i, female chrysalis 
hair-line showing 
natural size. 



176 



THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 




,- M. 



*- 'P^> /Zl '*-> 



position, as *i rule, is accomplished in some other flower than that 
from which the pollen was gathered, and that cross-fertilization 
is thus secured. 

Once fully equipped with this important commodity, she may 
be seen either crawling over or resting within the flower, gener- 
ally with the head toward the base. From 
time to time she makes a sudden dart and 
deftly runs around the stamens, and anon 
takes a position with the body between and 
the legs straddling two of them, her head 
being usually turned toward the stigma. As 
the terminal halves of the stamens are al- 
ways more or less recurved, she generally 
has to retreat between two of them until the 
tip of her abdomen can reach the pistil (Fig. 
7). As soon as a favorable point is reached 
generally just below the middle she rests 
motionless for a short time, when the abdo- 
men is slightly raised and the lance-like ovi- 
positor is thrust into the soft tissue, held 
there the best part of a minute, while the 
egg is conducted to its destination, and then 
withdrawn by a series of up-and-down mo- 
tions. Fig. 8 is a transverse section of the 
young fruit at this stage of the growth, in- 
dicating the manner in which it is punct- 
ured at a, <x, and how the egg is conveyed 
into the ovarian cell at b, while Fig. 9 shows 
a longitudinal section of the pistil at a, the 
puncture of the ovipositor at b, and the 
egg within the ovarian cell at c. 

The stigmatic liquor is not nectarian, and the flower secretes 
but a small amount of nectar at the base of the petals ; and while 
these facts serve to disprove any positive value of their nectar in 
the pollination of the yucca flowers, they add to the importance 
of Pronuba by showing that the acts of collecting pollen and 
transferring it to the stigma do not result in any food compensa- 
tion, as I was at first inclined to suppose. In other words, there 
is no nectar to allure other nectar-loving insects and cause them 
to go to the stigma ; but, on the contrary, those which are drawn 
to the plant by the slight amount of nectar are led in the very 
opposite direction, viz., to the base of the style or of the flower. 
It is also an interesting fact that I have never noticed Pronuba 
feeding, as contradistinguished from pollinizing, for the motions 
of the tongue of Lepidoptera when feeding are quite character- 
istic and easily recognized. Indeed, the two pieces which form 




Fig. 6. Pronuba tdccasel- 
la, female, in the act of 
gathering pollen from the 
anthers ; five times en- 
larged. 



THE YUCCA MOTH AND YUCCA POLLINATION. 177 

the tongue are so often separated at tip, and so weakly joined 
throughout, as to raise the question, in connection with a some- 
what imperfect alimentary canal, as to whether the moth feeds at 
all, and to suggest that the rather strong tongue, otherwise, as- 
sists pollination. 

No sooner is the ovipositor withdrawn into the abdomen than 
the moth runs up to the top of the pistil, thrusts the pollen into 
the stigmatic opening, and works her head rapidly the motion 





Y\a. 7. Flowek of Yucca, with near petals removed to show normal position of Pronuba in 

ovipositing. 

being mostly up and down and lasting several seconds. She 
works with a vigor that would indicate combined pleasure and 
purpose, and makes every effort to force the pollen into the tube, 
thrusting it ordinarily from the base of one of the three primary 
clefts of the style. After the more vigorous motions of thrusting 
the pollen into the tube, she frequently rests in comparative 
quiet, working her tongue in the tube sometimes for four or five 
minutes together, but ordinarily the act of pollination ceases with 
the few vigorous thrusts already described. The importance of 
this act will be better appreciated when I state that numerous ex- 
periments in artificial or brush pollination have shown that effect- 
ive fertilization in Yucca filamentosa is by no means an easy 
matter, and that it rarely takes place as effectively as through 
the actions of Pronuba. 

This carrying of the pollen to the stigma generally follows 
every act of oviposition, so that where ten or a dozen eggs are 
consigned to a single pistil, the stigma will be so many times be- 
pollened. 

The egg of Pronuba is an extremely delicate, thread-like 
structure, averaging 1*5 millimetre in length and less than O'l 
millimetre (Fig. 9, c) in diameter, tapering at the base and en- 
voi-. XLI. 15 



i 7 8 



THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 



larging slightly toward the capitate end, which has also a slightly 
indurated point. It is impossible to follow it with the unaided 
eye, or in fact with an ordinary lens, even if the pistil be at once 
plucked and dissected; but, by means of careful microscopical 
sections, we may trace its course, as shown in Figs. 8 and 9. 

The larva hatches in about a week and will be found at a point 
from eight to ten ovules above or below the external puncture, 
according as the egg was thrust above or below it. It has no 
pro-legs, but has well-developed thoracic legs. It matures with 
the ripening of the seeds, which differs in time in the different 
species of yucca, and also in the same species, but occupies on an 
average about a month in the ordinary Yucca filamentosa. The 
number of seeds destroyed is rarely more than a dozen and more 
frequently less, and I have recorded the fact of having found as 




8. Transverse Section of Pistil, about middle, one day after oviposition, showing 
(a, a) puncture of ovipositor, and (b, b) position of egg. 



many as twenty-one larvae in a single pod. Just about the time 
the pods are hardening and ready to dehisce and the seeds have 
already colored, the full-grown larva bores its way out of the pod 
and makes its way to the ground. It remains as a larva within its 
cocoon during the fall, winter, and spring months, and only trans- 
forms to the chrysalis state a few days before the blooming of the 
yuccas. The chrysalis (Fig. 4), as shown in the figure, is armed 
with an acute spine on the head and with singular spatulate 



THE YUCCA MOTE AND YUCCA POLLINATION. 179 

spines on the back, which are well fitted to enable it to work its 
way to the surface from its underground retreat. 

The effect of the puncture of the female moth in oviposition is 
at once noticeable on the young fruit by a darker green discolora- 
tion externally. In time this becomes a depression, and the irregu- 
larities of the pods (Fig. 9, d, e ; Fig. 10, 6, c) which have been con- 
sidered characteristic of the fruit of the genus are chiefly due to 
these punctures, which, ordinarily occurring just below the mid- 
dle of the pod, produce a more or less marked constriction there. 



Vii 




*l 




Fig. 9. a, longitudinal section of pistil of Yucca Jilamentosa, showing (5, b) punctures of Pro- 
nuba, and (c, c) the normal position of her eggs in the ovarian cell ; d, section of a punct- 
ured carpel seven days after oviposition, showing the egg yet unhatched and the manner 
in which the ovules in the neighborhood of puncture have been arrested in development 
so as to cause the constriction ; e, section of an older carpel, showing the larva above the 
original puncture ; /, a seed thirteen days from oviposition, showing young larva at funic- 
ular base. 



This I have often proved by artificially pollinizing the flowers 
and protecting them from Pronuba, when the pods will develop 
in a regular, parallel-sided manner (Fig. 10, a). 

It is noticeable that all the pods do not contain Pronuba 
larva3, though we rarely find any on the filamentose species that 
do not show the marks of puncture, which indicates that a great 
many punctures are fruitless in result, owing either to the diffi- 
culty of the operation of oviposition, or to the fact that the eggs, 
having been once consigned to the pistil, have failed to hatch, for 
one reason or another ; or again, that the larva has, for one reason 
or another, perished. A similar mortality is connected with the 



i8o 



THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY 



similarly difficult and complicated oviposition of the Cynipidce, as 
Adler has shown. In dissecting the young fruits of the filamen- 
tose yuccas, with a view to critical examination, I have found 
that about half of them, on the average, contain nothing; but the 
proportion varies greatly in different localities and according to 
circumstances, and I may say that, as a result of my numerous 
examinations, fully two thirds of the mature pods are found to 
contain the larvae of Pronuba. All the experiments which I have 
so far made, or have known to be made, prove conclusively that 
the capsular species never set fruit without her aid. 

Pronuba yuccasella is found in all parts of the country east of 
the Rocky Mountains where the filamentose yuccas normally 
range ; but has not extended to all sections where they are culti- 
vated. The time of its appearance is strikingly coetaneous, east 





Fig. 10. Mature Pods of Yucca angustifolia : a, artificially pollinized and protected from 
Pronuba ; b, normal pod, showing constrictions resulting from Pronuba puncture and exit- 
holes of larva: c, one of the lobes cut open, showing larva within. 



of the Mississippi, with the blooming of filamentosa j while other 
cultivated species which bloom either earlier or later, and which, 
therefore, do not receive the visits of the moth, I have, as already 
stated, never known to bear seed. On the Western plains, where 
Y. angustifolia is native, the moth's season of appearance is 
adapted to the flowering of this particular yucca. In California, 
Yucca whipplei is pollinized by Pronuba maculata, an invariably 
maculate species ; while, on the Mojave Desert, Yucca brevifolia is 
pollinized by Pronuba syntlietica, a species still more abnormal 
than yuccasella and modified to fit it to the peculiarities of that 
particular species of yucca. In the Gulf States the typical yuc- 
casella occurs, and fertilizes not only the filamentose yuccas, but 



THE YUCCA MOTH AND YUCCA POLLINATION. 181 

those individuals of the larger, fleshy-fruited species like aloifolia 
which happen to bloom about the same time of the year. 

Thus we find that some species of Pronuba is connected with 
all the yuccas so far studied in this connection, and I have no 
doubt that this will be found to be generally true, so far as the 
indigenous species are concerned, and that in the native home of 
any of the species we shall find that pollination depends upon 
some species of Pronuba. This is rendered certain by the fact 
that, wherever I have been able to examine the mature or partially 
mature fruit of other yuccas in herbaria, I have in almost every 
instance observed the constriction and in most instances seen 
traces of the puncture and the work of the larva. 

We have, in the structures and functions which are so charac- 
teristic of this yucca moth, admirable adaptations of means to an 
end, whether for pollinizing the plant or providing for a future 
generation. The Pronuba larva rarely destroys more than a dozen 
of the seeds, so that several may develop within a single pod and 
yet leave many perfect seeds, while, for the reasons already stated, 
we occasionally have pods without a trace of the insect. 

There is between Pronuba and its food-plant a mutual inter- 
dependence which excites our wonder, and is fraught with inter- 
esting suggestions to those who are in the habit of reasoning 
from effect to cause. Whether we believe, as I certainly do, that 
this perfect adaptation and adjustment have been brought about 
by slow degrees through the long course of ages, or whether we 
believe that they were always so from the beginning, they are 
equally suggestive. The peculiar structure of the flower which 
prevents self-fertilization, though on a superficial view it strike 
one as a disadvantage, is, in reality, of benefit, as the value of 
cross-fertilization has been fully established ; while the maxillary 
tentacles of the female moth are very plainly an advantage to her 
species in the " struggle for life " ; and it is quite easy to conceive, 
on Darwinian grounds, how both these characteristics have been 
produced in the course of time from archetypal forms which pos- 
sessed neither, and in reality we get a good insight into the pro- 
cess in studying the characteristics of other species of the family 
ProdoxidcB. These peculiarities are, moreover, mutually and re- 
ciprocally beneficial, so that the plant and the animal are each in- 
fluenced and modified by the other, and the same laws which pro- 
duced the beneficial specialization of parts will maintain them by 
the elimination of all tendencies to depart from them. 

The pollen grains would not adhere by chance to the rolled-up 
tentacles, and we have seen how full of apparent purpose and de- 
liberation Pronuba's actions are, It may be that all her actions 
are the result merely of " blind instinct," by which term proud 
man has been wont to designate the doings of inferior animals ; 



i8z THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

but no one can watch her operations without feeling that there is 
in all of them as much of purpose as there is in those of the 
female Pelopa3us who so assiduously collects, paralyzes, and stores 
away in her mud-dabs the spiders which are to nourish her 
young; or in the many other curious provisions which insects 
make for their progeny, which, in the majority of instances, they 
are destined never to behold. Nor can I see any good reason for 
denying these lowly creatures a degree of consciousness of what 
they are about, or even of what will result from their labors. 
They have an object in view, and whether we attribute their per- 
formances to instinct or to reason depends altogether on the 
meaning we give to those words. Define instinct as " congenital 
habit " or " inherited association " or, as I prefer to characterize it, 
as the inevitable outcome of organization, and most of the doings 
of the lower animals may justly be called instinctive ; but instinct 
and intelligence are both present, in most animals, in varying 
proportion, the last being called into play more especially by 
unusual and exceptional circumstances, and the power which 
guides the female Pronuba in her actions differs only in degree 
from that which directs a bird in the building of its nest, or 
which governs many of the actions of rational men. 



THE SURVIVAL OF THE UNFIT. 

By HENRY DWIGHT CHAPIN, M. D. 

rS modern civilization advancing along satisfactory lines toward 
-L a higher development ? We hope and believe so, but there 
are not a few who consider such a question an open one. Both 
the pessimist and optimist can have much to say on either side of 
this problem. The forces at work in society are diverse and com- 
plex, acting like the ceaseless operation of a complicated engine 
that is constantly pushing on, throwing some up and some down, 
and leaving many a wreck behind. It is of pregnant interest to 
study the destructive factors at work in society that not only 
produce the unfit, but also tend to their survival. This question 
derives its principal significance from the apparently hopeless 
task of dealing with the unfit. Science and theology, from widely 
divergent poles, appear to reach much the same conclusion with 
regard to delinquents. Darwinism and Calvinism present about 
an equally hopeful consideration for the unfortunates of our race. 
One says heredity and environment; the other, predestination 
and foreordination. Both suggest the witty aphorism of Dr. 
Holmes, that the proper time to begin the treatment of some 
diseases is a hundred years before birth. 



THE SURVIVAL OF THE UNFIT. 



183 



A glance at some statistics, published in the United States 
census reports will "be interesting in this connection. The fol 
lowing figures are taken from a table showing the number of 
insane, idiotic, blind, and deaf-mutes in the United States, in the 
years named, respectively, according to the census : 





1880. 


1870. 


1860. 


1850. 


Defectives 


251,698 
50,155,783 


98,484 
38,558,371 


68,451 
31,443,321 


50,994 


Total population 


23,191,876 







According to these figures, the population a little more than 
doubled in thirty years, while the number of defective persons 
returned was nearly five times as great as it had been thirty 
years before. During the decade from 1870-'S0 the increase in 
population was 30 per cent ; during the same interval of time the 
apparent increase in the defective classes was a little more than 
155 per cent. There is much talk about the increase of insanity 
in our day, and statistics appear to bear witness to the truth of 
such reports. The following shows the ratio of insane popu- 
lation to the entire population for the whole country in different 
years : * 

1860 1 to 1,310. 

1870 1 to 1,100. 

1880 1 to 570. 

The latest report of the Census Bureau states that the total 
number of insane persons treated in both public and private insti- 
tutions during the year 1889 was 97,535, while during the year 
1881 there were 56,205 treated; showing an increase in the nine 
years of 41,330, or 73"53 per cent. This percentage of increase, 
when compared with the percentage of increase of population in 
the last decade, namely, 24'86, does not necessarily indicate an 
increase in the proportion of insane persons to population, but 
rather a great increase in the amount of asylum accommodation 
provided, and a willingness on the part of the public to make full 
use of all the facilities thus offered. The bulletin states that 
the figures for the actual number of insane in the United States 
can not be determined until the work of eliminating all duplicate 
reports of cases has been completed. 

The ratio of insane in public and private institutions of the 
United States is to the entire population as 1"56 to 1,000. f As 
these figures represent only institutions to which large numbers 
of the mildly insane are never sent, they point to an increase in 
insanity. Objections may be made to figures tending to show a 



* Dr. C. L. Dana, in Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, April, 1882. 
Census Bulletin, No. 62, May 9, 1891. 



184 THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

relative increase of the defective classes, on the ground that 
statistics are now much, more carefully collected than formerly, 
which is certainly true. It may be said, however, that errors in 
the returns of the defectives were not confined to this class, but 
were more or less distributed among the different elements of 
population. The accurate collation of defectives is a task of 
great difficulty. While their number is now relatively better 
known than formerly, their absolute number will never be as ac- 
curately tabulated as other parts of the community, but a study 
of statistics shows that they tend to increase. 

With regard to paupers, the recent census shows the total 
number in almshouses to be 73,045.* The number reported in 
1880 was 66,203. The ratio of almshouse paupers to the total 
population at that time was 1 to 758; the ratio in 1890 was 1 to 
857, showing a decrease. This decline in the ratio is attributed 
to the very muck smaller number of paupers cared for in the 
almshouses in the North Atlantic division. It is interesting to 
note that the foreign population of this country contributes, 
directly or indirectly, very nearly three fifths of all the paupers 
supported in almshouses. There is no way of learning the num- 
ber of outdoor poor which is large as they are supported, 
partly or in whole, by private charity. Mrs. Lowell estimates 
that the number of paupers in the public and private institu- 
tions of New York city, totally supported at any one time, is about 
28,000. The cost of maintaining them during 1890 was $3,794,972. 
She further states that, if we go back forty years, we find that the 
increase of contributions of public funds to private persons for 
the support of private paupers has been from $9,863 in 1850 to 
$1,845,872 in 1890, and that the amount is nearly two hundred 
times what it was forty years ago. The increase of expenditure 
for public paupers, through the hands of public officials, has been 
at a much less ratio, increasing from $421,882 to $1,949,100 during 
the same interval of time.f 

What is society to do with its horde of defectives ? Unfor- 
tunately, it does practically nothing to check their production. 
The sources of the muddy stream are left untouched, while larger 
and larger reservoirs are being constantly built to collect and 
conserve the contaminated flow. One can not help noticing how 
this humanitarian age is abundantly equipped with asylums, 
almshouses, reformatories, and hospitals of all kinds. If the 
good accomplished by such agencies could be measured solely by 
relief of suffering and cure of disease, the results would be noth- 
ing but gratifying. A collateral danger is in keeping alive 



* Census Bulletin, No. 90, July 8, 1891. 
f Christian Union, August 25, 1891. 



THE SURVIVAL OF THE UNFIT. 185 

sickly and defective classes, who are often as prolific as they are 
inefficient. In our civilization these institutions have become a 
necessity, but their abuse should be carefully guarded against. 
What is urgently needed are homes or retreats where poor con- 
valescent patients can recuperate after their discharge from the 
hospital. As it is, such people, in a weakened condition, have no 
place to seek the needed rest, and either fall victims again to a 
former disease, or become chronic invalids. Here would seem to 
be a more fruitful field for philanthropy than the building of 
additional hospitals. Above all, more of an effort should be made 
to get at the roots of the cause than to temporize so with the effect. 
Municipal governments annually devote large sums of money for 
the care of the sick, the criminal, and the insane, but devote no 
energy to investigating and striving to prevent the factors that 
are constantly at work in producing these classes. Here, if ever, 
an ounce of prevention is equal to many pounds of cure. The 
Department of Public Charities and Correction of New York 
city, with its 15,000 wards, received $2,166,237 in 1891, and re- 
quests an appropriation of $2,877,245 for 1892. If a part of the 
money that is annually devoted to keeping alive the helpless and 
suffering could in some way be diverted toward remedying un- 
healthy domiciles, relieving overcrowded tenements, dissipating 
polluted air and foul gases, supplying the best food at cheap 
rates, educating the masses in the simple principles of hygienic 
living, closing the saloons, and in many like ways checking the 
sources of disease and degeneration, this knotty problem would 
find its best solution. The way we can cure is by prevent- 
ing. We permit factors to exist that degenerate men physi- 
cally, mentally, and morally, and then bring up a clumsy, 
mechanical, outside philanthropy to try and reform by patch- 
work. 

Probably one of the greatest dangers to organized society is 
found in the criminal classes. The laws of the production and 
confirmation of criminals, with their treatment, should be among 
the most thoughtfully studied branches of political science. The 
number of convicts in penitentiaries in 1880 was 35,538, while in 
1890 it was 45,233, an increase in ten years of 9,695, or 27'28 per 
cent, and during this interval the total population increased only 
at the rate of 24'86 per cent.* Again, the total number of prison- 
ers in county jails in 1880 was 12,691 ; in 1890, 19,538, an increase 
in ten years of 6,847, or at the rate of 53'95 per cent.f Coming to 
the inmates of juvenile reformatories, we find the number re- 
ported in 1880 was 11,468 ; in 1890, 14,846, an increase of 3,378, or 

* Census Bulletin, No. 31, February 14, 1891. 
f Census Bulletin, No. 95, July 14, 1891. 



186 THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

29'4G per cent.* It is thus shown by recent statistics that the 
various grades of criminal population are increasing more rap- 
idly than the population at large. The same results have been 
shown by previous census reports. It must also be remembered 
that a large number of actual criminals are not under confine- 
ment, and are hence not included in the figures showing their 
increase. It has evidently become a vitally important question 
for decision by society as to the best plan to pursue toward the 
criminal. In dealing with this problem too much stress is popu- 
larly laid upon merely punishing the malefactor. Popular con- 
ceptions of the nature of punishment have varied widely with 
the age. The earliest enactments of penalty were, in form, vin- 
dictive ; next retributive ; and, finally, as the highest conception, 
reformatory. While the State, uninfluenced either by vindictive 
feeling or pity, deprives criminals of liberty for a time as a 
measure of self-protection, it must adopt some mode of treatment 
during incarceration. The old plan consists in getting a certain 
amount of work out of them to aid in their support, but without 
making any effort at reform. The unexpressed idea appears first 
to get even with them, and then kick them out upon society, usu- 
ally to begin depredations again. An abnormal mental and moral 
atmosphere is diffused in such a prison, and the large congre- 
gation of criminals is a school for confirming the vicious. The 
reformatory plan aims at the prisoner's rehabilitation, so that 
there may be some hope of right behavior after release. This 
result is sought by means of physical renovation, industrial and 
intellectual education, and general moral impression. In order 
to satisfactorily apply these agencies the science of penology has 
shown an indefinite sentence with a conditional discharge, in- 
cluding partial oversight after discharge, to be necessary. It is a 
fact proved by statistics that a large percentage of criminals are 
defective either physically or mentally, and have had an unfavor- 
able heredity and environment.! Under the general system in this 
country no attempt is made to rehabilitate them during confine- 
ment. Criminals are first made to a certain extent by unfor- 
tunate heredity and unfavorable social conditions, and then 
confirmed by imprisonment. "Weak character and environment 
bring out the unfittest elements, and society by its treatment 
hastens to provide for their survival. When we see that, accord- 

* Census Bulletin, No. 72, May 27, 1891. 

f Of 552 convicts received at the State Penitentiary for the Eastern District of Penn- 
sylvania in 1886, 263 were found in a condition of impaired health, and 174 were in an 
unsound mental condition, as follows : Insane, 12 ; epileptics, 7 ; mentally undeveloped, 61 ; 
weak intellect, 77; idiotic, 17: 159 were inclined to grave diseases of the neurotic type, 
which tend to modify the moral, mental, and physical condition from inheritance of bad 
formation. 



ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS OF AMERICA. 187 

ing to past census reports, crime has more than doubled every 
ten years for the past half-century, the importance of this subject 
becomes manifest. The most practical and successful trial of the 
advanced method in this country is seen at the Elmira Reforma- 
tory. Here the prisoner goes to school and receives the needed 
bodily and mental training, by which it is endeavored to form a 
stable base for moral improvement. 

In conclusion, we must repeat that, in our consideration of 
the defective and delinquent classes, more attention should be 
given to 'prevention. Let our greatest energies be devoted to com- 
bating the conditions that are at work in society producing the 
unfit, rather than so industriously providing for their survival. 
When such a class is formed, it should be permanently isolated 
from the rest of society. Recent legislation in Ohio adjudges a 
person an habitual criminal when convicted of a third offense, 
under which he may be held for life. This law is based upon 
sound physiology and psychology. Such a permanent quarantine 
should be applied to all tramps, cranks, and generally worthless 
beings. Society must do this for protection, not punishment ; to 
avoid their contamination ; and, above all, to prevent the propa- 
gation of their kind. Advanced sociology will devote its princi- 
pal energies to avoiding the production of the unfit, and then see 
to it that they do not survive beyond one generation. Here lies 
the only solution of this difficult problem first prevention, next 

permanent isolation. 

-* 

THE ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS OF AMERICA. 

By Prof. JOHN S. NEWBERRY. 

WHEN the white man landed on these shores he found them 
covered with a dense forest, the home of the bear, the elk, 
the lynx, and the other wild animals indigenous to this country. 
The only human inhabitants were the red Indians, who roved the 
forest, "the children of the shade" the chase their occupation, 
and their amusement war. From Maine to Florida the country 
was overrun by various tribes of these untutored savages, and 
for many years it was believed that the whole of North America 
was what it was called the New World and that its animals and 
savage men were part of the first wild stock with which it was 
peopled. 

As the wave of civilization moved westward the forest was 
mowed down before it, and step by step the native tribes with 
many a hard-fought battle and bloody tragedy were driven 
deeper into their forest recesses. 

Behind the advance guard of the whites the country was soon 



188 THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

dotted with hamlets, which grew to towns, and these in time to 
cities. The intervals between them were covered with grain-fields 
and orchards, of which the growth was so luxuriant that it seemed 
to prove the soil to be now for the first time opened to the sun- 
light. Thus several generations passed ; but in time the invading 
hosts pressed through the great natural water-gap, which once 
connected the Hudson with the lakes, or crossed the Alleghanies 
from Pennsylvania and Virginia, and took possession of the basin 
of the Ohio. Here they entered their promised land the valley 
of the Mississippi a region which by its broad topographical 
unity, its universal fertility, its network of navigable waters, and 
its unequaled mineral resources, is without a rival on the earth's 
surface in its fitness to become the home of a great nation. Here, 
too, the wandering and stealthy savage was in full possession, 
and resisted the invasion of his hunting-grounds with his charac- 
teristic ferocity. 

Ultimately, however, he was compelled to yield to the superior 
numbers and intelligence of the whites, and, within fifty years 
from the first struggle on the " dark and bloody ground " of Ken- 
tucky, he had practically abandoned all the territory east of the 
Mississippi. 

"When the forests were opened in this region, it was for the 
first time discovered that the nomadic Indian was not autoch- 
thonous, and that he had been preceded by a sedentary and par- 
tially civilized people, who had cultivated the soil, worked the 
mines, and left behind them a vast series of monuments which 
extended from the Alleghanies to the prairies, from the Lakes to 
the Gulf. These monuments consisted of mounds, walls, fortifica- 
tions, and other structures composed of earth or rough stone, and 
among them the mounds (chiefly sepulchral) were so conspicuous 
from their numbers and size that the people by whom they were 
constructed and whose name and history had been utterly lost 
for want of other designation were called the Mound-builders. 

The records of this ancient people, with the lessons they teach 
in regard to their degree and kind of culture and their ethnical 
relations, will be referred to again. Meantime we will pass to 
notice a still more extensive and interesting series of monuments 
which attest the ancient occupation of America by civilized man. 

Long before the Northern whites had entered the valley of the 
Mississippi, and had discovered the first traces of the mound- 
builders, the Spaniards who invaded Mexico and Peru found 
there a civilization in many respects superior to their own a 
civilization which extended throughout Mexico, the Isthmus, and 
the west coast of South America to the frontiers of Chili ; that 
had produced cities that rivaled in extent and in the magnificence 
of their buildings those of the Old World cities that were lighted 



ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS OF AMERICA. 189 

at night, guarded by police, that contained palaces, temples, courts 
of justice, schools of law, medicine, music, and literature, with 
parks, aqueducts, fountains, and artificial lakes. 

The cities were connected by graded roads, on which were sta- 
tions and relays of messengers for the rapid transmission of intel- 
ligence. The population was divided into various castes, includ- 
ing royalty, nobility, different grades of traders and artisans, and 
finally slaves. The country was cultivated with much agricult- 
ural skill, and in the towns were workers in gold, silver, copper, 
and bronze. Their military organization was thorough and effect- 
ive, and strategic points were guarded by fortifications, some of 
which have had no rivals in magnitude in the history of the 
world. 

This civilization, imposing as it was, at the advent of the Span- 
iards had passed its golden age, was then in its decadence, and 
has since, chiefly by the brute force, cruelty, and rapacity of the 
European invaders, been nearly driven from the earth. 

So much has been written of these two American civilizations 
that of the mound-builders of the Mississippi Valley, and that 
of the palace-builders of Central America and their study has 
been pursued with so much interest and success, that it may seem 
presumptuous that I should venture to occupy the hour kindly 
granted me with a theme so broad and already so familiar. But 
it has happened to me to traverse much of the territory in Central 
America, Mexico, and the United States where the relics of these 
bygone races are most abundant, and as the subject has always 
been one of intense interest to me I have lost no opportunity of 
gathering by my own observation such information as came within 
my reach ; hence, it is possible that I may be able to contribute 
something to what you may have learned of our predecessors in 
the occupation of this continent, and of the real and original 
American citizen. 

The Mound-builders. As has already been mentioned, 
traces of a people more advanced in the arts than the nomadic 
Indian are spread over the entire valley of the Mississippi and 
the Lake basin. These have been so fully described that you are 
familiar with their general character, but few of us have a just 
idea of their number and magnitude. 

It is estimated (but I fear with little accuracy) that not less 
than ten thousand monuments of the mound-builders are con- 
tained within the limits of Ohio, and they are scarcely less numer- 
ous in the adjacent States of Indiana and Kentucky. In some 
places, as at Newark and Circleville, they cover square miles of 
surface, and it is hardly to be doubted that they are the work of 
a people or peoples not less numerous than the present popu- 
lation. 



i 9 o THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

They are most abundant where the agricultural capabilities of 
the country are greatest, and we find them associated with areas 
of special fertility in such a way as to prove that they had 
stripped the forest from these areas, and chiefly derived their 
subsistence from their cultivation. Hence we learn that they 
were a sedentary and agricultural people. Yet their structures 
are for the most part earthworks walls for defense, or to form 
inelosures, sepulchral mounds, etc. ; and while we find what seem 
to be raised foundations of extensive buildings, those buildings 
have disappeared, and we must hence conclude that they were for 
the most part structures of wood. 

The mound-builders were ignorant of the use of iron, and prob- 
ably possessed no other metals than copper, which they mined 
extensively, but never smelted ; for we find their implements com- 
posed of the native metal, often with specks of silver, thus betray- 
ing its source on Lake Superior, and only hammered into shape. 
From this copper they made battle-axes, daggers, knives, awls, 
and ornaments; but most of their tools and weapons were of 
stone, and many of them were laboriously and tastefully wrought. 

They have left no evidence that they had a knowledge of 
masonry an art in which the inhabitants of the table-lands so 
much excelled. 

This is the more remarkable, as stone easily quarried abounds 
in the vicinity of their works, and some of the great structures of 
our Western table-lands, whose builders apparently had not the 
use of metals, show what good work could be done without me- 
tallic tools. 

I have said that the mound-builders made use of but a single 
metal copper and yet they were industrious and enterprising 
miners. Their copper mines on Lake Superior have been often 
and fully described. They must have been worked for genera- 
tions, since the ancient excavations exceed in magnitude all the 
work of the white man in that region ; but the methods which 
they used were exceedingly rude and simple. 

They had no knowledge of metallurgy, and the Lake Superior 
copper was only available for their purpose because it occurs in 
the metallic state. They excavated the rock by the use of fire, 
stone hammers, and wooden shovels. 

They never penetrated the earth to a greater depth than sixty 
to eighty feet, and for ladders they used the trunks of trees from 
which the branches projected at frequent intervals, and these were 
cut off to form steps. Since no considerable structures belonging 
to this people have been found near the Lake Superior mines, it 
seems probable that their mining operations were carried on only 
in summer, and by parties who, migrating from the lower country 
in the spring, returned in autumn. 



ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS OF AMERICA. 191 

Although the copper mines of the mound-builders were their 
most important ones, they had others by which they procured 
things that were of no less value to them. Of the coal, which con- 
stitutes the mainspring of modern civilization, and of iron, its 
most important adjunct, though existing in unequaled abundance 
in the country they inhabited, and trodden under foot in their 
daily vocations, they seem to have been utterly and strangely 
ignorant. Yet they worked with much labor the mines of mica 
in North Carolina, from which they procured what was by them 
highly prized as an ornament ; the soap-stone quarries of the Alle- 
ghany range, where they obtained material for their domestic 
utensils and the all-important ceremonial pipe ; and those of flint 
in Ohio and elsewhere, from which came the material out of which 
the greater number of their tools and weapons were fashioned. 

In addition to these, I can assert from my own observation 
that they worked at least one lead mine in Kentucky, and sank 
wells from which they obtained petroleum in all our principal 
oil regions. 

As these facts have not been reported by others, and yet are 
unquestionable, I venture to emphasize them with a few words of 
description. 

Near Lexington, Ky., is a vein of lead ore which is traceable for 
half a mile or more through cultivated and forest land. The ore 
is galena in heavy spar, which has resisted the solvent carbonic- 
acid water that has removed the limestone wall rocks and shows 
conspicuously at the surface. Thus it attracted the attention of 
the mound-builders, who seem to have prized the galena only for 
its brilliancy, as we find it in many of the mounds, but so far we 
lack evidence that it was smelted. To obtain it in the mine to 
which I have referred, they made a deep trench along the course 
of the vein, taking out the ore to the depth of perhaps ten or 
twenty feet. One hundred yards or more of this trench is now 
visible, running through forest which has never been disturbed 
by the whites. Here it is five or six feet deep, and is bordered on 
either side by ridges of the material thrown out. On these, trees 
are growing which have reached their maximum dimensions, 
showing that at least five hundred years have elapsed since the 
mine was abandoned. 

The working of the oil wells by the mound-builders is as 
plainly proved. When drawn to Titusville by the first successful 
oil wells, I was struck by the peculiar pitted surface of the soil of 
the forest which covered the bottom lands of Oil Creek. The pits 
were ten feet or more in diameter, and two to three feet deep, con- 
tiguous, and innumerable. Subsequently I discovered that each 
of these funnel-shaped depressions marked the site of an ancient 
well, sunk through the alluvial deposits, but not into the rock. 



i 9 2 THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

One of these, just opened in an excavation for a new oil well, 
showed a pit twenty-seven feet deep, cribbed up with timber, and 
containing a rude ladder like those found in the Lake Superior 
copper mines. The timber used for the inclosure of the ancient 
pit had been cut with a blunt-edged instrument, doubtless of 

stone. 

I afterward found similar pits in the oil regions of Kentucky 
and Tennessee, at Mecca and Grafton, Ohio, and at Enniskillen, 
in Canada. In the latter locality the oil was obtained by sinking 
pits to the depth of forty or fifty feet in the Drift clay, the oil issu- 
ing from crevices in the underlying rock and accumulating be- 
neath the clay. In the excavation of one of these pits an ancient 
one of similar character was brought to light. This was filled 
with rubbish, twigs, leaves, etc., and a pair of antlers was taken 
from it at a depth of thirty-seven feet. The antiquity of this pit, 
like those of Oil Creek, was proved by the large trees growing 
over it. 

The contents of their sepulchral mounds have supplied some 
information though less than we desire of the domestic habits 
of the mound-builders. Usually the bones they contain are so 
much decomposed in the lapse of time that they have given us 
but an imperfect knowledge of their osteology. From the few 
remains found well preserved we may, however, infer that as a 
people they were of average size, of fair proportions, and with a 
cranial development not unlike that of our modern Indians. The 
jaws were somewhat prognathous ; their teeth as is usual with all 
peoples who make much use of their jaws for mastication are 
strong and regular; and the wisdom-tooth, which in our jaws, 
shortened by disuse, has inadequate room and is of little value, 
was with them one of the largest and most useful of the set. On 
account of the lengthened under jaw, the incisors met in direct 
opposition, and apparently because they used their teeth for grind- 
ing seeds of which the envelopes contained much silica, they are 
often found uniformily worn down nearly to the jaw. We know 
little of the crops the mound-builders cultivated except that their 
great staple was corn, and that they raised and used tobacco. 

They buried their dead with imposing ceremonies, and not un- 
frequently cremated their remains on a kind of altar which occu- 
pies the center of the sepulchral mound, and, as is the habit with 
perhaps all primitive people, vases, weapons, tools, and ornaments 
were buried with the body. Of these the pottery sometimes shows 
considerable taste and skill the vessels having graceful forms 
and being often ornamented with colors or with incised designs. 
The weapons and implements that are found so abundantly in the 
mounds and scattered over the surface are rarely of copper, gen- 
erally of stone. Of these the arrow-heads, spear-heads, daggers, 



ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS OF AMERICA. 193 

augers, and hoes are usually of flint ; their axes and celts are gen- 
erally made of green-stone, a tough and heavy rock specially 
adapted to such use ; the celts were inserted in handles and closely 
resemble those of the polished-stone period in the Old "World. 
Their axes, all grooved for a withe, were frequently wrought with 
great skill and patience. The most common ornaments found 
with the remains of the mound-builders are anklets or armlets of 
copper, and strings of beads of shells or bone, of copper or baked 
clay. In addition to these are many large ornaments of shell or 
stone perforated for suspension from the neck or for attachment 
to the head. 

Of the clothing of the mound-builders we have as yet little in- 
formation, since the lapse of time has caused fabrics of vegetable 
or animal fiber to perish. In a few instances, however, the anti- 
septic properties of copper salts or special conditions have been 
the means of preserving some fragments of cloth made from the 
fibers of a plant. Of these the workmanship is so good that we 
may believe that woven fabrics were largely used for clothing. 

In regard to the ethnic relations of the mound-builders, the 
age in which they lived, and the causes of their disappearance, much 
has been conjectured, but little can be asserted. As to the time 
in which they lived in the country they inhabited when and how 
long this at least may be said, viz., that they occupied all the 
forest-covered region of the Mississippi Valley to which they 
seem to have given a decided preference for many hundreds and 
perhaps thousands of years. This is indicated by the general 
occupation of this wide-spread area, the magnitude and number of 
such of their works as have resisted the ravages of time, and the 
great abundance of the stone implements of their manufacture 
found scattered over the surface ; also by the extent of their min- 
ing operations on Lake Superior and elsewhere. All this can 
mean nothing less than the long-continued possession of the 

country. 

The general distribution throughout the valley of the Missis- 
sippi of shells obtained on the Gulf or Atlantic coast ; the copper, 
mica, galena, flint implements, etc., all of known origin, indicate 
considerable internal interchange of commodities, but furnish no 
proof of a foreign commerce. 

In regard to the origin of these peoples little is known. We 
may infer from their bony structure that they belonged to the 
American family of men, and were not unlike, in structure, physi- 
cal aspect, and color, the red Indian of to-day. 

A few stone tablets have been found in the mounds, which are 
decidedly Mexican in character ; and if, as seems probable, the 
authenticity of these relics should be established, they would go 
far to prove synchronism and intercourse between the mound- 

VOL. XLI. 16 



i 9+ THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

builders and civilized races of the South ; but this does little or 
nothing toward establishing a relationship between them. 

As to when and ivhy and how the mound-builders disappeared 
we can form a more accurate and reliable conception. A large 
number of the monuments left behind by them are of a defensive 
nature ; in some localities, as in the valley of the Cuyahoga, near 
Cleveland, every headland which overlooks the river is crowned 
with a fort or citadel ; and it is evident that those who occupied 
this and many other areas of the Mississippi Valley were engaged 
in a constant struggle with persistent, harassing enemies. 

Following the migrations of the various tribes of the modern 
Indians (as we are able to do chiefly by the clew of language) we 
learn that they have come from the North, and have for hundreds 
of years been pushing by devious and interlacing routes south- 
ward to occupy the territory once possessed by sedentary, peace- 
ful, and agricultural peoples the mound-builders in the East and 
the stone-house builders in the West. 

Limitation of time forbids the citation of the proof of this 
northern invasion, but it is sufficient to convince those who have 
most carefully studied the subject. We may therefore accept the 
conclusion that in America, as in Europe, hordes of northern 
barbarians (multiplied by the fecundity of a cool and healthful 
climate, and inspired by the force and restlessness acquired in 
their strife with Nature's obstacles) invaded southern lands whose 
more fertile soil and genial but enervating climate developed the 
arts of peace at the expense of those of war. 

The commoner belief has been that the ultimate fate of the 
mound-builders was entire extinction ; but there is good reason to 
believe that in the Natchez and Mandans, and perhaps some other 
tribes still existing, but in small numbers, at the advent of the 
whites, we have their lineal descendants. The grounds of this 
conclusion can not be fully set forth here, but it may be said that 
the tribes referred to in many respects contrast strongly with 
the more numerous and characteristic inhabitants of the country ; 
and also that their customs and arts, their implements and struct- 
ures, bear a close resemblance to those of the former occupants 
of the Mississippi Valley. 

As to the time which has elapsed since the mines and struct- 
ures of the mound-builders were abandoned we have only nega- 
tive evidence. The heaps of debris about the Lake Superior cop- 
per mines, the filled-up oil wells, and the earthworks of Ohio, 
Kentucky, and Tennessee, were found by the incoming whites 
covered with dense forests in which the trees had attained their 
maximum size. Beneath this present generation of trees, and 
overgrown by their roots, were lying the prostrate and decaying 
trunks of a preceding generation. We thus have evidence that 



ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS OF AMERICA. 195 

at least a thousand years had elapsed since the country was 
abandoned by its former inhabitants, and their fields and villages 
were overgrown by the forest. Beyond this point all dates are 
left to conjecture. 

One interesting feature in the Western mounds is that many 
of them, especially in the prairie regions of the Northwest, are 
made to imitate, on a gigantic scale, the forms of men, quadru- 
peds, and birds, and among the animals thus represented is what 
seems to be the elephant or mastodon. Small figures of an ele- 
phantine animal also appear in the archaeological collections of 
the Northwest, and are claimed to be authentic. These relics go 
far to prove the acquaintance of the mound-builders with either 
the mastodon or mammoth, and may be accepted as presumptive 
evidence of the synchronism of man here, as in Europe, with 
one or both of these great pachyderms and hence of his great 
antiquity. 

The Palace-builders. The remains of an ancient civiliza- 
tion, scattered over the west coast of South America, the Isthmus, 
and Mexico, are so varied and interesting that they form a theme 
to which nothing like justice can be done in the few minutes at 
my disposal. Detailed descriptions of these great monuments 
are, however, the less necessary, since many volumes have been 
devoted to their exposition. Those who have access to Squier's 
Peru, Stephens's and Catherwood's, Norman's and Waldeck's 
books on Central America, or Lord Kingsborough's great work 
on Mexican Antiquities, will find there, and in the documents cited 
by their authors, a literature scarcely less rich and interesting 
than that formed by the records of the Egyptians or Assyrians. 

Of this vast field I can give you but the merest sketch, but, as 
part of it lies within our own territory, and as in its exploration 
I have taken part, I can perhaps add some facts additional to 
those you have learned, and such as will compensate for the time 
they may occupy. To summarize, as briefly as possible, the 
knowledge we have of this subject, I may say that from the 
frontier of Chili to Salt Lake, there exists an almost uninter- 
rupted series of monuments of a civilization which, though locally 
peculiar, was generically the same, and unquestionably the prod- 
uct of divergent streams flowing from a single source. The 
typical and characteristic remains of this civilization consist of 
great works of masonry and engineering (fortifications, temples, 
palaces, communal houses), which in their magnitude and per- 
fection of workmanship rival the masterpieces of ancient archi- 
tecture. Bridges, aqueducts, and thousands of miles of paved 
and graded roads attest the engineering skill of the people by 
whom they were constructed. 

Honduras, Yucatan, and Colombia would seem to have been the 



196 THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

center of this civilization. It is true that the monuments of Peru 
are equally extensive and imposing as those already discovered 
in Central America, but they are far better known ; and we have 
reason to believe that, buried in the almost impenetrable forests 
of Honduras and the Isthmus, there still remain more extensive 
and interesting ruins than any yet brought to light. There is 
little doubt that here we have the richest field for future explora- 
tions, and a source from which we may hope for more light upon 
the history of the peoples whose works we are considering. 

In regard to these peoples, however, there is no such mystery 
as clings about the mound-builders. Though stripped of much 
of its former power and glory, the civilization of the Incas and 
the Aztecs was still in active life at the time of the invasions of 
Cortes and Pizarro; though, under the hand of the oppressor, 
the native population, with all its complicated systems of laws, 
religion, customs, and literature, was rapidly destroyed or degraded 
beyond recognition. As we know, the chronicles of the old Span- 
ish historians are somewhat highly colored, and the wealth, mag- 
nitude, and splendor of the cities they conquered were magnified 
by the Spaniards to enhance the glory of their exploits. There 
can be no doubt, however, that in both North and South America 
there were found civilized and wealthy nations, far advanced in 
all the arts then known in Europe, except the working of iron, 
and with a perfection of political, social, and religious organiza- 
tion that can not fail to excite our wonder and admiration. 

As proof of the reality of the advancement in the arts and the 
solid achievements of the Peruvians, Mr. Squier tells me that the 
great Incarial road, which reaches from Quito to Chili, is a work 
of far greater magnitude than our Union Pacific Railroad ; that 
some of the public buildings of the Peruvians were constructed 
of masonry that in its perfection is not surpassed by the finest 
monuments of ancient or modern architecture ; also, that a single 
fortress guarding one of the passes through which the wild 
hordes of the upper Amazon sometimes entered Peru, was a 
mightier mass of masonry than would be formed by heaping to- 
gether all the forts upon our coasts from Maine to Mexico. 

As an evidence of the wealth of the country, it is reported that 
the gold and silver vessels brought for the ransom of Atahualpa, 
and which, as we read, filled his prison as high as he could reach, 
had a value of something like twenty-five hundred thousand dol- 
lars ; and it is said further that the gold plates and ornaments 
stripped from the Temple of the Sun at Cuzco were worth not 
less than one million dollars. 

The essential unity of the civilization which covered all the 
country containing the monuments referred to is attested by the 
resemblances in religion for all was sun-worship in language, 



ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS OF AMERICA. 197 

in customs, in style of building, and especially by a peculiar skill 
in the construction of works of masonry, in the manufacture of 
pottery, and in ornamental decoration. That there were marked 
local differences, and that this civilization was shared by inde- 
pendent nationalities, is certain; but it is no less true that it 
sprang from a common source, and was harmonized by constant 
intercourse through hundreds and it may be thousands of years. 

Since a large population was found inhabiting the cities and 
embodying this civilization at the time of the conquest, it would 
seem that everything important could be easily learned about 
this peculiar phase of human development. But it should be 
remembered that the propagation of the Christian faith was a 
motive only less strong than the thirst for gold in the Spanish 
invaders, and a bigotry ferociously intolerant of all heresy made 
it a cardinal virtue to destroy every representative of pagan 
creeds and rites. 

Hence from religious as well as political causes the conquest 
was followed by a destruction which soon swept away nearly all 
traces of the literature, customs, and government of the con- 
quered people, and did all that was possible to bury their history 
in oblivion. Fortunately, among the numerous monks who at- 
tended the invading armies were a few possessed of scholarly 
tastes, who described what they saw, and, perhaps surrepti- 
tiously, translated some of the ancient hieroglyphic records, and 
preserved vocabularies of some of the dialects then in use. These 
have furnished a clew to the interpretation of some at least of the 
abundant inscriptions in Central America, and we can not doubt 
that by the earnest following of this clew, and the patient appli- 
cation of the methods which have revealed the secrets of the 
Egyptian hieroglyphics and the Assyrian cuneiform characters, 
we shall obtain from the Central American records much light 
upon the history of the civilization we are considering. 

In Mexico and Peru few inscriptions are preserved, and yet 
we know that the art of writing on paper, or its equivalent, was 
practiced in both countries. 

Unfortunately, it was not the habit of these peoples, any more 
than it is with us, to make enduring records on stone, and the 
loss of the ephemeral manuscripts which existed at the time of 
the conquest is an irreparable one. There is little doubt, how- 
ever, that when the inscriptions of Palenque, Uxmal, Copan, 
Chichenitza, etc., shall be translated, the mystery which has so 
long hung over the origin and progress of all this phase of intel- 
lectual culture will be dissipated. 

Those who believe as some do that the Peruvian civilization 
is distinct from and totally independent of that of Central Amer- 
ica and Mexico, will not share the hopes I entertain from the 



198 THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

translation of the abundant records of Yucatan. But no one can 
compare the pyramidal structures of central Mexico, Tehuante- 
pec, and Huanaco, or the style of architectural ornamentation of 
Mitla, Uxmal, and Granchimu, without feeling that they are the 
work of a people who were generically the same. The striking 
and peculiar images in gold, silver, and alloy, as well as the pot- 
tery of Peru, of Bogota, and Chiriqui, afford confirmatory evi- 
dence of this unity. 

The intercourse between these neighboring and cognate nations 
was undoubtedly for the most part by sea. Columbus met traders 
from cities of Central America at Ruatan, where they came in a 
vessel of considerable size, carrying sail and manned by twenty 
sailors ; and Pizarro, on his way to Peru, when near the equator, 
encountered a vessel of the Peruvians, which he says " was like a 
European caravel," and was loaded with merchandise, vases, mir- 
rors of burnished silver, and curious fabrics of cotton and wool, 
the latter undoubtedly made from the wool of the llama. With 
such vessels it would be easy to pass from the Mexican to the 
Central American and thence to the South American ports ; and 
we have incidental evidence that this was done. Louis Hoffman, 
a German mining engineer, who was one of the scientific corps 
attached to the staff of Maximilian, and who on professional duty 
visited all the mining districts of Mexico, tells me that on the 
Pacific coast, directly south from the city of Mexico, in a region 
abounding in ruins yet unstudied, at the mouth of a river, is what 
was once a large seaport town. From this point the passage 
would be direct and easy to Tehuantepec, Panama, and thence 
southward. 

The question of the origin of the Mexican and Peruvian civili- 
zation has been much discussed, and various views have been 
advanced in regard to it : by some, that it was the fruit of seed 
borne across the Atlantic by the Phoenician traders, and was 
therefore of European origin ; by others, that it was a remnant of 
the civilization that pervaded the fabulous country of Atlantis, 
which once stretched from Central America far over toward the 
Old World, from which it was separated by a strait that was 
easily passed in the original dissemination of the human race. 

It must be said, however, that with the exception of some feat- 
ures which are common to all phases of human culture, and are 
the spontaneous outgrowth of qualities which are inherent in all 
peoples or are the records of creeds or customs which prevailed 
in the cradle of the human race, wherever that be there is noth- 
ing whatever to indicate a borrowing from Egypt or Tyre or any 
European nation. On the contrary, there are an originality and 
independence in all the forms in which this civilization was em- 
bodied that prove that it was either indigenous and grew from 



ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS OF AMERICA. 199 

small beginnings in the country where it subsequently attained 
its full development, or was imported in its embryonic state from 
the Oriental Archipelago. There are some things which indicate 
that its germs were derived from the latter source. On Ascension 
and Easter Islands there are large structures of stone with huge 
columnar engraved monuments. Remains of similar character 
are reported from the Sandwich, Kingsmill, the Ladrones, Navi- 
gator's, and other islands of the Pacific ; and it is evident that, in 
times so ancient that all memory of them is lost, a people inhab- 
ited these islands who had many of the arts of civilization, and 
who were essentially and characteristically workers in stone. The 
similarity of the works on these different islands indicates their 
progressive occupation by a people who were compelled, in pass- 
ing from one to another of their stopping-places, to traverse as 
great a breadth of ocean as separates some of these from the 
American continent ; and it is not improbable that the final rest- 
ing-place of this people was upon the western coast of the great 
double continent, of which the continuous Cordilleras, like a great 
wall, arrested their eastward migration. Here they spread from 
their center of radiation to Chili on the south and to Utah on the 
north, elaborating in the course of time a civilization that was 
locally colored by the varying conditions of existence, but retain- 
ing enough of its original character to show that it was all an 
outgrowth from a common root. 

If this was the history of our Mexican and Peruvian civiliza- 
tion, its original founders must have belonged to the same general 
stock with those who built the architectural monuments of India, 
and erected in the island of Java those wonderful temples now 
buried in the forests, and in ruins. 

Still, the time of separation must have been so remote, and the 
culture of the period so low, that each form of civilization grew 
up independently of the others, and they now show little relation- 
ship. 

It is the opinion of geologists that a great continent once occu- 
pied portions of the present areas of the Indian and Pacific 
Oceans a continent to which they have given the name Lemuria 
and it is speculated that this was the cradle of the human race. 

Be that as it may, from this section of the earth the brown 
Polynesians, Malays, Tahitans, Sandwich-Islanders, and Maoris 
spread, carrying with them characteristics and faculties which 
might very well be developed into a civilization such as that 
found on this continent by the European whites; and there is 
direct and collateral evidence that they sometimes landed on our 
shores. 

Considering the balancing probabilities, I may say that it 
seems to be most probable that the west coast of America was 



200 THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

colonized from that source, and that the development of great 
and cultivated nationalities was the result of ages of quiet resi- 
dence in countries which favored by their climate and resources 
the special phase of development which we here find recorded. 

As to the date of the planting of the first seeds of this civiliza- 
tion we can only say that it is lost in the obscurity of the past. 
Everything indicates that some of the monuments in the cate- 
gory we have reviewed are among the oldest records of the human 
race ; and it is certain that the gradual growth and spread of this 
civilization, the long noonday of its maturity, and its progressive 
decadence which began long before the advent of the Europeans 
must be measured by thousands of years. Thus it will be seen 
that in antiquity this indigenous and peculiar American civiliza- 
tion takes rank with that of the Egyptians, Assyrians, Hindoos, 
and Chinese, and in respect to culture, numerical importance, and 
territorial area will bear comparison with either. 



--- 



WHAT ARE DIATOMS ? 

By EMILY L. GKEGOEY, 

OF BARNARD COLLEGE. 

SINCE the microscope has become so familiar in our homes and 
ordinary places of resort, many terms are frequently heard 
which have an unfamiliar sound. For example, a lady asked the 
other day, with a laugh over the open confession of ignorance : 
" What are diatoms ? I hear the word used very frequently, and 
with such an air of acquaintanceship and familiarity, that one 
must suppose they are the most common, every-day affairs, and 
yet I must confess I have never seen one and don't know really 
what they are." 

Thinking possibly there might be others interested in a brief 
description of this curious plant, the following story is told of a 
visit paid this summer to a gentleman said to know all about 
diatoms. The plants in question are so small as to be seen only 
with the aid of the microscope ; those of ordinary size, when mag- 
nified about three hundred and fifty diameters, appear about a 
quarter of an inch long. Others are much larger. They are curi- 
ous little plants with a silica shell, which, in certain places, is pro- 
vided with little apertures through which living parts of the 
plant protrude. In this way they are enabled to move about 
freely in the water by which they are generally surrounded, for, 
though they are not all strictly water plants, they all need consid- 
erable water to enable them to thrive, and so are always found in 
wet places. 



WHAT ARE DIATOMS? 



201 



Owing to their freedom of motion they were at one time sup- 
posed to be animals. Now it is known that they are plants, as 
they can perform all the functions of plants, and no animal', with 
all his superiority, high nature, etc., is able to do this. They are 
found everywhere in all inhabited countries, and in fact all over 
the seas, so it may be readily granted that a plant so common and 
wide-spread as this should be quite familiar to every one. 

Again, not only are the living plants so wide-spread and com- 
mon, but the shells of the dead ones remain intact for many years ; 
and in certain localities these tiny shells are so numerous as to 
form a large portion of the soil. Some of the best 
known of these localities are the sites of Rich- 
mond, Va., and Berlin in Germany. It is often said 
that the city of Berlin rests on a foundation of 




Fig. 1. Pleurosigma Fig. 2. Pinnularia 

FoRMOSUM. MAJOR. 



Fig. 3. Stauroneis 
Phcenicenteron. 



Fig. 4. Navicula 

DlDYMA. 



diatom shells. The little plant dies and decays, leaving the shell, 
which retains its shape for many years. These cells are most 
beautifully marked with very delicate tracery. No tools can be 
made to perform such work as this. Some shells with the most 
regular forms of markings are used for testing lenses, such as 
Pleurosigma, shown in Fig. 1. Some of the most common forms 
are represented by Figs. 2, 3, and 4, while another less frequent 
and with more curious markings is shown in Fig. 5. 

Now, though it is so easy to obtain large numbers of these 
plants only a spoonful of mud from the bank of a stream or edge 
of a pool, a bit of sea-weed thrown up on the shore will contain 



202 



THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY 



thousands of them and a great many different forms though it is 
quite easy to find them almost everywhere, it is still very difficult 
to make out their manner of existence. For example, how they 
perform the feat of locomotion is not well understood. There are 
two ways of explaining this : one is, that the diatom moves from 
place to place, owing to the osmotic changes constantly taking 
place inside the shell ; the other and perhaps better authenticated 
opinion is connected with the peculiarity already referred to that 
is, the presence of little apertures in the wall through which por- 
tions of the protoplasmic contents protrude. Those who believe 

in the osmotic theory claim 



Y 



iw 



// 



-.TrMA?. 



m> 



Q 



^H 



















Fig. 5. Stictodiscus Californicus. 



that no such apertures exist, 
and consequently no proto- 
plasm finds its way to the 
outside of the shell. In 
connection with this point 
comes the story of the visit. 
While working in the 
Botanical Laboratory of 
Berlin this past summer, 
the writer was invited to 
visit a gentleman having 
the reputation of knowing 
more about diatoms than 
any other person now liv- 
ing. It is rather a strange fact that this gentleman is not a 
learned professor who has spent a long life over scientific prob- 
lems, but a retired book-seller who owns a beautiful villa in the 
suburbs of Berlin, and has for many years been gathering in- 
formation of various kinds about this wonderful little plant. He 
has nearly all the literature treating this subject, several large 
volumes of which are now out of print, and for which he told me 
he had been obliged to pay exorbitant prices. 

Before proceeding to the inspection of the laboratories, speci- 
mens, models, etc., coffee and cakes were served in the garden, a 
distinctively German hospitality which no scientific interests are 
allowed to interfere with. We then began in the preparing labo- 
ratory, a small but very completely fitted room, where the mate- 
rial for investigation is stored, treated, and classified for use. 
Here are the chemicals used in preparing the plant for examina- 
tion. Some processes serve to preserve the form and general 
structure of the living part within the shell, so that this may be 
studied ; other reagents, on the contrary, destroy the living por- 
tion, whereby the shell may be more easily examined. In this 
laboratory was a microscope of somewhat older style than our re- 
cent ones, but a very good, reliable instrument, which he told me 



WHAT ARE DIATOMS? 



203 



he used in the coarser manipulations, but, owing to the presence 
of chemicals in this room, none of his finer instruments were kept 
here. He explained his methods of treatment in clearing the soil 
and dirt from the land specimens, and also showed me the little 
silk nets which he uses when fishing for the water forms. Certain 
kinds grow only on the surface of the sea ; so, to collect these, it is 
necessary to go out in a small boat and row very slowly, for the 
cloth of which the net is made must be very fine in order to pre- 
vent the escape of the tiny plants through its meshes. Owing to 
this extreme closeness of the meshes, the water drains through 
very slowly. The form of the net is quite like those used to catch 
butterflies, but is held with the handle up and close to the boat. 
At very short intervals of time it must be taken up and the water 
poured out; the inside of the cloth is then carefully rinsed in 
clear water, which is kept in a jar or bottle for that purpose. The 
most difficult part of the process is to row slowly and steadily 
enough to prevent tearing the nets. 

These diatoms found on the surface of the water are fur- 
nished with long arms or projections, from which protrude hair- 
like bodies, which apparatus he conjectures is for the following 
purpose: One means of deciding that this little organism is a 
plant, is that it performs the function of assimilation, as it is 
called, by which it gives out 
oxygen. Now, this gentleman 
thinks the little hair-like out- 
growths are for the purpose of 
holding the oxygen in their 
meshes so as to enable the plant 
to float. 

After looking through this 
room and learning as much as 
possible about his methods of 
treatment, we went into an- 
other much larger and more 
elegantly furnished apartment, 
where all the nice and delicate 
work of studying forms and 
making models was done. Here 
were kept the books, all that 

have been written on this plant, and they filled a case of consid- 
erable size ; also a very complete collection of microscopical ap- 
paratus. All that modern artisans can do in the way of fine and 
delicate instruments may be found here. Nothing less than the 
best oil-immersion lenses can be used in the study of form neces- 
sary to understand the inner structure of these plants. Several 
models have been made by this gentleman, and he told me of the 




Fig. 6. Living Diatoms : a, Cocconenia lanceo- 
latum ; b, Bacillaria paradoxa ; c, Gompko- 
nema mariuum ; d, Diatoma hyalina. 



204 



THE POPULAR SCLEXCE MONTHLY. 




Fig. 



-Eohinella Flabellata, a fan-like 
marine diatom. 



hours of patient labor which it cost to bring out so much, as one 
little turn of the inner canal whose windings hold the living and 
active part of the plant, and also the explanation of the manner 
in which it moves. He has studied the mechanism of several 
forms and made models of plaster of Paris, and others of wire. 

Pinnularia major (see Fig. 2) is 
the plant from which the most 
conclusive results were obtained, 
and he claims to have demon- 
strated the existence of aper- 
tures on the surface of the shell 
through which the protoplasm 
may protrude. He does not, how- 
ever, claim to have actually seen 
the protoplasm on the outside of 
the shell, but holds that, accord- 
ing to other known facts, it must 
be forced out, though in very small quantities. These apertures 
do not open directly into the interior, but by a series of winding 
canals whose action prevents the too easy expulsion of the con- 
tents. The movement of this protoplasm along the lines between 
the openings causes the movement of the diatom in a similar 
manner to the action of the fins of fishes. All this labor, after 
all, has reference only to a certain class of these plants ; there are 
many others of such different forms that much study will yet 
have to be expended on them before their secrets are laid bare. 

There are some curious little forms which grow in clusters on 
stem-like bodies which are often fastened by their other extremi- 
ties to some object in the water. Some of these are shown in 
Figs. 6 and 7 ; and, finally, a variety of miscellaneous forms may 
be seen in Fig. 8. 

There are large collections of these plants in nearly all the 
large herbaria of Europe, and the manner of preparing them for 
such collections may almost be said to form a special branch of 
industry. Experts are able to mount and arrange in order hun- 
dreds of these little organisms under a circular cover-glass of 
about five eighths of an inch in diameter. The dexterity which 
these experts acquire in the use of instruments is something 
almost as marvelous as the organisms themselves. It must be 
remembered, however, that this mechanical labor has nothing to 
do with the work of the scientist who studies the plant. It would 
be impossible for an investigator to give enough time to enable 
him to acquire this skill. A gentleman in Wedel, Holstein, has 
acquired a great reputation in this kind of work, and has plates 
holding from four to sixteen hundred different forms. These cost 
from twenty dollars upward, and he has recently finished a plate 



WHAT ARE DIATOMS? 



205 



on which are mounted four thousand diatoms, with which there 
is a printed catalogue. This single plate is the result of four 
years of continued labor, and the price he fixes for it is twenty 
thousand marks, or about five thousand dollars. I inquired if 
there was any probability of the owner selling such an expensive 
collection, and he said very quickly : " Oh, yes ! Some rich Eng- 
lish or American gentleman will probably purchase it ; no Ger- 
man ever will." According to some of the latest systematic 











Fig. 8. Microscopic View of Richmond Infusorial Earth. (By Ehrenberg.j 



authorities, there are about eight thousand different species so 
this plate may be considered as representing half of the known 
species. 

It may be doubtful whether this story will help relieve the 
embarrassment of those who do not exactly understand what a 
diatom is. It serves to show, however, that very few people do 
know all about it ; and this, together with the thought that it is 
considered of sufficient importance to warrant spending years of 
patient labor over it, will surely prove a consolation to those who 
have been puzzling over the meaning of the word. 



206 THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

THE RELATION OF BIOLOGY TO SOCIOLOGY. 

By Dr. LEWIS G. JANES. 

IN the preface to his recently published volume on Justice, 
Mr. Herbert Spencer newly emphasizes his conviction of the 
importance of the bearing of biological laws upon the study of 
sociological phenomena. Comparing the method of his present 
w< >rk with that of Social Statics, which covered a similar field 
of discussion, he asserts that "whereas, a biological origin for 
ethics was, in Social Statics, only indicated, such origin has now 
been definitely set forth ; and the elaboration of its consequences 
has become a cardinal trait." The influence of this conviction is 
everywhere observable throughout the work. 

It is not the purpose of the present writer, however, to discuss 
the applications which Mr. Spencer has made of this principle, 
except incidentally ; but rather to reaffirm its importance, and 
to call attention to certain inferential dangers which spring from 
an unqualified acceptance of the conception that there is an en- 
tire identity of principle between the laws of social and organic 
growth. 

While it is my firm conviction that Mr. Spencer has in no 
way exaggerated the importance of recognizing the bearing of 
biological principles in the study of societary evolution, it* is 
equally important to guard at the outset against a fundamental 
though common misapplication of the analogy which would lead 
to results entirely divergent from the actual trend of social prog- 
ress, as bearing upon the true scientific relations of the individual 
to the state. 

On the one hand, it is undoubtedly true that nearly all our 
writers upon sociological, ethical, and economic topics are insuffi- 
ciently grounded in a knowledge of the scientific method as re- 
vealed and illustrated in the physical and biological sciences. 
Their arguments rest largely upon an a priori and metaphysical 
basis of reasoning. They treat man as a being dissevered from 
the world. They fail to recognize the fact, demonstrated by the 
triumph of the doctrine of evolution, that man is one with the 
universe ; that he can not be studied apart from his connection 
with the laws and principles which govern the physical world 
and the vital activities of the lower organisms. It may not be 
necessary for the sociologist, moralist, or political economist to 
be a complete master of physics and biology in all their branches 
life is too short for such a preparation ; but he should at least 
be sufficiently acquainted with these sciences to be thoroughly 
conversant with the scientific method of investigation, the tone 
and temper of mind requisite in the investigator, and have a 



RELATION OF BIOLOGY TO SOCIOLOGY. zc 7 

general understanding of the laws and processes of biological 
growth as they are related to and distinguished from those exem- 
plified in the evolution of inorganic structures. 

On the other hand, theorists of the socialistic school have 
eagerly seized upon the assertion made by evolutionary writers 
that " society is an organism," and, by exaggerating the analogies 
between social and biological processes, have thence logically 
deduced their own doctrine of the supremacy of the state over 
the individual, claiming for it scientific and evolutionary sanc- 
tion. Though Mr. Spencer has carefully guarded himself against 
this misapprehension, and his own philosophy of society is dia- 
metrically opposed to that of socialism, it is often claimed by 
writers of this school, and even by those who are of quite another 
way of thinking,* that it is only by a breach of logical sequence 
that he escapes socialistic conclusions. 

Mr. Spencer, however, early noted the important fact that so- 
ciety differs from the higher products of biological evolution in 
that no social sensorium is discoverable; and in Justice he re- 
affirms and emphasizes this distinction in discussing the nature 
of the state. " The end to be achieved by society in its corporate 
capacity that is, by the state," he declares, " is the welfare of its 
units ; for the society having as an aggregate no sentiency, its 
preservation is a desideratum only as subserving individual sen- 
tiencies." He subsequently repeats this statement with renewed 
emphasis, evidently regarding it as of great importance. 

In organic structures the unit or cell exists for the sake of the 
completed organism ; its individual sentiency, if it possesses such 
a psychic quality, is subordinate to the sentiency of the organic 
whole. In society, however, the fact is the reverse : the social 
organism exists for the sake of the individual, or social unit. 
This relation of the individual to the social structure is one un- 
questionably which should be borne in mind and given its due 
weight in the application of biological analogies to the solution 
of the problems of society. Mr. Spencer's recognition of it com- 
pletely absolves him from the logic of socialistic conclusions. 

The ' resemblances between social and organic structures, how- 
ever, are more notable and important than their differences, and 
are recognized not only by philosophical students of society, on 
the one hand, but also by eminent biologists on the other. Prof. 
Haeckel, speaking of the structure of animal tissues, says : " All 
the numerous tissues of the animal body, such as the entirely dis- 
similar tissues of the nerves, muscles, bones, outer skin, mucous 
skin, and other similar parts, are originally composed of cells ; 
and the same is true of the various tissues of the vegetable body. 

* Cf. Mr. George Gunton, in The Principles of Social Economics, pp. 298-810. 



zo8 THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

These cells . . . are independent living beings, the citizens of the 
state, which constitutes the entire multicellular organism." * 

Again, he declares: "Every cell is an independent organism. 
... It performs all the essential functions which the entire or- 
ganism accomplishes. Every one of these little beings grows and 
feeds itself independently. It assimilates juices from without, 
absorbing them from the surrounding fluid ; the naked cells can 
even take up solid particles at any point of their surface, and 
therefore eat without using any mouth or stomach. Each sepa- 
rate cell is also able to reproduce itself and increase. The single 
cell is also able to move and creep about, if it has room for mo- 
tion, and is not prevented by a solid covering; from its outer 
surface it sends forth and draws back again finger-like processes, 
thereby modifying its form. Finally, the young cell has feeling, 
and is more or less sensitive." f 

Elsewhere, even more pointedly, he affirms, " The many-celled 
organism is ordered and constituted on the same principles as the 
civilized state, in which the several citizens have devoted them- 
selves to various services directed toward common ends." J 

Both biology and sociology treat of the phenomena of life; 
both involve psychological as well as merely physical conditions. 
In the natural order of the sciences the one leads up to the other 
by an inevitable sequence. There is a similarity in the processes 
of growth between biological and sociological structures which is 
noteworthy and most suggestive. Inorganic substances grow by 
simple accretion, or addition to their bulk. Their growth is in- 
voluntary, and is chiefly determined by the operation of external 
forces and conditions. Organic substances, on the contrary, grow 
by intussusception a process of waste and repair initiated and 
carried on in the individual cells or structural units throughout 
the internal constitution of the organism ; and their growth is 
mainly stimulated by internal, volitional effort. In this respect, 
as I have elsewhere argued, " the growth of societies resembles 
that of organic substances ; it is a sort of vital chemistry." * The 
individual in his relation to society resembles the cell in its rela- 
tion to the vegetal or animal organism. The death of individ- 
uals, and the birth and growth of others to fill their places in 
society, proceed in like manner with the processes of waste and 
repair in organic structures. 

In the biological structure, however, the attractive forces 
which bind atoms into cells and cells into an organic unity are 
molecular and physical. In the sociological structure they are 
functional and psychical. And herein, I think, lies the explana- 

* Evolution of Man, vol. i, p. 60. f Ibid., p. 131. % Ibid., pp. 149, 150. 

* The Scope and Principles of the Evolution Philosophy, p. 22. 



RELATION OF BIOLOGY TO SOCIOLOGY. 209 

tion of that difference between these structures to which Mr. 
Spencer, Mr. Fiske, and others have called attention.* 

As to the essential nature of those purely physical forces which 
we call attractive e. g., gravitation, cohesion, and chemical affin- 
ity we really know nothing. We know these forces only through 
their observed effects ; and their " laws " which we deduce from 
repeated observations of these effects are merely our subjective 
classifications of orderly recurrent phenomena and their recog- 
nized conditions. In regard to sociological phenomena, however, 
we have an additional source of information. We can study the 
attractive forces which bind society together, not only in the 
secondary relation of their observed effects, but also in their pri- 
mary relation, as movements of our own thought. Affection and 
self-interest are thus seen to be the attractive forces which bind 
society together, and these forces are consciously directed and 
made steadily operative solely by individual volition. Therefore 
it is that in its psychical aspect the aspect directly involved in 
all measures of social advancement society is subordinated to 
the individual, the structure to the unit, instead of the reverse, as 
in the evolution of animal and vegetal organisms. 

All actual and permanent expansion and integration of society 
proceeds from the voluntary, co-operative action of individuals. 
The social reformer, therefore, who would work in harmony with 
the tendencies and laws of Nature must direct his efforts toward 
convincing the judgments and influencing the motives and moral 
natures of individual men and women, rather than toward forci- 
bly changing the customs of society by legal enactments, official 
pronunciamentos, or majority votes under the white heat of an 
emotional political campaign. All of these popular and custom- 
ary agencies of political action are doubtless of some service as 
educational influences, inciting thought among large classes of 
people who would otherwise remain passive puppets or unreflect- 
ing adherents of conventional social customs ; but as means of 
finally solving and disposing of social and political problems they 
are lamentable failures. 

It is strange that our socialistic reformers, who advocate the 
cure of societary ills by legislation and the paternal control of 
the Government over the affairs of the individual, do not see that 
men and women must first be personally convinced of the utility 
of such public arrangements as they advocate, with substantial 
unanimity, before legislation in their behalf could possibly be 
effective. And when the practical unity of sentiment has been 
wrought out in the community which would insure the enforce- 



* The Doctrine of Evolution : its Scope and Influence. Popular Science Monthly, Sep- 
tember, 1891, p. 592. Notably, also, Mr. George Gunton, in his Principles of Social Eco- 
nomics. 

vol. xli. 17 



2io THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

ment of the law, the law is usually no longer necessary. In other 
words, voluntary consent is the essential condition of all stable 
social arrangements, instead of governmental coercion. 

It may be objected that the social philosopher is compelled to 
recognize that, under the law of relativity, arbitrary and pater- 
nal forms of government have had and still have their proper 
place in the order of societary evolution. They are adapted to 
certain phases of culture and civilization, wherein order could 
not be maintained under freer and more democratic governmental 
institutions. This is true ; but such forms of government are 
always temporary and unstable, where the conditions of social 
progress are steadily operative. As populations attain to a higher 
degree of intelligence and culture, a larger freedom is demanded ; 
and no arbitrary government can long resist this popular demand. 
The result of such resistance, when it is attempted, if not revolu- 
tion, is stagnation, atrophy, and arrested development. 

This principle of voluntary consent is well illustrated in the 
earliest and most primitive type of societary development the 
family. The family is based upon the marriage relation; and 
while, in the savage and barbarous stages of human evolution, we 
have marriage by capture and the exercise of various modes of 
coercion sanctioned by custom and authority, it is universally 
admitted in all highly civilized communities that true marriage 
rests upon the uncoerced consent of both contracting parties. As 
this consent is less a matter of mere formality and becomes more 
perfect and complete, involving the recognition of attractions 
not only emotional and physical, but also intellectual, moral, and 
spiritual, so is the union more permanent and satisfying. 

The principle herein laid down holds good in every stage of 
social combination, however complex and widely extended it may 
be. It is a sound political philosophy which is enunciated in 
that paragraph of our Declaration of Independence which affirms 
that all just powers of government rest upon the consent of the 
governed. This is as true of the older autocratic and monarchi- 
cal systems as it is of our own democratic - republican form 
of government. An autocracy which finds no response in the 
hearts of the people, but is maintained solely by the iron rule of 
external compulsion, is a tyranny, unstable in its foundations, 
unadapted to its societary environment, and destined to early 
destruction, either by peaceful evolutionary measures or by force- 
ful revolution. In such a state, nihilism and anarchism are 
natural products of the existing social conditions. The pent-up 
forces of an artificially restrained individualism must somehow 
find vent, even if it be by means of revolutionary violence. Rus- 
sia to-day offers an instructive example of the truth of this prin- 
ciple. 



RELATION OF BIOLOGY TO SOCIOLOGY. 211 

The object of the social reformer should be, not only to accom- 
plish the renovation of society, but to do it in the quickest pos- 
sible time in which it can be so accomplished that the changes 
effected shall be permanent, and the trend of social evolution 
shall surely be directed toward the ideal end of individual en- 
lightenment and liberation and social integration. These ends 
can be surely accomplished by the method of evolution ; they are 
as surely retarded and indefinitely postponed by the methods of 
anarchical violence and artificial compulsion. The individualism 
fostered and aimed at by the evolutionary method should be 
sharply distinguished from that destructive anarchism which aims 
at the sudden and forceful abolishment of existing institutions. 

Here, too, biology offers us a wise suggestion. Galton's law 
of " reversion toward mediocrity " shows that those biological 
changes which are suddenly effected by artificial selection and 
forcible deviation from the main trend of natural evolutionary 
tendency are not permanent. They endure only so long as the 
organisms are kept under the direct and active influence of the 
artificial conditions which produced them. The moment they are 
left to the unrestrained operation of purely natural forces, they 
speedily revert to their original status. This must be the case in 
sociological evolution also, whenever social and institutional con- 
ditions are artificially forced, in advance of the intellectual cult- 
ure and functional development of the masses of the people. 

The history of our own time is full of instructive examples 
illustrative of this sociological law : of innumerable co-operative 
experiments, ideal communities, and the like, that have arisen, 
obedient to philanthropic impulse, enjoyed a brief, precarious 
existence, and died for want of sustenance ; of artificial commer- 
cial situations, the product of legislative interference with the 
natural laws of trade, which induce at first a feverish appearance 
of prosperity, followed by great fluctuations in values, and finally 
by panic and financial collapse. As artificial conditions thus 
established are always liable to be suddenly modified or annulled 
by variations in popular sentiment, the progress of discovery 
and invention, changes in governmental administration and ad- 
ministrative policy, the influx of foreign elements into the popu- 
lation of a given locality, and a thousand and one other causes, 
temporarily or permanently operating, it should manifestly be 
the purpose of the wise social reformer to build along the great 
lines of natural evolutionary tendency, and thus to make use of 
those elemental forces, social, moral, and biological, which will 
insure stability and permanent prosperity for the results of his 
efforts. 

He will thus aim to encourage voluntary co-operation instead 
of an enforced regulation of society by means of legislative en- 



212 THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

actments. The success of this aim will, of course, depend upon 
the intelligence and moral development of the citizens of a given 
community. The liberation of the individual his increasing 
ability to secure the satisfactions consequent upon the free and 
orderly use of all his faculties will proceed pari passu with his 
increasing dependence on the co-operative labors of his fellows. 
The processes of social differentiation go on hand in hand with 
the tendencies to social integration. As occupations become more 
diversified, the individual acquires greater skill in his special 
vocation ; he produces a greater amount of wealth, and thus con- 
duces more to the well-being of society, as well as, under a prop- 
erly regulated system of labor, to his own personal well-being. 
Fewer hours of labor are requisite to insure a livelihood, as labor 
becomes differentiated and automatic; more time may be be- 
stowed upon general culture, social intercourse, and the service of 
the commonwealth upon the development, in short, of that full- 
ness of life which constitutes the ideal of a perfect manhood. 

In wisely serving himself, the individual is thus rendering a 
greater service to society ; and this, in turn, inures to his own 
roundabout development. Egoism is thus purged of its excesses, 
and made to promote the general well-being. This, in turn, con- 
duces to the highest individual prosperity and culture. In the 
proper equilibration of egoistic and altruistic motives in the gov- 
ernment of conduct, all conflict between these motives ceases. In 
wisely serving his neighbor man renders the truest service to 
himself, and vice versa. Thus society integrates by a natural 
process of growth, obedient to laws which are operative in the 
evolution of all living things ; and its ultimate form constitutes 
a real brotherhood of consent, instead of a militant organization 
consolidated by external coercion. 



+ 



WANTED A RAILWAY COURT OF LAST RESORT. 

By APPLETON MOKGAN. 

WHILE the debates in Congress which resulted in the pas- 
sage of the act to regulate interstate commerce were in 
progress, and during the first few months of the enforcement and 
interpretation of that act, I contributed to The Popular Science 
Monthly a series of criticisms of that act and of its policy. 

To me, and to thousands of others, the policy of the act seemed 
un-American and paternal ; or, if not un-American and paternal, 
then a policy which could and should be applied to other than the 
transportation industry to places of public amusement, or to 
professional pursuits, to the business of the physician or the law- 



WANTED A RAILWAY COURT OF LAST RESORT. 213 

yer, or to hundreds of others. I pointed out that, if rigidly en- 
forced, the act would amount to a confiscation of private prop- 
erty ; since, if the investment of private capital in any business 
can be compelled to make charges for services in accordance with 
a tariff not framed with any reference to the capital invested or 
the value of the service rendered ; or if the value of services can 
be estimated by the person served, and paid for only in accordance 
with his estimate, and without hearing from the party perform- 
ing the service, the value of private property invested in plants 
used to render services to others than its owner would speedily 
disappear. In other words, the principle upon which the Inter- 
state Commerce Act appeared to me to proceed was one which, if 
pronounced proper, would justify and if rigidly enforced might 
even result in the operation of all railways by the Government. 
But, however that policy might work in European countries, it 
seemed to me impossible of other than despotic and ruinous appli- 
cation in the United States with its five hundred railways, their 
vast united capital and their enormous aggregate of fixed in- 
debtedness held in the shape of negotiable securities, and very 
largely held in England and upon the European continent. At 
least it seemed to me impossible without a peremptory, and so a 
paternal, fixing of values at which the Government should acquire 
the railway road-beds and plants, not to mention the creation of a 
tremendous civil list, which in itself would probably precipitate 
the very evils and tyrannies which the socialists and alarmists 
foresaw from the private ownership of railways, and the conse- 
quent accumulation of occasional private fortunes beyond the 
actual appreciation of services of the employments of capital. 

The Interstate Commerce Act has now been in operation about 
four years. Its enforcement, so far from being rigid, has been 
marked by extreme leniency and enlightened judgment upon the 
part of the commission appointed to administer it a judgment 
in which the echoes of public clamor or the verdicts of the market- 
place have found no recognition ; and the result has been, it seems 
to me, an entirely unforeseen situation one still more favorable 
to the railway companies and charitable to their procedure, if 
possible, than was the situation prior to the enactment of any In- 
terstate Commerce law whatever. Before proceeding to demon- 
strate a few of the anomalies of this, from my own standpoint, 
entirely satisfactory condition of affairs, it is only fair to the rail- 
way companies to state that they, immediately upon the appoint- 
ment of the commission, began to enforce the most implicit 
obedience to the letter of the Interstate Commerce law, and that 
whatever diplomacy there may have been on their part it 
has never resulted in the administration in a single case of the 
penal processes with which the commission was empowered by 



2i 4 THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

the act to, in its judgment, follow up a recalcitrant railway 
company. 

The inventors of the act of Interstate Commerce designed it to 
cheapen freights to the people by compelling railways to sharply 
compete, and to relieve the country from what were claimed to be 
discriminations, and to adjust local inequalities. They put the 
act upon the statute-book. But by a strange deliverance of affairs 
none of these objects were accomplished. No sooner did the act 
become law than it operated to relieve the railways from competi- 
tion, increased freights, and shifted, without lifting or adjusting, 
what were called " discriminations." But, while powerless to ad- 
vance the objects for which its projectors had fondly drafted 
and urged it, the act did accomplish one great good and one not 
local, as were the grievances, if any, it was framed to remedy, but 
a national and general good, which it is needless to say its framers 
and proponents never dreamed of subserving. That national 
good was nothing less than the appreciating of American railway 
securities in the European exchanges. 

I am not exactly certain that the railway companies them- 
selves foresaw this result when they yielded so prompt and 
unanimous an obedience to the Interstate Commerce Act, but it 
is indisputable that this acquiescence and obedience brought 
about this happy desideratum. It has not been unsuspected that, 
just as the past few years have seen the " Trust " devised by capital 
to meet and offset and checkmate the waste and unreasonableness 
of the labor-unions, so the railway companies, upon finding the 
popular opposition to them crystallizing into a Federal statute, 
by a single coup turned the statute itself into an aegis, and made 
it (as the old maxim says of the device of a mortgage) a shield as 
well as a sword. But, however this may have been, the immediate 
result was as I have said. The European investor, who had often 
looked askance at American railway securities, because he had 
somehow absorbed a notion that our United States railway com- 
panies were more or less unregulated by statute, and so more or 
less lawless, upon seeing them brought under Federal regulation 
(always with his old-time ideas of the paternal and constabulary 
benefits of government control), did not hesitate to bestow upon 
our railway securities the confidence with which he already re- 
garded our Government securities. As I have said, it is an open 
question whether the railroad companies themselves foresaw this 
result; but it remains another and a very curious cumulative 
instance of how (as I have before noted) the Interstate Commerce 
Act worked upon the railway companies, much as the prophet 
Baalam is related to have worked upon the children of Israel. He 
was employed to curse them, but he blessed them superlatively. 

But if the policy of Federal regulation of railroads is to be 



WANTED A RAILWAY COURT OF LAST RESORT. 215 

permanent, it should be as perfect in operation and as nicely 
adjusted as possible ; and to this end there are two details still 
desirable. In order that the subjects of the regulation, as well 
as its administrators, should be able to know exactly what is 
required of them: exactly what to expect, and be forever the 
one as well as the other confident that no rules and regulations, 
penalties or punishments, should be at any time " sprung " upon 
them, or be enforced by way of surprise ; or without, as the phrase 
goes, that due process of law, " of which " notice " has been held 
to be the most essential part " : it is necessary and vital that there 
should somewhere be and remain a court of last resort. 

Now, the tribunal or office which we know as the " Interstate 
Commerce Commission " with headquarters in Washington is 
not a court of last resort, or, indeed, a court of any sort. It is 
nothing, indeed, but a referee or master-in-chancery, whose only 
authority is to find and report a fact or a state of facts. (This 
has been repeatedly held, not only by the lower courts, but by the 
Federal Supreme Court itself.) Moreover, this Interstate Com- 
merce Commission has no power to award a judgment; or, if 
it does award a judgment, to enforce that judgment by process or 
execution. However penal in character its decrees may be, the 
summary process must issue elsewhere. 

Assuming that the American principle that all government de- 
rives its charter from the consent of the governed has been satis- 
fied by the obedience rendered to the provisions of the Interstate 
Commerce law by the railway companies, it follows that the rail- 
way companies are entitled not only to know exactly what is ex- 
pected of them, but to know to what tribunals they are amenable 
in case of any future disobedience or inadvertence or misunder- 
standing as to the provisions or edicts by which they are governed. 
And, further, the governed are entitled to a single statute or set of 
statutes, and to a single tribunal or succession of tribunals, and 
to be relieved from the confusion of conflicting collateral statutes 
and collateral tribunals. If they, the governed railway com- 
panies, are not entitled to know just exactly what they are to do 
and what to leave undone, then they are entitled to the public sym- 
pathy rather than to the public surveillance ; and, no matter what 
they do or leave undone, can plead such a. conflict of collatera 
laws and of decisions and of decrees of courts as will leave it 
impossible for them to be guided by anything in any given case 
but their own sovereign discretion. 

Is there at present such a state of affairs as renders the rail- 
ways entitled to act upon their own sovereign discretion, equitably 
if not legally; and to plead mistake in case of an arraignment 
for any consequences or any result of such action ? Remembering 
that the law of the land, the common law, was not written for rail- 



zi6 THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

way companies, who are only persons (or at the most common 
carriers in the eye of the common law), certainly they are entitled 
as persons that statutes passed to regulate them as railway com- 
panies should be definite, fixed, single, and certain. It is as abhor- 
rent to justice that a corporation, or a railway corporation, as it is 
that a natural person, should be compelled by law to act at his 
peril. But the situation is exactly this : Anomalous and intoler- 
able and abhorrent to justice as it may appear, our United States 
railway companies are compelled by law to act at their peril. For 
every single one of our forty-four sovereign States, and about all 
of the Territories, have copious and dictatory statutes concerning 
railways, and these statutes are in every case to be added to not 
held appealable to or reconcilable with, but collaterally additional 
to the Act of Interstate Commerce! And each governed and 
regulated railway company must either select some course of pro- 
cedure which shall contain some three or four, some larger or 
smaller, groups of these State and Federal statutes, or else disobey 
one or more groups of them at its peril ; or in almost every possible 
case presented to it for its discretion institute suit for a construc- 
tion of all these statutes in each particular case, and carry it to 
the court of highest resort, the Supreme Court of the United States ! 
Indeed it is only, as I have said, because the Interstate Commerce 
Commission has thus far been composed of gentlemen and jurists 
who have used the utmost personal judgment, conservatism, and 
leniency in administering the statute, that every railway company 
in the land has not been driven to one or the other of these pro- 
cedures (and this not once but hundreds or thousands of times* 
almost daily, in fact),viz., either to flatly disobey, or else to main- 
tain a suit up to the Supreme Court of the United States. But 
from the calmness and conservatism of a tribunal as once, at pres- 
ent or at any one time constituted, unhappily no warrant for the 
future or for any other time can be drawn. A change of personnel, 
always possible, might ingraft or enforce a new policy at a mo- 
ment's notice, with what results nobody could predicate or prophe- 
sy. But one can always state that, in whatever form the result 
came, it would amount to an interruption of public business and 
of the course of commerce. 

Now, there are two remedies for this state of things : one of 
which has been urged before, and by a no means inconsiderable or 
thoughtless or turbulent or revolutionary element of the popula- 
tion ; and the other of which has been certainly suggested, though 
not, as I am aware, ever very seriously discussed. The first 
remedy is the purchase and operation of the railways by the Gov- 
ernment ; and the second is either the abolition of State railway 
statutes and of State Boards of Railway Commissioners, or else the 
making of the Federal Board of Interstate Commerce an appellate 



WANTED A RAILWAY COURT OF LAST RESORT. 217 

court from the court of the State Railway Commissioners, thus 
either subordinating or conforming all State railway statutes to 
the Federal statute of Interstate Commerce, amending the rail- 
way statutes to the statute of Interstate Commerce in as far 
and as often as the same may he amended or altered or enlarged 
by the Federal Congress. 

The first of these remedies the Government purchase and 
operation of railways I have so fully and at length discussed in 
these pages that it would seem superfluous to touch the matter 
further, unless the reasons then given to show that the project 
was impracticable and impossible (or, if practicable and possible, 
then unconstitutional) can be disposed of. I may briefly state 
that the principal of those reasons were : first, that the immense 
number of competing railways would make the operation of more 
than one of them between terminals an act of bankruptcy on the 
part of the Government (which would attempt to compete with 
itself), while to discontinue a competing road would be to deprive 
local stations of business facilities to which they would be en- 
titled as well as the terminals ; and, secondly, as above stated, 
that to operate the five hundred railways in the United States, or 
any considerable number of them, would necessitate a civil serv- 
ice so enormous and costly that, even if administered with the 
most rigid economy, it would absolutely and superlatively realize 
for this people the worst effects which the most hectic of the 
popular railway reformers have prophesied from the continu- 
ance of the present system. In addition to these practical objec- 
tions the constitutional objection was, that the purchase of our 
railways would be impossible at present, whatever it might have 
once been, since no price at which the railway plants could be 
purchased could be arrived at. To purchase them at more than 
their value would be a robbery of the non-railway public; to 
purchase them at less than their value would be a robbery of the 
owners of the railways ; while to purchase them at their exact 
value, admitting that it could be reckoned, would be in itself a 
confiscation (and so a robbery), as forcing innocent holders to 
relinquish such legitimate investments for their capital as they 
had lawfully seen fit to select. 

As to the second remedy, there is, I think, something indeed, 
a great deal to be said in its favor, not only from the side of the 
railway companies, but from the side of the people of this country 
(from the shippers, as we may perhaps call the non-railroad oper- 
ating population; of course, an enormous majority of the whole). 
And as to this I respectfully offer the following considerations, not 
in behalf of the railways, but of the customers of the railways. 

Congress has more than once passed a national bankruptcy 
act, and, I believe, always with beneficial results. Moreover, I 



218 THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

think no sooner has a national bankruptcy act expired or been 
repealed, and the various State insolvency laws more or less taken 
its place, than the public credit has felt the change unfavorably, 
and the business interests of the community have clamored for 
the re-enactment or rehabilitation of the national statute. Now, 
if the Interstate Commerce Act stood alone, both the railway 
companies and the people would know exactly what was expected 
of each, independently and reciprocally. A codification of the 
procedure thereunder would place the whole simply at every- 
body's hand. The railway company would have no excuse for 
disobedience, and the aggrieved shipper would have not only his 
grievance but his remedy at his tongue's end. And not only 
would the shipper have a right to prosecute the company for dis- 
obedience or inadvertence or neglect or mistake, but the railway 
company might proceed against a recalcitrant shipper to com- 
pel him to obey the law : and this to the benefit not only of the 
railway company, but of his co-shipper or neighbor, to the quiet- 
ing of all possible railway " discrimination." 

If it is necessary in the present paper to demonstrate that as 
the Federal law stands, and as all these State and Territorial laws 
stand, neither of the great interests involved, neither the people 
nor the railways, can know where they stand, either independently 
or reciprocally, the demonstration is easily forthcoming. 

To outline it as briefly as possible : At the appearance upon 
our statute-books of the act of Interstate Commerce, the art of 
railroading, in spite of all and singular the State statutes (some 
of them absolutely ridiculous, more of them unconstitutional, 
arbitrary, and penal, and almost prohibitive, and almost all of 
them inecpiitable to a large degree, as my prior papers have 
perhaps demonstrated), was rapidly approaching the state of 
an exact science. But, by the appearance of that act, this art or 
science of railroading was arrested and thrown back upon itself 
in a sort of " chaos by act of Congress." The enormous fixed or 
mortgage debts of the American railways a large, perhaps the 
largest part of which was held in Europe (where, to a degree 
almost impossible to adequately describe to one not familiar with 
these matters, it involved the national credit itself) had rendered 
the pooling system imperative. This pooling system had not 
been " sprung " by the railways upon the people, nor was it for 
the benefit of higher rates, or in the nature of a combination 
against trade, or of a "Trust." On the contrary, it had been 
evolved slowly by long and costly experiments, and by extended 
deliberation on the part of the railway companies, and had ex- 
pedited an absolute cheapening of freights, and a consequent im- 
petus to manufactures, the reclamation of waste lands to agri- 
cultural purposes, and so had resulted in an unexampled and 



WANTED A RAILWAY COURT OF LAST RESORT. 219 

promised a still more enlarged prosperity. Not only was it 
found impossible for the moment to equate rates, or to know 
what to charge the public for railway service, but among the 
railway companies themselves it was impossible to contract or 
hold each other to their agreements, covenants, or mutual obliga- 
tions. Moreover, every or any insignificant local railway in the 
land (of five or ten miles long, or even of less) might and did 
solicit and accept freight to any point in the United States, 
Canada, or Mexico at arbitrary rates deliver the freight at the 
end of its haul to other, and this to yet other, lines so finally 
forwarding that freight to its destination at a rate absolutely 
prohibitive to a trunk line extending directly from the shipping 
to the destinative point of that very freight ; and this from mo- 
tives, not of competition, but of, say, jealousy, or looking to the 
depreciation of securities, and so of ultimate absorption, or con- 
trol, or " wrecking " of the trunk line. Into this confusion stepped 
the State railway boards, each lending a hand, until for a time it 
seemed as if the business of railroading was about the most un- 
desirable and unprofitable of employments not only, but a sort of 
punishment in itself. In short, it was as a last gasp, or a forlorn 
hope, that the railway companies, to save themselves, invented 
" pools/' and begged acquiescence in them of the short local lines 
in the hope of being able to earn their operating expenses, and 
possibly a prophetic fraction of their fixed charges. Imagine 
their consternation at an act of Congress which appeared and 
prohibited pooling ! 

What the railway companies or the national credit would have 
done, had it not been for the first important decision of the Inter- 
state Commerce Commission (known as the Louisville and Nash- 
ville decision), it is impossible to conjecture. That decision, 
coming at the right time, declared that, while the text of the act 
forbade " pools " or " discriminations," or " the charging more for 
a short than a long haul," the spirit of the act was to do the rail- 
way companies as well as the shippers justice under the circum- 
stances of each case. In short, that circumstances must control. 

Under, I say, that benign decision, the railways have been 
able to exist and to prosper and pay their fixed charges. The 
" Gentlemen's Agreement " nothing more or less than a series of 
" pools," called " associations " only created by a sort of national 
instead of local consent (that is, by the principal railways acting 
as a unit instead of by groups of railways here and there grouped 
by local or competitive considerations), has enabled the interest 
on American railway securities to be met abroad, and so the 
national credit maintained in the sensitive European markets, 
and all for the time has been well. The expense, to be sure, has 
been borne by the people the shippers. There has been a uni- 



220 THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

form advance in freights. But this advance the people have felt 
was a small enough price to pay for the principle of Federal 
control of railways ; and, as I say, the railway companies have 
acquiesced. 

But, while the situation is just at present satisfactory, and 
while the railway companies, up to the present time, have been 
able to " pull through/' it is impossible to deny that there is cause 
for considerable uneasiness, and indeed for considerable positive 
alarm, in the railway situation. It can not be too often repeated 
that the enormous mortgage debt of our five hundred American 
railway companies, averaging some fifteen thousand dollars per 
mile for some 200,000 miles of railway, being largely held abroad 
and payable in gold, most intricately and indissolubly controls 
our national credit. It must not be for a moment forgotten that 
the payment of the interest on this vast debt or loan is dependent 
upon the earnings of all this mileage, and that, if the shipper can 
not pay what the railway earns, this interest can not be paid. It 
is for these reasons that the subject of a conflicting Federal and 
State supervision of railways, and of their relations with the 
people, is of popular interest, and deserves discussion in The 
Popular Science Monthly, instead of being treated only in finan- 
cial articles, which only reach the banker, the investor, and the 
capitalist. Nay, more, the direct interest of the people in the 
question of a collateral and possibly conflicting State and Federal 
jurisdiction over railway companies is even more immediate 
than as above outlined. Indeed, this direct popular interest can 
be traced into so many channels, each one of them ramifying 
into so many more, that one quite despairs of exhausting them 
within the limits of a single paper. Some of the more important 
of these channels may be, however, briefly indicated : 

First, it is directly to the public interest : to the interest of each 
individual, capitalist, investor, or professional or working man, 
bread-winner or consumer : that values should fluctuate as little 
as possible, which is only another way of saying that capital 
should always be able to find remunerative investment. But (as 
shown before in these pages) if the capital now locked up in rail- 
ways is not a remunerative investment, the next step is the rail- 
way bankruptcy, the stock-" waterer," and the railway-wrecker. 
Admitting, then, that the enormous fortunes, the accumulations 
of vast resources in the hands of one or two individuals which 
was the constant argument of our Mr. Hudson and his ilk, and 
always is and always will be the argument of the communist and 
the anarchist comes from stock-watering and railway-wrecking, 
it is the direct popular interest that our railway companies should 
earn their fixed charges. And to earn their fixed charges they 
must first, as we have said, earn their operating expenses : and to 



WANTED A RAILWAY COURT OF LAST RESORT. 221 

earn these, or either of these, they must first of all be left in peace, 
and not at their peril to lawfully do all lawful business which 
comes to them. 

A second ramification of this question of conflicting Federal 
and State laws may seem at first far-fetched, but on examination 
it will, I think, be found to be very intricately connected with the 
public interest. In the President's last message to Congress his 
Excellency says : 

" I have twice before urgently called the attention of Congress 
to the necessity of legislation for the protection of the lives of 
railroad employe's, but nothing has yet been done. During the 
year ending June 30, 1890, 369 brakemen were killed and 7,841 
maimed while engaged in coupling cars. The total number of 
railroad employe's killed during the year was 2,451, and the num- 
ber injured, 22,390. This is a cruel and largely a needless sacrifice. 
The Government is spending nearly one million dollars annually 
to save the lives of shipwrecked seamen; every steam-vessel is 
rigidly inspected and required to adopt the most approved safety 
appliances. All this is good ; but how shall we excuse the lack of 
interest and effort in behalf of this army of brave young men, 
who, in our land commerce, are being sacrificed every year by the 
continued use of antiquated and dangerous appliances ? A law 
requiring of every railroad engaged in interstate commerce the 
equipment each year of a given per cent of its freight-cars with 
automatic couplers and air-brakes would compel an agreement 
between the roads as to the kind of brakes and couplers to be 
used, and would very soon and very greatly reduce the present 
fearful death-rate among railroad employe's." 

It seems to me that this passage brings us exactly to the ques- 
tion before us, for, while the President's recommendation is on 
the side of humanity, it is possible to see how considerable in- 
equality and injustice might result from a carrying out of the 
suggestion. Even humanitarian laws are not always laws for the 
greatest good of the greatest number. For example, it might be 
asked, Why interstate railways only ? (of course, in a message 
to Congress only interstate railways could be mentioned, as under 
its jurisdiction, though this is only true in a measure and not, as 
I take it, necessarily so) and, if interstate railways only, how if 
State laws should also provide for the use of an automatic coupler, 
and supposing a State law should decree the use of one kind and 
the Federal law decree the use of another ? Before the railway 
company could ask for a reconciliation of the two decrees, or even 
in good faith endeavor to provide an equivalent, how many liti- 
gants might arise to sue for a penalty under one law or the other, 
or how many railway accidents be added to the fatality list ? And 
let it not be forgotten that, strange as it may appear, the enforce- 



222 THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

ment of the President's suggestion would actually work a hard- 
ship to the employe's themselves by throwing thousands of them 
out of employment. (Of course, the hoary old question as to 
whether improvements in machinery in the long run do actually 
throw laborers out of employment might be discussed just here, 
but I fancy that while we were discussing it a great many brake- 
men might starve.) 

If such a matter as this could be left by all the States, by unan- 
imous consent, to the Federal power, and if, instead of so sweep- 
ing a law as the President suggests, a statute might be provided 
requiring the draw-heads of all freight-cars manufactured or ad- 
mitted into the United States to be of a uniform height and to be 
within projecting frame corners from the rail surface, everybody 
can see that not only humanity but perfect justice both to the 
railway company and to the employe" would be subserved.* 

We are not at present discussing the question of automatic 
couplers ; but this illustration shows : first, the necessity of a single 
and uniform railway law-maker, and that the law-maker should 
be guided only by expert knowledge and act only after adequate 
discussion and deliberation as to the best methods for not only 
preserving the lives of employe's, but of conserving to them the 
opportunity of earning a living, and to the railway company the 
opportunity to earn the money to pay them their wages. It is 
certainly not necessary to go further into the subject already so 
fully discussed in these pages; but when the reader of former 
papers remembers the absurd and arbitrary laws passed by cer- 
tain State Legislatures, such as prescribing the size and cost of 
station-houses, the number and distance even, without the slight- 
est regard to the business or the earnings of the company, he will 
see at once how prohibitive of profitable railway enterprises (and 
so how perilous to the public, and even to the national prosperity) 
it may be, to leave all statutory control and regulation of railways 
in its present indifferent, undecided, and altogether chaotic state. 
It seems to me that it is the interest of the nation, of the public 
at large, of the railway companies, of their employe's in short, 
of all concerned that such an adjustment may be arrived at as 
will secure, if at all, a Federal control of railways in the spirit of 

* I think such a law as this would be a better one than one directing the use of an 
automatic coupler, for it would not throw any brakemen out of their jobs. As to the loss 
of life spoken of by the President, the larger number of instances will, I think, be found 
to have occurred at night, when brakemen, not knowing of course the height of the draw- 
heads of the cars approaching them, and often while using every precaution, might be 
caught and crushed by a different build of car with flush corners, or higher or lower tim- 
bered corners. Such a law, prescribing uniformity in this detail, and mulcting the company 
owning the car or cars causing the death or mutilation with adequate damages, would be, I 
think, a salutary and an exemplary one. 



WANTED A RAILWAY COURT OF LAST RESORT. 223 

the present Act of Interstate Commerce, by making that act su- 
perior to and controlling all State laws : at any rate, some single 
tribunal whose decisions may make a body of railway law for 
the protection as well as for the discipline of railway com- 
panies. If a possible dissenting voice should urge that there 
was a difference between a " State " and an " interstate " railway, 
I may add that it has been held repeatedly by the Interstate Com- 
merce Commission, and never denied by the courts, that a rail- 
road which is wholly within a single State, if engaged in the 
transportation of passengers and freight going to or coming from 
another State, is engaged in interstate commerce and is therefore 
subject to congressional control ; and the Commission have repeat- 
edly asserted, and are in this upheld by the highest authority,* 
that Congress may with respect to all the subjects of foreign and 
interstate commerce, the power engaged in, and the instruments 
by which it is carried on. It gives the power to prescribe the rules 
by which it shall be governed and the conditions upon which it 
shall be conducted. It embraces within its control all the instru- 
mentalities by which that commerce may be carried on, and the 
means by which it may be aided and encouraged; and, if I am 
not in error, this power has been extended, by the present Inter- 
state Commerce Commission, to the regulations and the work- 
ings and maintenance of a bridge over which freight having an 
interstate destination is transported ! With such an interpre- 
tation of the constitutional clause, it would not seem to be going 
too far if the Commission should assume a veto power over the 
State Commissioners ; and I am sure it would not be difficult to 
use it with the highest possible regard for the interests of all con- 
cerned. 

One of the jurisdictions proposed for such a tribunal of rail- 
way last resort as I have suggested is that of restricting the con- 
struction of proposed railway lines by decreeing whether or not a 
proposed railway line is necessary or desirable between two given 
points. I think it is entirely safe to say, however, that no such 
jurisdiction will ever be assumed, or, if assumed, will ever be exer- 
cised by any tribunal or court within the United States. This 
people would resent (and no class of it sooner than that of men of 
the Hudson caliber, who see in railways the approaching cataclysm 
of the nation), as intolerable, the idea of any arbitrator however 
lofty deciding upon an individual's right to invest his own capi- 
tal entirely as seemed to him good ; but principally because such 
a power, if granted, would not be confined to a negative action 
alone. The right to forbid the building of a railway between two 
certain points would lead up to, and in time arrogate, the right 

* 93 U. S., 103-114. Id., 196. 



224 THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

to decree the building of another railway between two other 
points ; and as the one would be impossible, so the other would 
be absurd. 

For all that is said about superfluous and over-railway con- 
struction, I confess that I would like to hear mentioned the one 
of our five hundred United States railway lines which is superflu- 
ous, or which the community which is served by it would consent 
to have torn up or to otherwise dispense with. I have myself 
cajoled, argued, and fought for rights of way, and finally brought 
condemnation and sundry other legal proceedings in order to con- 
struct a railway ; but, once constructed, I think it would be dan- 
gerous to limb or life to suggest a discontinuance of that railway 
to the very people who once resisted, to their last extremity, its 
location. 

The people of the United States are indebted to their railways 
in a sense which obtains in no other country on this planet. To 
say that the railways have turned forests into farms and made 
the desert blossom as the rose does not express this obligation. 
It is a greater one than that. To the United States as to no other 
nation the railways have brought wealth by a present realization 
of prospective revenues so enormously as to quite amount to an 
actual creation of values. In other countries railways have been 
built when populations demanded them, or could not exist longer 
without them when great cities were to be brought together and 
great industries to be served. In the United States the railways 
have preceded and created the demand, the interests, the cities 
themselves. 

The percentage in error of judgment is at least no greater in 
the promoting of railway enterprises than in any other branch of 
human procedure. Nor is it impossible to argue that even a forced 
railway construction where actually no demand can be pre- 
mised, no interests subserved, where no capital seeks legitimate 
investment, and no traffic exists, and for only ulterior purposes 
(such as "selling out") is entirely a disadvantage to a com- 
munity. Even the debentures of such a railway are not a public 
burden. For, while a promise to pay value is not perhaps a crea- 
tion of value at the start, if interest be paid upon that promise and 
it is finally funded and ultimately paid in cash, it becomes a con- 
tribution to the public wealth (however meanwhile that promise 
or the guarantee of it may work criticism or prophecy of national 
ruin, or the elocution of the agitator or the communist about 
bloated or unhealthy private fortunes and the like). Large views 
and considerations of " the long run," do not, I think, warrant any 
paternal surveillance over private capital or the laws of supply 
and demand. What is wanted is either a surcease of railway 
commissions, Federal, State, and Territorial, in the United States, 



PESTIFEROUS PLANTS. 225 

or else that those tribunals which do exist be created into an intelli- 
gible succession, with one of last resort at the top, whose decrees 
shall be final to protect, as well as to discipline, both the railway 
company and its customers. 



-- 



PESTIFEROUS PLANTS. 

By Prof. BYRON D. HALSTED, 

BOTANIST OF NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE EXPERIMENT STATION. 

SOME plants, naturally, are better fitted to subserve the wants 
of man than others, and for the growth of these he puts forth 
special effort ; in short, the whole underlying foundation of mod- 
ern agriculture rests upon methods of favoring these plants and 
thereby enlarging and multiplying those qualities in them that 
led to their being chosen by man as objects of cultural attention. 
All plants, therefore, that now legitimately occupy space in our 
fields, orchards, and gardens are living an unnatural life, because 
they are in part creatures of selection and care ; and it therefore 
follows that, owing to this stimulus under which they have flour- 
ished for generations, when the fostering hand of man is with- 
held they either perish or gradually drift back to the wild state 
and slowly lose many of their most valuable qualities as culti- 
vated plants and regain those that better fit them for the stern 
battle of life. During the time while cultivated plants have been 
brought to a high plane of usefulness there have been many other 
species with no merit in their products that have stood in the 
way of the development of these fostered plants. The weeds have 
grown strong because obliged to fight their way and take every 
possible advantage when opportunity offers. They quickly win 
in the race for supremacy in every field devoted to cultivated 
crops, when man's care is withheld, and multiply their kind to an 
extraordinary extent. More reasonable it would be to expect a 
man under the softening influences of civilized life to win in the 
rough race for existence when placed, unaided, among savage In- 
dians, than to hope for the success of a parsnip or onion seedling 
when surrounded by a rank growth of weeds. 

There is nothing in the structure of a plant that Cain-like 
curses it forever. No part of the leaf, stem, fruit, or flower gives 
conclusive evidence that it belongs to a weed, and therefore we 
are forced back to the definition that was accepted a long time 
ago, namely, " A weed is a plant out of place." Its relation to 
others makes a plant a weed. A rose bush of the rarest variety, 
and one highly prized in its proper place, is a weed when occupy- 
ing the soil to the detriment of some other plant that has the 

TOL. XLI. 18 



226 THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

authorized right to the soil. Clover and the best of grasses may 
be serious weeds, fit subjects to be uprooted by the cultivator or 
hoe, when growing in a corn-field and injuring the maize crop. 
If a field is devoted to wheat, it follows that all other plants 
therein may be weeds, whether it be cockle, red-root, or an oak 
tree. 

There is a possibility of any kind of a plant being a weed, but 
this thought does not prevent some species always being out of 
place. For example, there is no function in the economy of the 
farm garden that the Canada thistle can do as well as many other 
plants. As a forage plant, or a source of nutritious seeds or 
beautiful flowers, the pig-weeds are a substantial failure, equaled 
only by their success in occupying the soil and robbing it of 
nourishment designed for useful plants. It would puzzle any one 
to find a proper place for the horse-nettle, now advancing upon 
the Eastern farmers from the Southwest, and destined to spread 
its horrid, prickly, worse than worthless branches over our cult- 
ured soil. The bur-grass, cockle-burs, burdock, and a long list 
of congeners are practically universal every-day curses from which 
all earnest crop-growers wish to be free. 

The natural covering of a fertile soil is a growth of vegetation. 
Upon the broad, open prairie there is a dense coat of grass, 
while in the Eastern States a heavy growth of trees clothed the 
virgin soil. So strong is Nature's desire to assert this right that 
if we allow one of our fields to lie fallow, at the end of the season 
it will be covered with vegetation. She understands that a bare 
soil is a wasteful soil, for while it is not producing anything it 
may lose by leaching much fertility already in its bosom. Every 
generation of plants inherits the deposits of all previous gen- 
erations, and in turn should add to the accumulated stock in the 
soil. By this economical and saving practice of Nature the fer- 
tile newly broken grass lands have been made, while the upper 
soil in the forest has received the enriching accumulations of 
ages. Man overturns this harmonious system, and by breaking 
up the sod destroys the very method by which sod is made. He 
clears away the forest and many of the conditions which favor 
the growth of trees. It is upon this newly exposed soil that 
weeds assert their supremacy, and if the hand of man is withheld 
they will soon weave a garment, in itself unattractive, that clothes 
the bare earth. Weeds have a thousand ways of doing this to 
one possessed by cultivated plants. Bring up, if you please, some 
soil from the bottom of a newly dug well, and if exposed for a 
season some weeds will have planted colonies upon the bare heaps 
and vied with each other for the entire possession of the new ter- 
ritory, at the same time gaining in forces for the occupation of 
any similar place elsewhere. 



PESTIFEROUS PLANTS. 227 

The crop-grower necessarily introduces the condition of a bare 
soil for a portion of the year for every crop, and must therefore 
accept the situation : while he invites their presence and develop- 
ment, even stimulating them in various ways by making the con- 
ditions favorable for the growth of his crop plant, he must become 
a competitor with the weeds for the possession of the soil. The 
weed seeds are either in the soil or soon find an abundant en- 
trance, and if the way is clear the young pests are up and doing 
as with the morning sun. 

Most of our weeds, like much of our vermin, have come to us 
from beyond the sea. Just how they emigrate in every case will 
never be known ; some came as legitimate freight, but many were 
" stowaways." Some entered from border lands upon the wings 
of the wind, on river bosoms, in the stomachs of migrating birds, 
clinging to hairs of passing animals, and a hundred other ways 
besides by man himself. Into the New England soil and that 
south along the Atlantic seaboard the weed seeds first took root. 
Also the native plants, with a strong weedy nature, developed 
into pests of the farm and garden. Many of the native weeds 
are shy and harmless in comparison with the persistent and 
pugnacious ones that have like vagabonds emigrated to our 
shores. Why should it be that plants of another country not 
only find their way here, but after arriving assert themselves 
with a vigor far surpassing our native herbs ? Dr. Gray, in writ- 
ing upon this point, says, "As the district here in which the 
weeds of the Old World prevail was naturally forest-clad, there 
were few of its native herbs which, if they could bear the expos- 
ure at all, were capable of competition in the cleared land with 
emigrants from the Old World." The European weeds had 
through long ages adapted themselves to the change from forest 
to cleared land, and were therefore prepared to flourish here in 
the rich forest soil that was suddenly exposed to the sun and sub- 
jected to other new conditions by the felling of the trees. To go 
back of this we are not sure that the ancestors of some of our 
European weeds ever came from the forests, but instead were 
brought into the cleared-up lands from open regions in the early 
days of agriculture in the Old World. As civilized man moved 
westward, the weeds followed him, re-enforced by new native ones 
that soon vied with those of foreign blood. Not satisfied with 
this, these natives of the interior ran back upon the trail and be- 
came new enemies to the older parts of our land. The conditions 
favorable for the spreading of weeds have increased with the 
development of our country, until now we are literally overrun. 
Weeds usually as seeds, go and come in all directions, no less as 
tramps catching a ride upon each passing freight train than in 
cherished bouquets gathered between stations and tenderly cared 



228 THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

for by transcontinental tourists in parlor cars. " Weeds," Bur- 
roughs says, " are great travelers. . . . They are going east and 
west, north and south, they walk, they fly, they swim. . . . They 
go under ground and they go above, across lots and by the high- 
way. But like other tramps they find it safest by the highway ; 
in the fields they are intercepted and cut off, but on the public 
road every boy, every passing herd of sheep or cows, gives them 
a lift." They love the half-earnest tiller of the soil, and will 
crowd around his barns and dwelling, and flourish in his garden 
and fields so long as he favors them with slight attention to his 
crops. 

The fact is patent that weeds are everywhere, and the best 
means need to be taken to resist their greater prevalence. In 
this warfare against them there is no weapon equal to a thor- 
ough knowledge of the enemy that is, an understanding of the 
nature of these pests, their appearance in all stages of growth, 
methods of propagation, and dissemination of the seeds. This 
knowledge is much more highly appreciated in Europe than here. 
In Germany, for example, they have wall maps upon which the 
leading weeds are represented. Hung as these are upon the 
school-room walls, a child, simply from daily seeing these life-like 
colored drawings of the various pests, will learn their appearance 
and names. Some such method of instruction is needed in this 
country, by which the children who are soon to be our farmers 
and gardeners may become familiar with the troublesome weeds 
even in advance of their advent, that the proper means may be 
taken at once for meeting and destroying them. Editors of agri- 
cultural papers and professors in agricultural colleges yearly re- 
ceive many letters asking for the simplest kind of information 
concerning many common weeds, thus showing the general lack 
of knowledge upon this important subject. To put a map of a 
dozen of the most destructive weeds upon the walls of every 
country school-house in the United States is a great undertaking ; 
but if it were done, the next and succeeding generations of farm- 
ers would be the better able to carry on the work of extermina- 
tion. There are a large number of farmers' clubs throughout the 
country, and a great deal might be done by hanging a weed chart 
upon the walls of these halls where farmers gather from time to 
time for mutual improvement and a better understanding of the 
ways and means of a more profitable agriculture. 

Weeds have been neglected in more ways than one, and just 
so far as they are overlooked and left to themselves the greater 
will be the curse. As one looks over the premium lists of our 
thousands of county and State fairs one seldom sees a prize offered 
for the best collection of weeds. It seems incompatible with our 
fitness of things to have a good collection of anything that is bad ; 



KOREAN MOUNTAINS 'AND MOUNTAINEERS. 229 

and yet the fact remains that there is no class of plants about 
which an increase of knowledge is more imperative than these 
same ugly weeds. A few dollars expended in awards by each 
fair association would bring together lists of plant pests the ex- 
hibition of which would not only surprise but greatly instruct 
those who see them. It is not less important for the farmers of 
any district to know of the arrival of a new weed than of the ad- 
vent of a new fruit or grain. 

In this connection, and in conclusion, it is a pleasure to an- 
nounce that space at the World's Columbian Exhibition has al- 
ready been set aside for a display of the weeds of the whole coun- 
try, and preparations are now making for a full occupation of the 
allotment. 







KOREAN MOUNTAINS AND MOUNTAINEERS. 

By CHARLES W. CAMPBELL. 

AS delineated on a Korean map of the country, the White 
Head Mountain seems to consist of a circle of jagged peaks 
inclosing a moderate-sized lake. The description of it in Chi- 
nese, in the letterpress department of the Atlas, recites that 
" Peik-tu San, or White Head Mountain, lies seven or eight days' 
journey to the west of Hoiryeng (a town on the Korean border), 
in Manchu territory. The mountain is in three tiers, is two hun- 
dred li, or sixty miles high, and the circuit of its base covers one 
thousand li, or three hundred miles. On the summit there is a 
lake eight hundred li, or two hundred and fifty miles in circum- 
ference, whence flow the three rivers Yalu, Sungari, and Tumen." 
These dimensions are greatly depreciated in Mr. James's descrip- 
tion of the mountain in his book, The Long White Mountain. 
Nevertheless, lakes in mountain-tops seven or eight thousand 
feet above sea-level are rare enough to tempt the adventurous 
traveler to try to explore them ; and this one on Peik-tu San 
yields precedence in interest, historically and geographically, to 
few others in the world. So thought Mr. Charles W. Campbell, 
of the English consular service in China, when, on the last days 
of August, 1889, he left Seoul on the tedious journey, by primitive 
Korean conveyances, of six hundred miles to the mountain. From 
his account of the journey, and the discussion it called forth in 
the Royal Geographical Society, are derived the facts given in 
this article. 

The country traversed during the first four days of the journey 
was typical of the center and south of the Korean Peninsula. 
" Korea is a land of mountains. Go where you will, a stretch of 
level road is rare, and a stretch of level plain rarer still. The 



2 3 o THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

view from any prominent height is always the same ; the eye 
ranges over an expanse of hill-tops, now running in a succession 
of long, billowy lines, now broken up like the wavelets in a 
choppy sea, often green with forest, but just as often bare and. 
forbidding. Clear mountain brooks or shallow streams rushing 
over beds of gravel are never wanting in the valleys below, where 
a rude long bridge, or curling smoke, or the presence of cultiva- 
tion, leads you to observe the brown thatch of some huts clus- 
tered under the lee of a hill." On the fifth day Mr. Campbell 
" branched into untrodden country for the purpose of visiting a 
remarkable range called the Keum Kang San, or Diamond 
Mountain, where the most notable collection of Buddhist monas- 
teries in Korea is to be found. There was a considerable change 
in the configuration of the land as we passed eastward from 
Keum-Seng. The valleys contracted into narrow, rocky glens, 
forests of oak, pine, maple, and chestnut clothed the steeper and 
loftier slopes, and cover sufficiently thick to delight the heart of 
the sportsman abounded everywhere." A pass too steep for laden 
animals had to be crossed with the help of bearers. It is known 
as the Tan-pa Byeng, and is the western barrier of the Keum 
Kang region. " The summit is about twenty-eight hundred feet 
above sea-level. Thence in clear weather a view of the Dia- 
mond Mountains was said to be obtainable, and tne name Tan- 
pa, which means ' Crop-hair,' was given to the ridge in the 
early days of Korean Buddhism, to signify that those who reached 
this point had taken refuge in the cloister, and should sever their 
connection with the world by parting with their hair. 

" From Tan-pa Byeng, a journey of sixteen miles in a north- 
easterly direction brought us to Ch'ang-An-Sa, or the Temple of 
Eternal Rest, a Buddhist monastery at the foot of the Keum Kang 
San (Diamond Mountains). These mountains are a remarkable 
section of the main range which practically determines the east 
coast of Korea. Elsewhere the aspect of the chain is tame enough, 
but in the north of the Kang-wen province it suddenly starts into 
a towering mass of irregular, precipitous rocks, whose appearance 
earned for them many centuries ago their present designation. 
Viewed from the Eastern Sea, which is not more than thirty miles 
off as the crow flies, their serrated outline is very striking, and 
must always make them conspicuous. The district they occupy 
is a fairly well defined one, some thirty miles long by twenty 
broad. Few places are more renowned in any country than these 
mountains are in Korea ; in popular estimation they are the beau- 
ideal of scenic loveliness, the perfection of wild beauty in Nature. 
I found that both Chinese and Japanese spoke and wrote of them, 
but more because they are a Buddhistic center than for any other 
reason. At Seoul a visit to Keum Kang San is quite fashionable, 



KOREAN MOUNTAINS AND MOUNTAINEERS. 231 

and supplies all the material necessary for reputation as a trav- 
eler. Buddhism evidently found a home in these secluded mount- 
ains soon after its introduction into Korea, which Chinese and 
native records tell us occurred in the latter half of the fourth 
century after Christ. A Korean book the Keum Kang San 
Record states that Ch'ang-An-Sa was restored or rebuilt at the 
beginning of the sixth century, and at the monastery itself tradi- 
tion dates the oldest relics from the T'ang period (a. d. 618 to 907). 
At present upward of forty shrines, tended by three or four hun- 
dred monks, a few nuns, and a host of lay servitors, are scattered 
over the east and west slopes of the Diamond Mountains. The 
great majority of the monks are congregated at the four chief 
monasteries, and the nuns possess a small sanctuary or two where 
they find sufficient to do, apart from religious exercises, in weav- 
ing cotton and hempen garments and other womanly occupations. 
The monks, when not in residence at the monasteries, travel all 
over the country, alms-bowl in hand, chanting the canons of 
Buddha from door to door, soliciting subscriptions to the building 
of a new altar or for the repair of an old one, and begging from 
day to day the food and resting-place which are rarely denied 
them." 

The route followed a rough torrent winding up the west slope 
to the water-shed which is 4,200 feet above sea-level, and the 
highest point reached in the journey across Korea and descended 
the eastern flank by a wild mountain-path. " The monastery of 
Ch/ang-An is superbly situated a little way up the west slope. 
The lofty hills which wall in the torrent on the north recede for 
a few hundred yards, and rejoin it again, leaving in the interval 
a semicircular space of level ground, upon which the temple is 
built. Nothing could be more effective than the deep-green set- 
ting of this half-circlet of hills, rising up like a rampart from the 
rear of the buildings, and rendered additionally pleasing to the 
eye by a symmetrical covering of leafy forest and shrub. In 
front, the water swishes and swirls through rough, tumbled gran- 
ite blocks, here and there softening into a clear pool, and beyond 
this again towers a conical buttress of the Keum Kang San, thickly 
clothed with pines and tangled undergrowth for half its height. 
The peak possesses the characteristics of the range. Gaping 
seams and cracks split it vertically from the summit down until 
vegetation hides the rock, at sufficiently regular intervals to give 
one the impression of looking at the pipes of an immense organ. 
The topmost ribs are almost perpendicular, and gleam bare and 
blue in the evening sun ; but lower down the cracks and ledges 
afford a precarious lodging to a few conifers and stunted oaks." 
The other mountains along the route occupy equally pretty situ- 
ations. Soon after crossing the Keum Kang range, Mr. Campbell 



23 2 THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

struck the Japan Sea. A journey of sixty miles along the coast 
brought him to Wen-san, one of the ports opened to trade by the 
treaties with foreign powers. Hence he followed the coast-line 
northward for six days, passing through a number of populous 
towns, to Puk-ch'eng. Trade, which was not active on the Seoul- 
Wen-san route, was particularly stirring along the east coast. It 
is mainly in Manchester cottons. Fairs were common between 
Wen-san and Puk-ch'eng as they are in all the populous dis- 
tricts of Korea. "The road was always animated with a con- 
course of merry, brightly dressed people, wending their way to 
the market town; women carrying jars and baskets of melons, 
pears, chillies, etc., on their heads, and babies on their backs; 
bulls and carts laden with brushwood for fuel; produce of all 
kinds, including grain and dried fish, borne by ponies and men ; 
sturdy, half-nude coolies, perspiring under lofty, wooden frame- 
works, to which assortments of earthenware pots and turned 
wooden dishes are attached; and, more numerous than all, the 
pleasure-seeker, or Jcu-Jcyeng-kun, in holiday dress, strutting 
along in company with a batch of friends, gesticulating, laugh- 
ing, and cracking jokes productive of the most hilarious mirth. 
Such throngs greeted the foreigner with amused surprise, some- 
times a trifle rudely, but always good-naturedly. The women, in 
most cases, behaved as properly conducted Korean women ought 
to do when their faces run the risk of being scanned by a stranger, 
and turned their backs upon him ; yet frequently all scruples 
vanished before an overpowering curiosity to take in the particu- 
lars of so odd a costume, or to discuss the singularity of the 
equipage. The main street of the town or village is the market- 
place. It often widens into a sort of place or square, where 
straw booths are hastily erected for the occasion ; but, ordinarily, 
each man exposes his wares on some boards, or on a cloth spread 
on the ground in the best spot available. The articles for sale are 
of the simplest." 

From Puk-ch'eng Mr. Campbell took the direct, across-country 
route through Kap-san, to Peik-tu-san, in preference to the more 
interesting circuitous route, because of the lateness of the season. 
Following the Peik-ch'eng River to its source, he then, next day, 
after leaving the city (September 24th), reached the crest of the 
range which here fringes the highlands of North Korea. The 
top of the pass, called Hu-ch'i Ryeng, is 4,300 feet above the sea ; 
thence to the Yalu, at Hyei-san, a distance of a hundred miles, 
there was a gradual descent, with one remarkable irregularity, to 
an elevation of 2,800 feet. " The aspect of the country had com- 
pletely changed. We had left some valleys producing rice and 
cotton, and had entered a plateau-like region, where these crops 
were impossible, their places being taken by oats, millet, and 



KOREAN MOUNTAINS AND MOUNTAINEERS. 233 

hemp. At first our way lay through a forest of spruce, pine, 
birch, and oak, broken by an occasional marshy glade ; to this 
succeeded an undulating country, which bore traces of being 
recently cleared. Clearings were made simply by setting fire to 
the forest a process which I saw in operation. The population 
was scanty, but evidently increasing; the houses were log-huts, 
plastered with clay, roofed with thatch or shingle, and fenced 
with palisades of stakes six or eight feet high. Game hereabouts 
was very plentiful. . . . Tigers, leopards, and bears are also said 
to be easily obtainable. The tiger, indeed, is a fruitful subject 
of discussion. From Wen-san to Peik-tu San, and thence to 
Peng-yang, I heard endless stories of the brute's ravages, and 
more than once I was asked to delay my journey to shoot a ' man- 
eater.' In the Yalu backwoods I passed through a deserted 
clearing, where four out of a total of ten inhabitants, had become 
the prey of a man-eating tiger during the previous winter and 
spring." Large tracts of cultivated land became common near 
Kap-san ; and the neighborhood is said to contain most of the 
mineral wealth of Korea ; gold, silver, and lead being worked at 
several places, but with sorry appliances and little skill. There 
is no doubt that the country is rich in useful and valuable min- 
erals, but it has yet to be ascertained whether they can be worked 
at a profit. 

The first view of the White Head Mountain was obtained from 
the crest of the ridge overlooking the Yalu, about thirty miles 
north of Kap-san. " Its renown was at once comprehensible, for, 
distant as it was, the view was majestic. The white, irregular 
mass towered, without any marked or prominent peak, head and 
shoulders over the surrounding hills, though one could see that 
it was not lofty, as mountains go. . . . Just at the point where 
this mountain is first visible a small temple has been erected for 
the purpose of offering sacrifices, which is done by the King of 
Korea every year on the 4th of the eighth moon (August) to the 
Peik-tu San deities. At Seoul I was led to believe that the offi- 
cials deputed to perform this function actually ascended the 
mountain, but they evidently preferred a compromise, the efficacy 
of which has apparently never been doubted." 

The rest of the journey to the mountain, with only hunters' 
paths and blazes through the forest, which was made in the first 
days of October, was beset with difficulties on account of the 
wintry weather. The last settler's hut was passed, and after that 
the party had to depend on the hunters' huts, which had been 
deserted for the winter. When two or three miles from the end 
of the journey, the best guide who could be depended upon fell 
in a fit brought on by overexertion. The superstitious Koreans 
attributed his paroxysms to the malevolent san sin, or mountain 



234 THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

genii, and spent the night in offering prayers and propitiating 
sacrifices of rice to the offended deities, while Mr. Campbell doc- 
tored the man with Liebig's extract. The man had somewhat 
recovered from his disability, but in view of the discontent of his 
party, and the risk of going farther into the wilderness under the 
circumstances, Mr. Campbell made no further attempt to reach 
the top of the mountain. 

This mountain, the Old White Mountain, as it is called by the 
Chinese of Manchuria, " is the most remarkable mountain, natu- 
rally and historically, in this part of Asia. The perennial white- 
ness of its crest, now known to be caused by pumice when not by 
snow, made the peoples that beheld it from the plains of Man- 
churia give it names whose meanings have survived in the Chi- 
nese Ch'ang-pai Shan, or Ever-white Mountain. This designa- 
tion, obviously assigned to the White Mountain alone, has been 
extended to the whole range without apparent reason, for no other 
peak of it, so far as is known, can pretend to perennial whiteness, 
whether of pumice or snow. . . . The great point of interest in 
the mountain, apart from its whiteness, is the lake twelve miles 
in circuit, according to Mr. James and his party, the only Euro- 
peans who have seen it which lies in the broad top of the mount- 
ain at a height of 7,500 feet above sea-level, and is supposed to be 
the source of the three rivers, Yalu, Tumen, and Sungari. The 
Tei-Tei-ki (Great Lake), as the Koreans call it, is the nucleus of a 
mass of legend and fable. It is a sacred spot, the abode of beings 
supernatural, and not to be profaned by mortal eye with impu- 
nity. Curiously enough, neither Chinese nor Koreans have the 
faintest notion of the real character of Peik-tu-San. The Chinese 
say that the lake is an eye of the sea, and the Koreans tell you 
that the rock of which the mountain is composed ' floats in water/ 
for lumps of pumice were common on the Yalu at Hyei-san. My 
crude geological explanations, that this cho-san (ancestral mount- 
ain) of Korea was a burned-out volcano, whose crater had been 
filled with water by springs, were listened to with polite wonder 
and treated with less credulity than they deserved. I pointed to 
the black dust, to the clinkers, and to the rocks lining the banks 
of the Yalu for miles, many of which looked as if they had been 
freshly ejected from some subterranean furnace, but to no pur- 
pose. If the occurrences I had spoken of had taken place, they 
must have been handed down by tradition, and it was useless to 
cite lapse of time Koreans are ignorant of geological periods to 
people whose history extends as far back as four thousand years 
ago. According to my observations, most of the forest between 
Po-ch'm and Peik-tu-San grows on volcanic matter, which was 
without doubt ejected from Peik-tu-San during successive erup- 
tions. The general inferiority of the timber hereabouts to that 



KOREAN MOUNTAINS AND MOUNTAINEERS. 235 

of the rest of Korea led me to examine the soil wherever an up- 
rooted tree or a freshly dug deer-pit furnished the opportunity. 
Beyond a thin coating of leaf -mold on the surface, there was seldom 
anything else than broken pumice, broken to the size of a very 
coarse sand. According to the hunters, this was the subsoil every- 
where in the forest. . . . Nearing the mountain, we get the clear- 
est evidence of the character and recency, geologically speaking, 
of the eruptions which spread this vast quantity of volcanic ma- 
terial over such a wide area. Ten miles due south of the White 
Mountain, the Yalu, now eight or ten yards broad and very shal- 
low, flows between banks like a railway cutting, sheer, clean, and 
absolutely devoid of vegetation, for denudation was too rapid to 
permit the slightest growth. The sections thus exposed were 
often over a hundred feet in depth, and at one of the deepest por- 
tions I counted thirteen layers of black volcanic dust, all varying 
in thickness, and each separated from the layer above by a thin 
stratum of volcanic mold. So fine was this dust that the least 
breath of wind caught it and scattered it freely over the adjoin- 
ing snow, to which it gave a grimy, sooty appearance. The for- 
ests of South Manchuria, though uninhabited now, were, we learn 
from Chinese records, the home of many races in ages past. The 
comparatively recent kingdom of Ko-ku-rye, which arose in the 
first century b. c, is said to have occupied the Ch'ang-pai Shan 
and the head-waters of the Yalu River." Very few, if any, traces 
of these ancient peoples are found now ; but this is hardly to be 
wondered at, considering their low civilization and the temporary 
character of their dwellings. 

Captain Younghusband, speaking to Mr. Campbell's paper, 
described the trip which he, Mr. James, and Mr. Fulford made to 
the mountain from the northern or Manchurian side in the sum- 
mer of 1886. At the foot of the mountain they found some most 
lovely meadows covered with iris, lilies, and columbine, surpass- 
ing even those of Kashmir. " Passing on up through the forest, 
we came to the summit of the Ch'ang-pai Shan. Before us were 
two prominent peaks seen from the north side there are really 
five all round and between these the saddle. Arriving there, we 
expected to see a view on the other side toward Korea ; instead 
of that, however, we saw, straight under our feet, this wonderful 
lake situated right at the top of the mountain. It was of the most 
clear deep blue, and surrounded by a magnificent circle of jagged 
peaks, ascending one of which I got a clear view of all this country, 
over which Mr. Campbell traveled later on. We saw through the 
forest the course of this Yalu River and the Tumen River, which 
both rise on the spurs of this mountain, and out of this lake flowed 
a small stream which eventually runs into the Sungari, perhaps 
the most important tributary of the great Amur River, which 



236 THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

flows along the southern edge of Siberia. . . . The whole of this 
country shows signs of a volcanic origin. There is no doubt that 
this mountain Peik-tu San was formerly a volcano, and that this 
lake is the crater of the volcano." 

Mr. Campbell's narrative and the discussion furnished some 
pleasing pictures of Korean life and character. It is a curious 
fact and suggestive that the most conspicuous and seemingly the 
most lasting traces left of ancient Korean settlements are the 
strawberries. The beauty of the situations of the Buddhist mon- 
asteries was remarked upon. For centuries Buddhism has been 
under a ban in the country, and its followers, driven from the 
settled country to the mountains, have established their monas- 
teries there, out of the way. In selecting the most beautiful re- 
treats for the study of their religion, they have followed, said one 
of the speakers, the bent of Korean character. " These monas- 
teries form hotels for those travelers in the country who take 
their delight in leaving town life, taking simple food, and travel- 
ing day after day, piping their way on the roads, rejoicing in the 
beauty of the country. I should think in hardly any country in 
the world the ordinary rustic takes so much delight in Nature as 
in Korea; when he goes with you up the mountains, and, on 
arriving at the top, you expect him to sigh as if nearly dead, he 
will expatiate on the beauty of the scene before him. In this love 
of scenery, as in many other points, the Korean differs greatly 
from his neighbors the Chinese." 

The Korean hamlets are of two kinds, " the purely agricultural, 
and those which depend as much on the entertainment of travelers 
as on farming. The site of the agricultural village is a hill-slope 
facing the south. Over this, low, mud-walled, straw-thatched 
hovels, each standing in its own piece of garden, which is pro- 
tected by a neat fence of interlaced stems, are scattered at random, 
and there is not much of an attempt at a street anywhere. Every 
house has its thrashing-floor of beaten clay, the workshop of the 
family. The stream which runs past the foot of the hill, or courses 
down a gully in its side, is lined with women and girls washing 
clothes with sticks instead of soap, preparing cabbages for pickle, 
or steeping hemp. Seen from a distance, these places are quite 
picturesque. The uneven terraces of thatch are brightened by the 
foliage and flowers of gourds and melons which climb all over the 
huts. In the gardens surrounding each house are plots of red 
chilli, rows of castor-oil plants, and fruit trees such as peach, apri- 
cot, pear, and persimmon. The roadside village, on the other 
hand, is generally a most unlovely spot. The only street is the 
main highway, which is lined on both sides by a straggling collec- 
tion of the huts I have mentioned. Heaps of refuse, open drains, 
malodorous pools, stacks of brushwood for fuel, nude, sun-tanned 



KOREAN MOUNTAINS AND MOUNTAINEERS. 237 



> 



children disporting themselves, men and women thrashing grain 
and occasionally a crowd of disputants all combine to make it a 
very indifferent thoroughfare. Most of the houses are inns or eat- 
ing-shops. The main gate of the inn leads directly from the street 
into a quadrangle bounded on two sides by open sheds, which are 
provided with troughs for the feeding of pack-animals, and on the 
other two sides by the guest-rooms and kitchen. The court-yard 
is often dominated by a powerful pig-stye, and littered with fodder 
or earthenware pitchers and vats." General agriculture is, how- 
ever, not so elaborate and fruitful as in Japan and southern China. 
" The principal farm animal is the ox ; in mid-Korea he is a splen- 
did beast hardy, tractable, and bearing a strong resemblance in 
build to our short-horned stock. A cane or iron ring, for which 
his nostrils are pierced when young, suffices to control him, and he 
is early accustomed to his constant work of load-carrying. Plow- 
ing is done with the ox ; rarely or never with the pony. Dairy 
produce is unknown, or nearly so. Draught cattle and ponies 
are fed on coarse fodder and a boiled slush of beans, chopped 
straw, and rice-husks. The remaining domestic animals are 
black, hairy pigs, wily gaunt creatures, and horribly loathsome ; 
wolfish dogs, possessing a surprising nose for foreigners; and 
fowls that almost equal their wild congeners, the pheasants, in 
powers of flight and wariness." 

An incident which happened to Mr. Campbell during his jour- 
ney in which a woman by bullying and coaxing forced a party 
of unwilling bearers into his service gave a fresh blow in his 
mind to the theory of the subjection of women in the East, and 
strengthened his opinion that " women in these parts of the world, 
if the truth were known, fill a higher place and wield a far greater 
influence than they are usually credited with." 



In a paper read before the French Association for the Advancement of Sci- 
ence, on the Succession of Media inhabited by the Ancestral Series of Man, M. 
Fauvelle presented a genealogical table of beings in which, waiving the question 
of plants, he showed forth the successive development of animals, beginning in 
sea- water, continuing afterward in fresh water, then in moist and marshy soil, to 
reach a higher stage on dry lands. The beginning was the cell, which originated 
in sea-water, an aquatic medium ; the climax was man, a product eminently 
aerian. M. G. de Mortillet, while he recognized the ingenuity and attractiveness 
of M. Fauvelle's system, suggested that, to put it on a solid base, it would be 
necessary to prove that sea salt existed at the time of the origin of life. 

In a paper at the British Association on the worship of meteorites, Prof. H. 
A. Newton gave accounts of divine honors having been paid to meteoric stones 
in early times, and of myths and traditions pointing to such worship. Particular 
attention was directed to the indications of this cult that are found in Grecian and 
Roman history and literature. 



238 THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 



DUST AND FRESH AIR. 

By T. PEIDGIN TEALE, E. K. S. 

EXCEPT in the case of museums, few serious attempts have 
been made to exclude dust from rooms, closets, cupboards, 
and drawers, to the contents of which, not infrequently, dust is 
simply ruinous. We allow dust to run riot among our things of 
value, and then go to considerable expense to render them clean 
again, only to start them on a fresh career of defilement. 

Looked at in the abstract, is not our passive capitulation to 
dust incomprehensible ? When I enter an office in a town and 
see the window-sills and papers dotted with soot, or go into a bed- 
room and see the toilet-table defaced with blacks, and know that 
the soot and the blacks need not be there, I can not refrain from 
asking how comes it to pass that we so patiently submit to such 
perpetual discomforts. You will doubtless reply, We agree with 
you as to the existence of the evil, but how is it to be remedied ? 
My object is to offer some practical suggestions whereby you may 
so far mitigate and reduce the evils of soot and dust as to make 
them tolerable, perhaps even to lay down principles by which the 
evils can be annihilated in those instances in which the result to 
be obtained is worth the cost of achievement. For the practical 
purposes of every-day life it may turn out that we had better 
be content with approximate perfection, a condition of existence 
which compels us to be content with approximately pure water 
from a filter, and approximately pure air in our living-rooms. 

If dust is to be kept out of any cavity, we must first find out 
why the dust gets in, in spite of good workmanship and accurate 
fitting. The reason is simple, ridiculously simple when stated, 
but, curiously, it has been little, if at all, thought of, and certain- 
ly hardly ever acted upon in practice. And the reason is this : 
Closets, cupboards, drawers, and boxes contain air ; if the air were 
inelastic and never altered in volume, there would practically be 
no entrance of dust into these closed cavities. Unfortunately for 
our cleanliness, air is changing in volume incessantly. We are 
all familiar with the barometer, and most of us no doubt under- 
stand why the quicksilver rises and falls in the glass tube, or why, 
in the aneroid barometer, the index moves to right or left. Let 
us consider what these changes mean, and what they record. 

When the air around us becomes condensed shrinks into a 
smaller volume it becomes heavier, puts greater pressure on the 
surface of the mercury, and makes it ascend in the tube ; then the 
mercury is said to rise. When the air expands swells into a 
larger volume it becomes lighter, the pressure on the mercury 



DUST AND FRESH AIR. 239 

is less, the mercury sinks in the tube, and the barometer is said 
to fall. Therefore, every change of height of the quicksilver 
which we observe is a sign and measure of a change in the vol- 
ume of air around us. Further, this change in volume tells no 
less upon the air inside our cases and cupboards. When the ba- 
rometer falls, the air around expands into a larger volume, and 
the air inside the cupboard also expands and forces itself out at 
every minute crevice. When the barometer rises again, the air 
inside the cupboard, as well as outside, condenses and shrinks, 
and air is forced back into the cupboard to equalize the pressure ; 
and, along with the air, in goes the dust. The smaller the crevice, 
the stronger the jet of air, the farther goes the dirt. Witness 
the dirt-tracks so often seen in imperfectly framed engravings or 
photographs. Remember, ladies and gentlemen, whenever you 
see the barometer rising, that an additional charge of dust is 
entering your cupboards and drawers. So much for the barom- 
eter, which is a very restless creature, rarely stationary for many 
hours together. But this is not all. We also have the ther- 
mometer. The temperature of our rooms varies daily often con- 
siderably between midday and midnight, and greatly between 
summer and winter. What does the thermometer tell us ? Not 
less than the barometer does it tell of change of volume of the 
air, though it is probably not so rapid in its effect upon the air 
in inclosed spaces as is the change of volume indicated by the 
barometer. Many of you have seen a fire-balloon. The heated 
air, filling the balloon, expands, and becomes lighter than the sur- 
rounding air, and up goes the balloon, until, the source of heat 
having become exhausted, the contained air cools, contracts, be- 
comes as heavy as the surrounding air, and down comes the 
balloon again. So, also, as temperature rises outside our cases, 
the increased warmth is slowly conducted to the air inside the 
case, which expands and escapes through the crevices. Then, 
when the time for cooling comes, the air inside slowly contracts, 
and back rushes the air through the crevices, and again in goes 
the dust. Thus, we see we have two factors constantly acting, 
one or other tending to produce daily, nay, hourly, changes in 
volume of our dirt-carrying air. 

In order to inform myself of the amount of change of volume 
that could, under extreme conditions, possibly take place, I asked 
Prof. Riicker to kindly calculate for me the change of volume 
that would take place in one hundred cubic feet of air, between a 
temperature of 30, i. e., just above freezing-point, in combination 
with the barometer standing at thirty inches, or about " fair," and 
a temperature of 60, combined with the barometer standing at 
twenty -nine inches, or " stormy." He told me that the difference 
would be about ten cubic feet, or one tenth ; in other words, that 



240 THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

a closed case of one hundred cubic feet, if hermetically sealed at 
a temperature of 30, with the barometer standing at thirty inches, 
would have to resist the pressure equivalent to the addition of ten 
cubic feet, when the temperature rose to 60, and the barometer fell 
to twenty-nine inches. Have we not now discovered the reason 
why dirt enters closed spaces ? What shall be the remedy ? 

Seeing, then, that air will find an entrance, and in the nature 
of things must get in well, we must let it in, not at innumerable 
uncovenanted small crevices, but at our own selected opening, 
specially provided. Then we are in a position to strain off the 
dust by providing the selected opening with a screen, which acts 
as a filter. These, then, are the general principles on which we 
must act. The rest is a question of detail. The details range 
themselves under three heads : 1. What is the most effective, or 
the most generally applicable filtering material ? 2. Given the 
filtering material, what ought to be the proportion between the 
area of the screened opening and the cubic contents of the case to 
which it has to be fitted ? 3. What, in any particular instance, is 
the best situation for the filter ? 

What is needed in our filtering material is that it shall readily 
allow air to pass through, and shall also possess the quality of ar- 
resting in its meshes fine particles of dust. For some purposes it 
may suffice to use a coarse canvas, the threads of which are not 
too closely twisted and have an abundance of fine fibers project- 
ing from them, thereby reducing the small squares of the woven 
texture to a still finer mesh. The material I have used most fre- 
quently is " bunting," but it has disappointed me. When exam- 
ined by the microscope many of the small squares of mesh are 
seen to be deficient in delicate fibers standing out from the 
threads, which would enhance the filtering power of the texture. 
Lately I have tried other materials, domette, flannel, and cotton- 
wool between layers of muslin, such as is used for dressing 
wounds under the name of Gamgee tissue. Cotton-wool is prob- 
ably the most perfect filter. Indeed, so perfect is it that in the 
new science of bacteriology it is used as an effective means of ex- 
cluding dust and germs from flasks in which experiments are to 
be carried on. In order to put various textures to an exact com- 
parative test, an experiment was tried. Having selected six quart 
bottles with wide mouths, I tied over the mouth of each a piece of 
the filtering tissue which I wished to test. The bottles are not 
liable to crack, as wooden boxes are ; the only access for the inter- 
change of air in the interior was through the filtering texture. I 
thus had a means of testing the comparative value as strainers of 
the various materials. Within the bottles were placed glass slides 
on which any dust that was carried in might settle. The experi- 
ments were begun on May 5, 1891, and the slides were taken out 



DUST AND FRESH AIR. 241 

on January 6, 1892, and most carefully photographed by Mr. 
Lafayette, and made into lantern slides. 

The bottles were placed near a window in a room in the build- 
ing of the Leeds Philosophical Society, i. e., quite in the center of 
Leeds. The materials tested were : canvas ; bunting ; ordinary 
flannel ; domette flannel, rough side in ; domette flannel, rough 
side out ; cotton- wool, one inch thick. 

The results of the experiments show that as a consequence of 
eight months' exposure, including a week of the worst fog I ever 
knew in Leeds, three of the filtering tissues admitted a very ap- 
preciable amount of dust, viz., coarse canvas the most, bunting 
coming second, ordinary flannel admitting less than either. The 
other three bottles were screened, one with thick domette rough 
side in, one with domette rough side out, and one with cotton- 
wool about an inch in thickness. The last three show hardly a 
trace of dust. Curiously, the cotton-wool shows a trace more 
than the domette flannel. The explanation of this I suspect to be 
that the cotton-wool was not tied firmly enough round the neck 
of the bottle, which had no rim, and that some air passed between 
the bottle and the wool, instead of through the wool. 

Another experiment which I tried was to fit up a cupboard 
with panels of double domette flannel. After the fog, to my sur- 
prise, the inner screen had become more or less black, showing 
that black particles had passed into the cupboard, but with this 
remarkable difference : whereas the outer flannel was almost uni- 
formly black from top to bottom, the inner flannel was divided 
into four squares of different shades of blackness, corresponding 
to four spaces between shelves. Of these four, the lowermost 
was almost as black as the outside, and the uppermost was almost 
clean. I just mention this as a fact which needs an explanation, 
but without suggesting one. 

There is one error which I think has been committed in the 
screens made for me, and it was pointed out by my friend Mr. 
White, the architect, of Wimpole Street. The filtering material 
is likely to act more effectively if left loose and not stretched 
tight, as when tense the interstices are stretched and made larger, 
and when out of sight it might be very loose, almost baggy, with 
advantage. 

Hoping to get some hints as to the comparative value of the 
various textures under trial, I placed specimens of each under the 
microscope. It is obvious that both canvas and bunting are of 
too open a texture, having numerous small holes unguarded by 
delicate fibers. Judging by the microscope, one would conclude 
that of woven textures, probably flannel, and still more, domette 
flannel, are the best, and this judgment seems to be borne out by 
the experiments with the bottles. 

VOL. XLI. 19 



2 4 z THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

This is a question which experience alone can decide. Doubt- 
less the larger the area of screened opening, the more effective 
the filtration. For a book-case with glazed front, probably the 
whole of the back might be made of flannel loosely fixed over the 
necessary skeleton framework. For a cupboard or closet, every 
panel should be replaced by a screen. If the closet have a win- 
dow, all crevices and joints in the window should be pasted up to 
exclude the soot, otherwise the wind from, the outside, or the fires 
of the house from the inside, will force the air soot through. On 
the other hand, it is probably true that, given very perfect fitting 
and workmanship, aided by the interposition of velvet, as here- 
after described, where the edges of the doors come in contact 
with their frame, a much smaller area of filter, perhaps even a 
simple tube, filled with cotton-wool, may prove to be efficient. 
These, however, are points on which further experience is needed, 
and which may, ere long, be settled by experiment. 

Where shall we place our screen ? This is a question which 
admits of a variety of answers, and gives scope for endless inge- 
nuity. In anything which is being newly made, such as the cup- 
boards and closets of a new house, or in new furniture, we are 
masters of the situation. In many of them we may substitute at 
the back our filtering texture for wooden boards, and perhaps 
even save expense thereby. In closets we may replace the panels 
of the door by filtering texture, guarding the closets, if necessary, 
against thieves by wire netting or iron bars fixed on the inner 
side. As a rule, chests of drawers may have the filter over the 
whole surface at the back, care being taken that the back of each 
drawer falls half an inch short of the top of the drawer, to allow 
free entrance of air from the screen. In one set of drawers, so 
placed that I could not get at the back, the difficulty was got over 
in this way : In the front of each drawer a series of twenty holes, 
of an inch diameter, was made for admission of air. The filter, 
on a frame, was fixed on the inner surface of the front of the 
drawer, so that the material should stand half an inch away from 
the holes. A somewhat similar plan was adopted in a bureau. 
About twenty large holes, two inches in diameter, were cut in the 
wood-work at the back, some of the holes being opposite pigeon- 
holes. Then the whole was covered with bunting, on a frame so 
arranged that the bunting was fully half or two thirds of an inch 
away from the wood. Another method has been adopted at the 
Yorkshire College for some of the cases. The filter was applied at 
the roof, somewhat after the fashion of a weaving-shed roof, the 
vertical face being filled in by the screen. Again, Mr. Branson has 
provided a roof filter for a case of scientific instruments, by placing 
the screen in the roof of the case, and protecting it by a false roof 
two inches above it, to prevent its being choked by falling dust. 



DUST AND FRESH AIR, 243 

What shall we do with crevices and cracks ? At first, I hoped 
that narrow chinks might be ignored, on the principle that easy 
passages of air through an ample screen would virtually stop off 
currents through narrow spaces. In this I have been disappointed, 
as, in some cases, a chink, though apparently narrow, has proved 
too accommodating to the passage of air, and a more ready chan- 
nel than the interstices of flannel. My rule now would be to close 
or guard with filtering material every place where the door comes 
into contact with its frame. 

The plan I have adopted with the doors of several cupboards 
and closets is this to put strips of cotton velvet wherever the 
door comes into contact with its framework. On the side where 
the hinges are, the velvet is glued and sprigged to the edge of the 
door ; on the other side and the top the velvet is fixed to the re- 
bate against which the door presses. If the door belong to a 
closet, and the bottom is not in close contact with the floor, a small 
piece of flannel or cloth may be fixed along the inner side of the 
bottom of the door, so as to form a curtain which closes the gap, 
and filters any air that passes through. 

Such, then, are the principles which may guide us to a victory 
over dust, and such are some of the details whereby we may work 
out a method by which the victory is to be won. Do not suppose 
that I claim to have completely conquered the enemy ; but a be- 
ginning has been made, a beginning definite enough and assured 
enough to encourage others, and especially architects, to study 
the question and to make trials. If they will but work with de- 
termination to conquer, they may confer upon the community a 
most welcome amelioration of some of the smaller miseries we 
have to submit to. 

And now let me venture to tell you what I should do were I 
to construct an office in the center of a town. I should begin with 
the fireplace. Let it be constructed on the principles I have been 
teaching for the last ten years, and which were brought to a focus 
in my lecture at the Royal Institution in 1866 principles which 
are at last influencing the construction of fire-grates throughout 
the kingdom. Shortly stated, they are : 

1. The back and sides of the fireplace to be fire-brick, built 
solid. 

2. The depth of grate from front to back never to be less than 
nine inches. 

3. The back to lean over the fire, not to lean away from it. 

4. The front bars to be vertical and thin, not horizontal and 
thick. 

5. The ash-place under the grid to be made into a closed hot 
chamber by a movable shield, named an " economizer." 

The effects of this construction are : 



2 4 + THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

(a) Great diminution of dust, since the ashes fall into a closed 
ash-chamber. 

(6) Better warming of the room, with a diminution of about 
one fourth in the quantity of coal used. 

(c) Diminished draft across the floor, from diminished roar up 
the chimney when the fire is burning briskly. 

(d) Diminished production of soot. 

These are the principles which I have urged, and they are 
open to every one to adopt. I do not speak of a further improve- 
ment, as it is the subject of a patent, and is not open to every one 
to copy. 

Having made sure of my fire, the next step would be to secure 
admission of air to supply the fire, without making a draft or 
introducing dirt. As far as I know this is best done by the 
" Harding diff user," which admits air directly from the outside 
and delivers it through a series of small jets near the ceiling. To 
shut out the smuts the air passes through a canvas screen placed 
diagonally in a flat tube, which leads up to the " diffuser " and 
gives a filtering area about six times the sectional area of the 
tube. This air is admitted into the room by a legitimate channel, 
and is filtered. The " Harding diffuser " was once patented, but 
the patent has lapsed. 

Having thus secured a supply of air for the chimney, we can 
afford to deal with the windows, and make them air-tight, with- 
out fear of the chimney smoking. Now I should like to see a 
revolution in windows, at any rate, wherever we can be content 
with panes of moderate size, and can have the heart to surrender 
plate glass. 

Three things are required of a good window : 

1. That the outside of the window may be cleaned by a servant 
standing inside the room, whereby the risk and expense of clean- 
ing from without are avoided. 

2. That it shall exclude wind and dirt, even under the stress of 
a gale. 

3. That the air of the room, especially in frosty weather, shall 
not be itself so chilled by contact with the large surface of glass 
as to cause induced cold currents, which have not even the merit 
of being air freshly introduced. 

To attain these points, the sash window must be abandoned. 
The window must be so divided that one half vertically, or in a 
large window one third, may open inward on hinges, the other 
half or two thirds being fixed, and therefore wind-tight ; the 
breadth of each division to be such that a servant's arm can reach 
out and clean the outer side of the fixed window as she stands 
inside the room. In the case of three divisions the fixed windows 
would be to the right and left of the hinged window. The hinged 



DUST AND FRESH AIR. 245 



window should be in two or three divisions, according to the 
height, not in one large casement from top to bottom. Thus have 
we provided for my first requirement, the cleaning of the window. 
The hinged window must be so constructed that when closed the 
framework of the window locks into a double rebated fast frame, 
after the manner of a jeweler's show-case. Then, if well made, it 
would fit tight and keep out wind and dust. This provides for 
my second requirement. 

Lastly, the panes should be doubled that is, a second pane 
must be placed inside the ordinary pane at a distance of about 
five eighths of an inch. The outer pane is fixed by putty in the 
usual way. The fixing of the inner pane is peculiar and all-im- 
portant. The inside of the frame is cut to receive the glass ex- 
actly in the same manner as the outer side for the outer pane, but 
the inside pane must not be fixed by putty, but is held in place, 
" sprigged " firmly against its rim, " the rebate," by small nails, 
two in each side, very carefully put in. Why do I insist upon 
this mode of fixing the inner pane ? For two reasons : one, to 
make it easy to remove the inner pane if ever it should be neces- 
sary to clean the inside of the two panes ; the other reason is, to 
enable me to render cleaning of the inside unnecessary. How is 
this achieved ? By facing the flange, against which the pane is 
pressed, with cotton velvet. The air that must perforce pass in 
and out of the space between the panes must pass the velvet, and 
be filtered. Two windows of my bedroom thus treated five years 
ago have never needed to be cleaned ; and a pane, which was re- 
moved at the erjd of four years for inspection, was absolutely 
clean. Another advantage of the double panes is this : When my 
other windows with single panes are steamed all over, and even 
glazed by the frost, the outer panes of the double window show 
hardly a trace of unfrozen steam ; the inner panes are never 
steamed. Again, a thermometer placed between the panes has 
never been below 30 all this severe weather, even though a ther- 
mometer outside the window has been several times below 20. 

Lastly, I would treat the cupboards and drawers after the 
manner already described. The result would be, not absolute 
freedom from dirt, nor absolute protection from London fog, but 
such a departure from what is commonly experienced as to make 
the experiment well worth all the trouble it costs. Journal of 
the Society of Arts. 



Of the three hundred and twenty-three asteroids known on February 1st, 
seventy were discovered by American astronomers forty-eight by Peters and 
twenty-two by Watson. Peters stands second on the list of successful discoverers. 
Palissa, who is first on the list, is credited with the discovery of eighty asteroids. 



246 THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 



THE COLORS OF WATER 

By CAEL VOGT. 

" f^\ RANDPA," asked my two grandchildren, as if with one 
vZT voice, " shall we pass over the blue lake when we go to 
Geneva ? " 

Our residence at Salvan, a charming village of the canton 
Wallis, about a thousand metres above the level of the sea, was 
nearing its end. The return journey was the subject of lively 
conversation, and we were almost entirely occupied with the 
fancies of the children, who asked no end of questions. "We 
shall go across the blue lake," I said. "First we shall go 
down to the station. Grandma and I will go in carriages, you 
others will walk. Then we shall take the railway train and go 
down to the lake. The steamboat will be there, and as soon as 
we are aboard " 

"Grandpa," interposed the others, "why is the lake so 
blue?" 

I was somewhat confused by these questions. If a fool can 
ask more questions than ten men can answer, a child can perplex 
more than a hundred grandpas. An evasive reply, like " It is 
blue because it is not yellow like the Oder at home," was not 
available with my children. It is an old observation that the 
simpler a phenomenon of Nature appears at first sight, the more 
complicated it is in fact ; but it is always well to recollect that 
there is no simple phenomenon in Nature, that all that ever hap- 
pens or is perceived by our senses is only a result of very differ- 
ent or even opposing forces and causes, which we must not only 
learn by observation, but must also separate from one another by 
experiment, if we would come to a conclusion that has hands and 
feet. Every one can see that the Lake of Geneva is blue, and 
most persons regard the subject as quite simple and clear, with- 
out probing further into the causes of the blue color. But 
if a child in his naive candor asks for the reason of this color 
which has struck him because the waters of his home are not 
like it, there floats before the mind of the expert an unantici- 
pated multitude of problems in optics involving the most difficult 
laws and broad knowledge, and over which mathematicians and 
physicists and students of every kind, artists and poets, have 
racked their brains, without having ever reached a definite solu- 
tion. How, then, shall he convey ideas to a child which shall 
give an answer to the question adapted to his powers of compre- 
hension ? 

I was thinking of preparing a small water-color drawing, when 



THE COLORS OF WATER. 247 

the children asked their eager question. "Why should I not in- 
voke the Muse to the help of art ? A large cylindrical glass, 
holding a litre, stood on the table, filled with the superb water 
that gushes out of the slates fresh and cool, crystal clear, and 
chemically pure. 

"Look at the water in the glass," said I; "of what color 
is it?" 

" I don't see that it is of any color," said one. " It is red," 
said the other. 

" But that comes from the flowers that are behind it," replied 
Annie. " Come round to where I am ; it doesn't look red from 
here." 

Lili ran round the table, and confessed, a little vexed, that the 
water was not red. She had a disposition, perhaps, like Lessing's, 
who was dissatisfied because the spring was always green, and 
not, by way of change, sometimes red. 

" Is it not true, grandpa, that water has no color ? " 

" Yes, dear child, it is blue, but so little so that you can not 
see it." 

" Can you see that it is blue ? " 

" No ; but still it is blue. Look at this." 

I took a little ultramarine on the end of the brush and mixed 
it with the water. " Does it look blue now ? " 

" No ; I see nothing." 

" Nor I. But you saw how I put a little blue color in it with 
the brush." 

" Yes, but there was not enough of it. Put more in." 

I silently took the glass and set it on a piece of white paper in 
the bright sunshine. " Now look from above down into it." 

" It is blue ! " said the little one, clapping her hands, " but only 
a very little." 

" Look at it from the other side, where the sun is shining into 
it. Is it not a little bit red, like the bell-flowers which you picked 
yesterday ? " 

" That is wonderful," said the little one. " It is blue from 
above, a little bit red in the sun, and when we look at it from this 
side of the room we see nothing ! " 

" Think about it a little. The glass is as broad as my finger 
is long. But it is at least three times as high as my finger. 
When you look at it from the side, you see only a finger's length 
of water ; but when you look down into it, you see through three 
fingers' length of water three times as much. You see it blue 
from the side, and three times as blue from above, don't you ? " 

" Is that really true ? " said the little one, as she measured 
with her finger. She nodded that she was satisfied. 

" Now imagine that the water is as deep as the height of the 



248 THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

church-steeple, and deeper that it reaches from here up into 
Salvan and down to Vernayaz. Then you would see the water 
from above it all blue." 

" Is the lake, then, really so deep ? " 

" Yes, and deeper." 

I will not continue the conversation any longer. It went on 
with various simple experiments, beginning with differently col- 
ored stones, which I let drop into the water, and then placed on 
the white, then with setting the glass with its weakly bluish 
contents on differently colored papers, and ended with my trying 
to make the children perceive how the colors changed when they 
were seen through the whole depth of the glass. I will not say 
that the little ones were brought to a full comprehension of the 
matter ; but they stuck fast to the assertion that water is blue, 
of an infinitely weak blue, and that the blue color can not be 
seen till one looks into a certain depth of it. 

Physicists first acquired this knowledge by means of an ex- 
periment of Bunsen's, who let a piece of white porcelain fall into 
a tube filled with distilled water, and satisfied himself that the 
descending piece looked bluer as it sank deeper. Bunsen had, of 
course, provided that only white light reflected from the ceiling 
of his room should fall into the tube, and not the blue light of 
the sky. The experiment has been modified in various ways, and 
made more convenient, but has always given the same result; and 
it is now established as a scientific truth that chemically pure 
water, free from all other constituents, either dissolved or floating, 
has a bright, clear, blue color. 

But there is no such water in Nature, for rain-water, even dis- 
tilled water evaporated out of the sea and everywhere, and car- 
ried on in the form of clouds, and falling in drops even that rain- 
water contains some dissolved substances, and still more of little 
microscopic bodies that are floating in the air which the drop 
carries with it in its fall. 

Yet we can assure ourselves at least as to the dissolved salts, 
in which sea-water, for example, is rich, that they are all, par- 
ticularly common salt, colorless in the crystalline condition, and 
therefore have not the least influence on the color of sea- water. 
Seamen and sailors, although uninstructed in this matter, and 
without knowledge, know very well that they, going away from 
the coast, in a short time reach the clear, the " blue water," and 
then sail over deeps till they can not reach the bottom with 
their anchors. 

I have already said that every phenomenon in Nature is a com- 
plex affair, and depends on many causes and conditions. This is 
true of the coloring of large masses of water, as of lakes and 
seas, which are indeed, as is known, of very different shades. It 



THE COLORS OF WATER. 249 

may be permitted to consider here a few of the conditions that 
have an influence on the general effect. 

A still-water surface forms a mirror which reflects those colors 
of the horizon that fall upon it at the same angle as that under 
which the eye stands to it. When I am at the shore of a quiet sea, 
or of a still lake, the water beams with the colors of the horizon. 
In a bay surrounded by woods, I see a deep gray ; on the broad 
surface at sunset, the liveliest yellows and reds ; looking straight 
down from my boat, the blue of the sky over my head. 

These reflected colors concern the physicist the least, for he 
knows that every reflecting surface returns them ; but they inter- 
est the painter almost exclusively. They constitute the tone of 
his landscape ; they enliven the otherwise monotonous, dead sur- 
face, and he as well as the looker at his picture receives chiefly 
the impression of them. They are for the most part the colors 
of the lower horizon, for the point of view of the spectator is 
usually only a few metres above the level of the water. 

Thus with the smooth mirror. But the scene changes immedi- 
ately upon the slightest agitation. It is very seldom that the sea 
is quite still. The waves form hills and valleys, their surfaces are 
more or less inclined, and they reflect not the horizon with its 
down-toned colors, but the more saturated tints of the zenith. 
Whoever has seen the Mediterranean Sea or the Lake of Geneva 
under a cloudless sunset, and a slight rippling of the waves, will 
recollect that the surfaces glowing with burning yellows and reds, 
are broken up by sharp, deep-blue lines ; they are the wave-val- 
leys, which, by reason of their oblique inclination, turn the blue 
colors of the zenith into the eye. But this is not all. With the 
smooth mirror surface, and lower point of view, the eye not only 
receives the rays reflected from the surface, but it pierces through 
the inclined parts of the wave-valleys into the mass of the water, 
and thus perceives the proper color of the water, more intensely 
as the small surface of the wave-valley stands more perpendicu- 
larly to the eye. If the waves are very short, and follow one 
another rapidly, this impression of the color of the water will 
overcome that of the reflection. I can satisfy myself of this fact 
at any time. 

The windows on the western front of my house look toward 
the Arve, which is here crossed by a dam that causes a fall of 
about a metre. Above the dam, the glacier-stream, colored a 
grayish yellow in summer and green in winter, is perfectly 
smooth; and from my windows, which are situated about six 
metres above the river, I can see hardly any but the mirror colors, 
yet a little mingled with the proper color of water, which appears 
considerably stronger when the sky is covered and its glaring 
light does not as the painters are accustomed to say " eat up " 



250 THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

the softer tones. But below the dam the water is in lively motion 
with endless little racing wavelets, and here the green color comes 
out so vividly that the reflection almost wholly vanishes. Yet 
another fact is revealed by the movement. Only with a perfectly 
smooth mirror surface are the outlines of the reflected objects 
fully clear and sharp. The reflection is then so perfect that one 
often hardly knows whether he sees the objects themselves or 
only their mirrored images on the water ; and the lines between 
water and shore are quite effaced. The slightest movement causes 
the outline of the mirror picture to appear notched ; clearer lines 
from the horizon creep into the darker colors of the picture, but 
notches from these, too, spring out over the lines which the out- 
line should have. This phenomenon is so common that we notch 
the borders of water reflections in colored pictures, as well as in 
those drawn only in black. I have no doubt that a relationship 
lies at the bottom of this phenomenon like the fact observed by 
Colladon, and now often remarked, that water in motion carries 
the light along with it. A stream of water, flowing through a 
dark tube out of an illuminated receiver, carries the light along, 
whether it be white or colored, and shines ; why should not mov- 
ing waves exhibit the same effect ? 

But enough of these painters' impressions, which, as we have 
said, are neglected by the physicist, but are still of the highest 
significance for the beholder as well as for the artist, and, as may 
result from our representation, are dependent on various factors, 
among which, besides mirroring, the real color of the water is to 
be considered. 

Let us go a little closer into this matter. 

Pure or colorless water containing salts in solution is beauti- 
fully blue and perfectly transparent, at least to a certain depth. 
It is, hence, clear that with the color of all objects visible at this 
depth, and constantly reflecting the rays of light, is associated under 
the water a blue tone, more intensive as the depth at which the 
object lies is greater. The gravels on the shore of a lake or the 
sea become, when seen through the blue water, as if they were 
observed through a pane of blue glass ; and since all shore figures, 
with trifling exceptions, are of a yellowish color, they will shine 
of a more or less green color, and the water on the shore will like- 
wise appear green. 

I here lay aside all physical deductions concerning the nature 
of color. We know that it is not, as was once thought, a property 
of bodies, but that a transparent body like water, for example, 
shows a distinct color, because it lets certain colored rays through, 
but not others, and that a solid body reflects the rays which we 
perceive, but to a certain extent absorbs the others. The discussion 
of the nature of color is not of very great importance for our essay. 



THE COLORS OF WATER. 



251 



Blue water also takes on another tint when objects lying on the 
ground are seen through it, and this mixed color tone depends on 
the color of the ground. We can easily verify this by the simple 
experiments described above with blue colored water in a cylinder 
glass. White bodies, pieces of porcelain for instance, appear light- 
blue, yellow-green, red- violet, and, the deeper they sink, the more 
is this shading from blue washed out, till it is destroyed. The 
red shades vanish first of all. 

The depth to which no trace of bottom-colors reaches us is cer- 
tainly not little, and may, under favorable conditions, be esti- 
mated at several hundred metres. But the question is a large 
one, and we will consider a little more carefully to what extent 
the more or less favorable conditions I have mentioned have been 
determined. 

I have already said that pure water does not exist in Nature. 
It always must contain dissolved or floating substances which 
will change its colors. Peat waters contain brown and blackish 
organic matters in solution. They may be perfectly clear and 
transparent, but the colors which the humus acids and similar 
substances lend them will always produce a certain effect upon 
them, which will be re-enforced by the dark-brown or black colors 
of the bottom of the peat lakes. It has also been observed that 
filtered water from a blue lake on evaporation leaves a white or 
light gray, and that from green lakes a yellow sediment ; and that 
thus blue lakes contain white matters and green lakes yellow ones 
in solution, whose colors produce with those of the water mixed 
tints. The difference in the colors of the Lake of Geneva and 
of the Bodensee is explained on this principle, but the results of 
the experiments on which the conclusion rests have been dis- 
puted, and there is much room for doubt on the subject. What- 
ever may be thought of this, it is certain that no water in Nature 
is perfectly clear and transparent, but is more or less turbid by 
the presence of other substances floating in it. That this turbidity 
is of greater or less importance, that we can distinguish at greater 
or less depths objects swimming in the water, like fishes, or lying 
on the bottom, are taught by daily experience as well as by ex- 
periments which have been made by sinking solid bodies in sun- 
light and on cloudy days and at different seasons, or by letting 
down sources of light, such as burning lamps and incandescent 
electric lights, and ascertaining the depth at which a perceptible 
glimpse of them can be obtained. It is to be regretted that these 
as well as other experiments upon the penetrating power of light 
have been made only in waters not quite clear, as in a few Swiss 
lakes and the Mediterranean Sea. Whoever has traveled on the 
coasts of Norway must have been astonished at the transparency 
of the water in many of the fiords ; it is also affirmed that in some 



25 2 THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

of the North American lakes the eye can perceive objects on the 
bottom at the depth of several hundred metres. Visibility ex- 
tends to no such depths in either the Lake of Geneva or the Med- 
iterranean Sea. The water of the Lake of Geneva is more trans- 
parent in winter than in summer, but in this lake, as well as in 
the sea-waters that have been thus far examined, the extreme 
limits of visibility are at forty-five, and at most fifty metres' 
depth. Observations in diving apparatus have shown that one 
is there as in a blue cloud, and can only see some seven or eight 
metres in a horizontal direction, in exceptional cases twenty 
metres, and at most twenty-five metres. But the seeing man can 
dive with the apparatus only to a depth of thirty metres, and, al- 
though he can not see clearly, he is surrounded by diffuse light. 

The light from above must therefore penetrate more deeply. 
A more closely approximate measurement has been made by such 
means as sinking sensitized photographic plates into the water, 
and exposing them to the light at fixed depths, or by sinking sub- 
stances which are chemically acted upon, changed, or destroyed 
by light, so that the measure of the alteration may at the same 
time furnish the measure of the strength of the acting light. 
Photographic experiments have shown that a depth of four hun- 
dred metres in the Mediterranean Sea is the average limit to which 
a blackening of the plate can be verified. 

Thus light penetrates to ten times as great a depth as our eye, 
and this is an important point a whole zone, three hundred 
metres in thickness, receives light and thus also sends up rays 
which our eyes can not immediately distinguish, but in all proba- 
bility perceives through the mixture of the color tones which they 
produce. It is known that there are other differences than those 
of blindness to certain colors in the eyes of men, and that our or- 
gans may be trained to an extraordinary degree of delicacy in the 
observation of the finer tints. I once visited the Gobelins tapes- 
try factory in Paris in company with some painters ; the work- 
men could distinguish with ease and indubitably tints which 
looked identical to our unskilled eyes. There must, to return to 
our subject, radiate up from that depth to the surface, light, of a 
bluish color, which makes far less impression on our eyes than 
the colors called warm, yellow and red, which especially the lat- 
ter are absorbed by the water. 

It was formerly believed that total darkness reigned in the 
greater depths of a thousand metres and more, and that the col- 
lected colors of deep water were seen on a black ground. But, in 
the light of the recent deep-sea investigations, this idea must 
be given up, along with the other one that once prevailed, that 
there is no animal life in great depths. Most animals living in 
dark caves have atrophied or no eyes; there are also living 



THE COLORS OF WATER. 253 

beings found on the surface of the earth, which hide themselves 
in dark places, under the ground, etc., and are blind. Similar 
conditions prevail in the great deeps. There are blind crustaceans 
there, which probably live in the mud and under stones, while 
others, moving animals, fishes, have large, well-formed eyes. It 
must be that they see, or in other words that there is light there. 
Whether this light is produced in the depth by means of the 
phosphorescent organs which many of these animals, even fishes, 
possess, or whether it penetrates from above, as might perhaps be 
concluded from the fact that some of the deep-sea animals whose 
organization compels them to creep on the ground have yellow 
and red colors on their backs, is of no importance so far as our in- 
quiry is concerned. "We can only reach the inevitable conclusion 
that we see the colors of water not on a dark or black ground but 
on one that is illuminated, if but faintly. This is of moment be- 
cause, in the light of it, particles floating in water are illuminated 
not from above only, but from below too. 

We can satisfy ourselves of the effects of the coarser floating 
matter of sand and mud, as well as of the fact that the color of 
masses of water depends to a large extent upon the color of such 
matter. The Arve, which flows in front of my windows, is gray- 
ish yellow in summer, and opaque, assuming a deeper color after 
rain-storms ; in winter, on the contrary, it is green, semi-trans- 
parent, and greener and clearer the less water it carries; facts 
easily explainable upon principles which one of my pupils nearly 
established by observations continued through a whole year. In 
summer the Arve carries, with the surplus glacier-water, grayish- 
yellow fragments of the mountain rocks in great multitudes; 
after heavy rains, masses of yellow mud are added to these, hav- 
ing been washed away from the banks of the stream. In winter 
the amount of sediment derived from the glaciers is small, and 
the blue color of the water is transformed into the green mixed 
color. Every glacial stream has its individual color, derived from 
the disintegrated rocks ; and it is not without reason that the two 
rivers which join at Zweilutschine, in the Bernese Oberland, are 
known as the Black and the White Lutschine. The one brings 
disintegrated white limestone, the other the emery of pulverized 
dark slates. 

How extraordinarily strong the mixed colors produced by sedi- 
mentary matter may appear was shown me by an observation 
which I made at Nice at the end of December, 1889. The weather 
had been fine for a few days, and the sea, which I overlooked 
from my window to Cape Antibes, about fifteen kilometres away, 
had been unusually blue. Now came stormy weather, with spo- 
radic showers in the mountains of the Var. The river, whose 
mouth is about six kilometres from my house, poured considerable 



254 THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

masses of saturated ochre-colored water into the sea, and there 
was a sharp boundary of waves between the clay-yellow tongue 
which continually licked itself farther into the sea, and the deep- 
blue salt water. After a few hours the yellow tongue became 
bordered with a widening green band, so brightly, so poisonously 
green, that I was induced to apply my whole stock of green (vert 
Paul Veronese) to the completion of a study on which I tried to 
fix the phenomenon as truly as possible. Under the blowing of 
the west wind the tongue stretched itself out farther, to the rocky 
shore behind the harbor of Nice, around toward the bay of Villa- 
f ranca ; and when I visited the latter place the next day the water 
appeared, not steel-blue as usual, but green, fully green ; and the 
fishermen of the zoological station there complained that no 
marine animals could be found swimming around, because they 
had fled from the green water. The blue color returned after a 
few days. The green was produced by the finer yellow floating 
matter ; the coarser particles had already sunk. 

The finer matter keeps afloat for a very long time. G. Bischof 
put some of the flood waters of the Rhine in large casks, and de- 
posited these in the cellar of the chemical laboratory at Bonn. 
The finer particles had not yet entirely settled, and the water had 
not become clear, after several months of absolute stillness. It is 
plain that in a lake, in which the continual inflow and outflow 
keep up a constant current, though it be slight and unremarked 
by ordinary observers, fishermen and rowers, these fine floating 
particles will never come to rest, and that, since they have a 
yellow color, this will appear more intense in the deeper parts, 
because a larger number of yellow particles are floating in the 
thicker layers of water there. But, farther away, the shades 
which the floating matters of single brooks and rivers exhibit 
vary endlessly between gray, yellow, and reddish, and there re- 
sult the most diversified and delicately shaded mixed colors, with 
constant variations according to the quantity of floating matter 
that is carried into the water-basin. Also in the sea, which is 
never quiet, the fine floating matter keeps afloat for a long time, 
and is distributed over immensely large surfaces. 

Organic matters, plants and animals, have effects similar to 
those of mineral substances. The shores are covered with numer- 
ous plants; they grow on the lakes in all stages of green and 
brown (many microscopic plants, which cover the rocks as with a 
slime, are yellow or brown) ; green plants grow on the sea-shores 
to a depth of thirty metres, yellow and red sea-weeds to a still 
greater depth, forming semblances of woods and meadows, and 
mingling their colors with those of the water. Even in north- 
ern seas there are numerous stationary animals, sponges, solens, 
mussels, masses of which develop a definite color ; while visitors 



THE COLORS OF WATER. 255 

to southern seas are unable to say enough of the splendid colors 
conjured up by the coral reefs. 

But even this is not all. All lakes and seas swarm with swim- 
ming or " pelagic " plants and animals. Green and yellow, one- 
celled, microscopic algse are exceedingly common to a consider- 
able depth; and green and yellow algse sometimes come to the 
front in such masses that " the Red Sea " becomes no arbitrary 
designation, but the correct expression of an observed fact. I 
have seen the bay of Villafranca colored partly red by millions 
of swimming Anchinia rubra about as large as peas ; I have seen 
mile-long strips, several metres broad, immediately along the 
shore on the Riviera, colored a deep royal blue by compressed 
masses of swimming salleemans (Veletta spirans). 

We can not absolve the transparent swimming water-organ- 
isms, from the larger medusa down to the infinitesimal microbes, 
from having a certain amount of influence on the color of water. 
We should not be able to see their crystal-clear bodies if they 
did not refract the rays of light in a different direction from the 
surrounding water. By this means they send out a multitude 
of refracted rays, which singly are of little importance, but in 
the aggregate must produce an effect through their accumulation 
when millions of these living beings are crowded into a cubic 
millimetre. To what purpose should we have in some parts of 
the retina of our eye a million of sensitive elements or rods to 
the square millimetre, if we could not seize single impressions 
and unite them into a view of the whole ? 

Finally, we will not forget the air that is mixed with the 
water. If we shake a viscous fluid in the air, it becomes whitish, 
and at last white, like milk. Yet the fluid and the air are both 
transparent. But the air-bubbles scattered through the water 
refract the light in another way. The wave looks whitish, quite 
white on its edges, from the inclosed air, and as the motion grows 
stronger the white becomes more prominent, with a greenish tone 
when the water is clear and the sky clouded, radiant yellow in 
sunshine, and clay-yellow when the water is not clear. All these 
tones mix with the colors of the deep, and with the mirror-colors 
of the surface. Thus the question of the causes of the colors of 
water rises to be one of the most complex problems of science as 
well as of art, the full solution of which has not yet been reached, 
in spite of the various efforts of men of science and of pictorial 
artists, because in order to meet the apprehension of the common 
eye they have to continue into a picture the endlessly changing 
colors and shapeless figures which the sea affords. But when I 
stand before a wave painted by Mazure in Paris (he is there usu- 
ally called Mazure le Vague, the Wave-Mazure), and see how that 
artist, without help of shore, walls, buildings, or ships, which sup- 



256 THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

port the eye by their forms, shows me a wave from the sea with 
its reflected and refracted colors harmoniously mingled with the 
bottom tints issuing from the deep and with the proper color of 
the water itself, my arms, as they say, fall from my body. And 
it is then hard for me to realize that the colors of water in gen- 
eral are composed of a multitude of factors, among which the 
most important are the normal blue of pure water, the mirror- 
colors of the surface, the refracted colors of the moving parts, the 
proper colors of bodies swimming in the water, and the colors of 
the bottom or of only very softly illuminated parts shining up 
through the mass. 

In this, as in everything, the principle is true that there are 
no simple phenomena in Nature, but that all are only the result 
of a number of single factors, the aggregate effect of which we 
observe and perceive with a very imperfect instrument our eye. 
Translated for The Popular Science Monthly from Die Oarten- 
laube. 



-- 



THE ANIMAL VIEW OF MAN. 

ONE of the most curious and unconsciously paradoxical claims 
ever advanced for man in his relation to animals, is that by 
which M. Georges Leroy, philosopher, encyclopedist, and lieu- 
tenant des chasses of the Park of Versailles, the vindicator of 
Buffon and Montesquieu against the criticisms of Voltaire, ex- 
plains in his Lettres sur les Animaux the intellectual debt which 
the carnivorous animals owe to human persecution. He pictures 
with wonderful cleverness the development of their powers of 
forethought, memory, and reasoning which the interference of 
man, the enemy and " rival," forces upon them, and the conse- 
quent intellectual advance which distinguishes the loup jeune et 
ignorant from the loup adulte et instruit. The philosophic lieu- 
tenant des chasses had before long ample opportunities for com- 
paring the " affinities " which he had discovered between civilized 
man and " instructed " wolves, in the experiences of the French 
Revolution ; but without following his fortunes in those troublous 
times for game-preservers, we may perhaps return to the question 
of the natural relation of animals to man, which, as pictured by 
Rousseau to prove his a priori notions of a state of nature, so justly 
incurred the criticism of the practical observer and practiced 
writer, M. Georges Leroy. 

That man is, generally speaking, from the animal's point of 
view, an object of fear, hostility, or rapine, is to-day most unfortu- 
nately true. But whether this is their natural relation, and not 
one induced, and capable perhaps of change, is by no means cer- 



THE ANIMAL VIEW OF MAN. 257 

tain. Savage man, who has generally been first in contact with 
animals, is usually a hunter, and therefore an object of dislike to 
the other hunting animals, and of dread to the hunted. But civil- 
ized man, with his supply of bread and beef, is not necessarily a 
hunter ; and it is just conceivable that he might be content to 
leave the animals in a newly discovered country unmolested, and 
condescend, when not better employed, to watch their attitude 
toward himself. The impossible island in The Swiss Family 
Robinson, in which half the animals of two hemispheres were col- 
lected, would be an ideal place for such an experiment. But, un- 
fortunately, uninhabited islands seldom contain more than a few 
species, and those generally birds, or sea-beasts; and in newly 
discovered game regions, savage man has generally been before 
us with his arrows, spears, and pitfalls. Some instances of the 
first contact of animals with man have, however, been preserved 
in the accounts of the early voyages collected by Hakluyt and 
others, though the hungry navigators were generally more intent 
on victualing their ships with the unsuspecting beasts and birds, 
or on noting those which would be useful commodities for " traf- 
ficked' than in cultivating friendly relations with the animal in- 
habitants of the newly discovered islands. Thus, we read that 
near Newfoundland there are " islands of birds, of a sandy-red, 
but with the multitudes of birds upon them they look white. 
The birds sit there as thick as stones lie in a paved street. The 
greatest of the islands is about a mile in compass. The second is 
a little less. The third is a very little one, like a small rock. At 
the second of these islands there lay on the shore in the sunshine 
about thirty or forty sea-oxen or morses, which, when our boat 
came near them, presently made into the sea, and swam after the 
boat." Curiosity, not fear or hostility, was, then, the emotion 
roused in the sea-oxen by the first sight of man. The birds, 
whales, and walruses in the Wargate Sea and near Jan Mayen's 
Land were no less tame, and the sea-lions in the Southern Pacific, 
the birds that Barents first disturbed in Novaya Zembla, and even 
the antelopes which the early explorers encountered in the least- 
inhabited parts of central South Africa, seem all to have regarded 
the newly discovered creature, man, with interest and without 
fear. Sir Samuel Baker, in his Wild Beasts and their Ways, re- 
marks on the " curious and inexplicable fact that certain animals 
and birds exhibit a peculiar shyness of human beings, although 
they are only exposed to the same conditions as others which are 
more bold." He instances the wildness of the curlew and the 
golden plover, and contrasts it with the tameness of swallows and 
wagtails. The reason does not seem far to seek. The first are 
constantly sought for food, the latter are left undisturbed. Per- 
haps the best instance of such a contrast is that of the hawfinch 

VOL. XLI. 20 



258 THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

and the crossbill, birds of closely allied form and appearance. 
The hawfinch, which is probably the shyest of English small 
birds, seems to have acquired a deep mistrust of man. But the 
crossbills, on the rare occasions when they descend from the un- 
inhabited forests of the North into our Scotch or English woods, 
are absolutely without fear or mistrust of human beings, whom 
they see very probably for the first time. When animals do show 
fear on first acquaintance, it is probably due, not to any spon- 
taneous dread of man as man, but because they mistake him for 
something else. " Nearly all animals/' says Sir Samuel Baker, 
" have some natural enemy which keeps them on the alert, and 
makes them suspicious of all strange objects and sounds that 
might denote the approach of danger " : and it is to this that he 
attributes the timidity of many kinds of game in districts where 
they " have never been attacked by firearms." A most curious 
instance of this mistaken identity occurred lately when Kerguelen 
Island was visited by H. M. S. Volage and a party of naturalists 
and astronomers, to observe the transit of Venus. There were 
large colonies of penguins nesting on the island, which, though 
the place is so little frequented by man, used at first to run away 
up the slopes inland when the sailors appeared. They apparently 
took the men for seals, and thus took what appeared the natural 
way of escaping from their marine enemies. They soon found 
out their mistake, for it is said that " when they became accus- 
tomed to being chased by men" an experience for which the 
sailors seem to have given them every opportunity "the pen- 
guins acquired the habit of taking to the water at the first alarm." 
In another colony, the nesting females would settle down peace- 
fully on their eggs if the visitors stood still. " The whole of this 
community of penguins (they numbered about two thousand) 
were subsequently boiled down into ' hare-soup ' for the officers 
and men of H. M. S. Volage," writes the Rev. A. E. Eaton, " and 
very nice they found it." We may compare with this destruction 
of the penguins, the letter of Hakluyt on the voyage to New- 
foundland by Antony Parkhurst, describing with high approval 
the business facilities for the fishing trade offered by the taine- 
ness of the great auks called " penguins " in the passage : " There 
are sea-gulls, musses, ducks, and many other kinds of birdes store 
too long to write about, especially at one island named ' Penguin/ 
where we may drive them on a planke into our ship as many as 
shall lade her. These birds are also called penguins, and cannot 
flie; there is more meat in one of them than in a goose. The 
Frenchmen that fish neere the Grand Bank doe bring small store 
of flesh with them, but do victuall themselves alwayes with these 
birdes." 

The point of view from which the lion or tiger looks on man 



THE ANIMAL VIEW OF MAN. 259 

is perhaps not so far removed from that of the non-carnivorous 
creatures as might be supposed. Man is certainly not the natural 
food of any animal except of sharks and alligators, if he is so 
rash as to go out of his native element into theirs and if the item 
" man " were subtracted from the bill of fare of all the carnivora, 
they would never want a meal. The notion of the natural atti- 
tude of a lion to a young lady 

" When as that tender virgin he did spye, 
Upon her he did run full greedily, 
To have at once devoured her tender corse," 

is still popular, but hardly correct. More probably the lion would 
get out of the way politely if we may judge by the pacific be- 
havior of those in our last-explored lion-haunt, Mashonaland. M. 
Georges Leroy's contention for the natural affinity, or semi-sym- 
pathy, which should exist between man and the intelligent hunt- 
ing animals is no doubt partly reasonable. Leigh Hunt was 
unpleasantly struck by the incongruity of the notion of being 
eaten by a wild beast " the hideous impracticable fellow-creature, 
looking one in the face, struggling with us, mingling his breath 
with ours, tearing away scalp or shoulder-blade." But the " fel- 
low-creature " is not nearly so impracticable as he is supposed to 
be. More human beings are probably killed by tigers than by 
any other wild beast, except by starving wolves. Yet this is what 
Sir Samuel Baker has to say on the subject : " There is a great 
difference in the habits of tigers. Some exist upon the game in 
the jungles. Others prey especially upon the flocks belonging to 
the villagers. A few are designated ' man-eaters/ These are 
sometimes naturally ferocious, and having attacked a human be- 
ing, may have devoured the body, and thus acquired a taste for 
human flesh ; or they may have been wounded on more than one 
occasion, and have learned to regard man as a natural enemy. But 
more frequently the * man-eater ' is a very old tiger, or more prob- 
ably tigress, that, having hunted in the neighborhood of villages 
and carried off some unfortunate woman, has discovered that it is 
far easier to kill a native than to hunt jungle game." As a rule, 
the tiger is only anxious to avoid men ; and it is noticed that in 
high grass tigers are more dangerous than in forests, because in 
the former they can not be seen, neither can they see, until the 
stranger is close upon them. An ancient instance of the opposite 
behavior is that recorded of the new colonists of Samaria, whom 
the lions attacked, and " slew some of them." A curious inver- 
sion of this experience occurred when the islands in the Brah- 
maputra, which were swarming with tigers, were first cultivated. 
The natives, mainly by the aid of traps set with a bow and arrow, 
killed off the tigers so fast that the skins were sold by auction at 



2 6o THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

from eight annas to one rupee apiece. In this case, the tigers 
were the first aggressors by carrying off cattle. But it seems evi- 
dent that there exists no a priori reason, founded in natural an- 
tipathy, why man and animals, if we could reconstruct a " state 
of nature " in which we could put civilized, not savage man, should 
not dwell together in profound peace, or at least in such peace as 
obtains between accidental neighbors. The only ground for quar- 
rel that seems inevitable is the everlasting one between the shep- 
herd and the wolf ; and that, after all, is a question not of preju- 
dice, but of property. TJie Spectator. 



** 



SKETCH OF WILLIAM HUGGINS. 

DOCTOR HUGGINS is one of the leaders in the modern meth- 
ods of astronomical research, and his name is associated 
with a considerable proportion of the discoveries that have been 
made respecting the constitution of the sun, stars, and nebulae, 
and with the results in general of the application of physical in- 
vestigations and of spectroscopic observation in particular to the 
heavenly bodies. 

William Huggins was born in London, February 7, 1824. 
He received his early education in the City of London School, and 
continued his studies in mathematics, the classics, and modern 
languages under private tutors. He devoted much time to ex- 
periments in natural philosophy, and by the aid of the appa- 
ratus which he collected he gained practical knowledge of the 
elements of the chief branches of physical science, including 
chemistry, electricity, and magnetism. He also studied, using the 
microscope, animal and vegetable physiology, and became in 
1852 a member of the Microscopic Society. He developed a par- 
ticular interest in astronomy, and, " under great difficulties," says 
one of the earlier biographies in Men of the Time, while still re- 
siding in the metropolis with his parents, " observed the planets 
and some of the double stars between the chimneys of London." 
The erection of an observatory in 1855, at his residence at Upper 
Tulse Hill, which he supplied with good instruments, gave him 
better opportunities for observation ; and in 1858 he had an Alvan 
Clark telescope of eight inches aperture, mounted equatorially. 
He occupied himself here for some time with observation of double 
stars, and with careful drawings of the planets Mars, Jupiter, and 
Saturn. In the light of the knowledge gained in his physical 
studies he was not satisfied to follow in the beaten track of ob- 
servation, but sought to broaden the field of study, and inquire as 
far as possible into the physical qualities of the sun and stars. A 



SKETCH OF WILLIAM HUGGINS. 261 

means of conducting investigations of this kind, which his prede- 
cessors had not possessed, was offered in the method of spectrum 
analysis discovered by Kirchhoff ; and he was first able to under- 
take the application of this method in the beginning of 1862. In 
preparation for the research he mapped the spectra of twenty-six 
of the chemical elements, publishing the results of his labors in 
the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. In con- 
junction with Dr. William Allen Miller, he compared the spectra 
of some fifty stars with those of several terrestrial elements, and 
found that the stars are hot bodies, similarly constituted with our 
sun, and containing many of the substances found on the earth. 
In 1864 he and Prof. Miller reported to the Royal Society the 
results of their observations of the spectra of the planets Venus, 
Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn ; but they had found the light from 
Uranus too faint to be satisfactorily examined with the spectro- 
scope. 

The study of Uranus was resumed with an improved tele- 
scope in 1871 by Mr. Huggins, and he found its spectrum to be 
continuous so far as the feebleness of its light permitted it to be 
traced, or from C to near G. A photograph of the spectrum of 
Sirius was obtained by Mr. Huggins and Prof. Miller in 1863, 
when observations were suspended. They were resumed by Mr. 
Huggins in 1876, with apparatus so arranged that the spectrum 
of the sun could be taken on the same plate, and this method 
was applied to other bright stars. After recording in his com- 
munication to the Royal Society his expectation, with apparatus 
then under construction, of obtaining finer lines which might be 
present in the stellar light than those that had been seen, and of 
extending the photographic method to stars that were less bright, 
Prof. Huggins referred in general terms to " the many important 
questions in connection with which photographic observations 
of stars may be of value." Another paper recording the progress 
of these investigations to the end of 1879 named thirteen bright 
stars, Venus, Mars, and Jupiter, and different small areas of the 
moon, to which the method had been applied. Six of the spectra 
belonged to stars of the white class, while Arcturus seemed to 
present a spectrum " on the other side of that of the sun in the 
order of changes from the white-star group." The photographs 
of the planets showed no sensible planetary modification of the 
violet and ultra-violet parts of the spectrum. The results of the 
photographs of lunar areas taken under different conditions of 
illumination were negative as to any absorptive action of a lunar 
atmosphere. The author was then preparing to attempt to obtain 
by photography any lines which might exist in the violet and 
ultra-violet spectra of the gaseous nebulae. He further pointed 
out " the suitability of the photographic method of stellar spec- 



262 TEE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTELY. 

troscopy, first inaugurated by his researches, to some other inves- 
tigations, such as differences which may present themselves in the 
photographic region in the case of the variable stars, the differ- 
ence of relative motion of two stars in the line of sight, the sun's 
rotation from photographic spectra of opposite limbs, and the 
spectra of the different parts of a sun-spot." The British Associa- 
tion address of 1891 includes a fine summary of the results to date 
of observations of this character as they bear upon the evolu- 
tional order in which in this paper he arranged the stars from 
their photographic spectra. Substantially the same order had 
been proposed by Vogel in his classification of the stars in 1874. 

Dr. Huggins presented a paper on his examination of the 
great nebula in Orion in 1868, and referred in it to earlier observa- 
tions. The discussion was continued in 1872, and in 1882, when 
the author threw out the suggestion of a hope that the further 
knowledge of the spectra of the nebulae afforded us by photog- 
raphy might lead, by the help of terrestrial experiments, to more 
definite knowledge as to the state of things existing in those 
bodies. In communications to the French Academy of Sciences 
and to the Royal Society in 1889 he considered it probable that 
nebulae yielding a spectrum of luminous rays, with a very faint 
continuous spectrum, which is probably formed in part by lumi- 
nous rays in close proximity, are at or near the beginning of the 
cycle of their celestial evolution. " They consist probably of gas 
at a high temperature and very tenuous, where chemical dissocia- 
tion exists, and the constituents of the mass, doubtless, are ar- 
ranged in the order of vapor density. As to the conditions which 
may have been anterior to this state of things the spectroscope is 
silent. We are free, so far as the spectroscope can inform us, to 
adopt the hypothesis which other considerations make most prob- 
able. On Dr. Croll's form of the impact theory of stellar evo- 
lution, which begins by assuming the existence of stellar masses 
in motion, and considers all subsequent evolutional stages to be 
due to the energy of this motion converted into heat by the col- 
lision of two such bodies, these nebulae would represent the second 
stage in which these existing solid bodies had been converted into 
a gas of very high temperature. They would take the same place, 
if we assume, with Sir William Thomson, the coming together 
of two or more cool, solid masses by the velocity due to their 
mutual gravitation alone. I pointed out in 1864 that the gaseous 
nature of these bodies would afford an explanation of the appear- 
ance of flat disks without condensation which many of them pre- 
sent. ... In other gaseous nebulae strong condensations are seen, 
and a stronger 'continuous' spectrum. The stage of evolution 
which the nebula in Andromeda represents is no longer a matter 
of hypothesis. The splendid photograph recently taken by Mr. 



SKETCH OF WILLIAM HUGOINS. 263 

Roberts of this nebula shows a planetary system at a somewhat 
advanced stage of evolution ; already several planets have been 
thrown off, and the central gaseous mass has condensed to a mod- 
erate size as compared with the dimensions it must have possessed 
before any planets had been formed." In 1891, after more defi- 
nitely describing the appearance of Mr. Roberts's photograph, he 
said that "to liken this object more directly to any particular 
stage in the formation of the solar system would be f to compare 
great things with small,' and might be indeed to introduce a false 
analogy ; but, on the other hand, we should err through an excess 
of caution if we did not accept the remarkable features brought 
to light by this photograph as a presumptive indication of a prog- 
ress of events in cosmical history following broadly upon the lines 
of Laplace's theory." 

Dr. Huggins's spectrum observations on comets, in connection 
with those of other observers, satisfied him of the existence of 
different types, and that the same comet might present on one 
occasion one spectrum and on another the other spectrum ; that 
they shine partly by reflected solar light and partly by their own 
light, the spectrum of which indicates the presence in the comet 
of carbon, possibly in combination with hydrogen. In the case 
of the Wells comet of 1882, he remarked that as Prof. A. Herschel 
and Dr. Von Konkoly had showed long before that the spectra of 
the periodic meteors are different for different swarms, it was not 
surprising that we now had a comet the matter of the nucleus of 
which under the sun's heat showed an essential chemical differ- 
ence from the long series of hydrocarbon comets which had ap- 
peared since 1864. The spectrum of Coggia's comet (1874) indi- 
cated an approach to the earth of forty-six miles per second, 
while the real velocity of approach was only twenty-four miles 
per second. It was uncertain whether the whole or part of the 
difference in the velocity was due to the motion of the matter 
within the comet. It seemed probable, therefore, that the nucleus 
was solid, heated by the sun, and throwing out matter which 
formed the coma and tail ; and part of this was in a gaseous form, 
giving the spectra of bright lines. The other portion existed 
probably in small incandescent particles ; the polariscope show- 
ing that certainly not more than one fifth of the whole light was 
reflected solar light. In a paper on Photographing the Solar 
Corona without an Eclipse, Prof. Huggins spoke, in 1882, of prob- 
lems of the highest interest in the physics of our sun connected 
with the varying forms of the coronal light which seemed to 
admit of solution only on the condition of its being possible to 
study the corona continuously, and to confront its changes with 
other visible phenomena presented by the sun. The spectro- 
scopic method of viewing the prominences failed ; experiments in 



264 THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

looking at the corona through, screens of colored glass or other 
absorptive media had not been satisfactory. The author had 
therefore undertaken to use photography, and had satisfied him- 
self that under certain conditions of exposure and development, 
a photographic plate could be made to record minute differences 
of illumination existing in different parts of a bright object, 
which was so subtle as to be at the very limit of the power of 
recognition of a trained eye, and even, perhaps, of those that sur- 
passed that limit. Describing his apparatus and method, he 
showed that it was possible, by isolating through properly chosen 
absorbing media, the light of the sun in the violet part of the 
spectrum, to obtain photographs of the sun surrounded by an 
appearance distinctly coronal in its nature. He afterward found 
that, by using plates sensitive to violet light only, it was possible 
to do away with absorbing media and remove the difficulties that 
occurred in sifting the light. In 1886 Dr. Huggins accounted 
for his failure to obtain in England, since the summer of 1883, 
photographs showing satisfactory indications of the corona, by 
the existence in the atmosphere since the autumn of 1883 of finely 
divided matter which caused an abnormally large amount of 
glare. Mr. Ray Woods had met the same trouble in Switzerland 
in the summer of 1884. 

In his British Association address, 1891, Prof. Huggins re- 
peated a conclusion which he had expressed in 1885, that the 
corona is essentially a phenomenon similar in the cause of its 
formation to the tails of comets consisting for the most part 
of matter going from the sun under the action of a force, pos- 
sibly electrical, which varies as the surface, and can therefore 
in the case of highly attenuated matter easily master the force 
of gravity even near the sun as according with the lines along 
which thought had been directed by the results of subsequent 
eclipses. 

In the early part of 1868 Prof. Huggins presented to the Royal 
Society some observations on a small change of refrangibility 
which he had remarked in a line in the spectrum of Sirius as com- 
pared with a line of hydrogen, from which it appeared that the 
star was moving from the earth with a velocity of about twenty- 
five miles a second, if the probable advance of the sun in space 
were taken into account. The thought of discovering motion in 
this way was not wholly new, though Prof. Huggins was the first 
to apply it in practice. The Rev. John Mitchell, of the Royal 
Society, presented an ingenious paper, in 1783, On the Means of 
discovering the Distance, Magnitude, etc., of the Fixed Stars, in 
Consequence of the Diminution of the Velocity of their Light, in 
which he suggested that by the aid of a prism " we might be able 
to discover diminutions in the velocity of light as perhaps a hun- 



SKETCH OF WILLIAM HUGGINS. 265 

dredth, a two-hundredth, a five-hundredth, or even a thousandth 
part of the whole." Doppler had also, in 1841, suggested that on 
the same principle on which a sound should become sharper or 
flatter if there were an approach or a recession between the ear 
and the source of the sound would apply equally to light ; and 
Fizeau, about eight years later, had pointed out the importance 
of considering the individual wave-lengths of which white light 
is composed. Prof. Huggins was not able to continue his obser- 
vations of this feature till 1872, when, having devised a trust- 
worthy apparatus, and enjoying favorable weather, he applied his 
method to fourteen stars which were found to have a motion of 
approach and twelve which appeared to be receding. He re- 
marked upon these results that the velocities of recession or ap- 
proach assigned to the several stars by him represented the whole 
of the motion in the line of sight existing between them and the 
sun. As we know that the sun is moving in space, a part of 
these observed velocities must be due to the solar motion. He 
had not attempted to make this correction, because, although the 
direction of the sun's motion seemed to be satisfactorily ascer- 
tained, the velocity with which it was advancing rested on sup- 
positions more or less arbitrary. It would be observed that, 
speaking generally, the stars which the spectroscope showed to 
be moving from the earth were situated in a part of the heavens 
opposite to Hercules, toward which the sun was advancing ; while 
the stars in the neighborhood of that region showed a motion of 
approach. There were some exceptions to this general statement ; 
and there were some other considerations which appeared to show 
that the sun's motion in space is not the only, or even in all cases 
the chief, cause of the observed proper motions of the stars. 
There could be little doubt that in the observed stellar move- 
ments we have to do with two other independent motions, namely, 
a movement common to certain groups of stars, and a motion 
peculiar to each star. 

Pertaining to other subjects than spectroscopic astronomy 
on which Prof. Huggins has written, we notice a communication 
to the Royal Society On the Function of the Sound-post, and 
on the Proportional Thickness of the Strings of the Violin. A 
curious letter from him in Nature, in 1873, relates the* case of a 
family of dogs the members of which had inherited an antip- 
athy to butchers' shops and butchers. Some of them could not 
be induced to pass by a butcher's shop; others showed great 
uneasiness in the presence of a butcher, although they could not 
see him; and one of them attacked a gentleman visiting his 
master, whose business was that of a butcher. In 1872 Dr. 
Huggins edited and annotated an edition of Schellen's Spectrum 
Analysis in its Application to Terrestrial Substances and the 



2 66 THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

Physical Constitution of the Heavenly Bodies, translated by 
Jane and Caroline Lassell. 

Dr. Huggins was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1865, 
and has received two of its medals; he was awarded, with Dr. 
Miller, the gold medal of the Royal Astronomical Society in 1867, 
for their conjoint researches, and he was given a second medal of 
the same society in 1885. He has received doctor's degrees from 
the Universities of Cambridge, Oxford, Edinburgh, and Trinity 
College, Dublin ; and he holds the honors and memberships of 
other British societies, and of numerous societies in foreign lands. 
As Rede lecturer at the University of Edinburgh, in 1869, he gave 
an account of his researches in astronomy by means of the 
spectroscope ; and as President of the British Association in 1891 
he delivered an inaugural address, the more definite purpose of 
which, as defined by the author, was " not to attempt a survey of 
the progress of spectroscopic astronomy from its birth at Heidel- 
berg in 1859, but to point out what we do know at present, as dis- 
tinguished from what we do not know, of a few only of its more 
important problems." The success of this effort, the Observatory 
says, was recognized equally by the general public and by those 
more familiar with astronomy. " Those who were already famil- 
iar with Dr. Huggins and his work have learned afresh almost to 
their surprise how closely he has been identified with the ' very 
remarkable discoveries in our knowledge of the heavens which 
have taken place during this period of thirty years/ Not that the 
president materially assists in pointing this moral; rather is it 
pointed by the facts in spite of him. He is almost too eager to 
assign credit to others when he might justly have mentioned his 
own work." 



The manufacture of flints is still carried on at the hamlet of Porcharioux, 
department of Loir-et-Cher, France, where the stone is abundant and of fine 
quality. The stones are quarried and roughly broken by the men, and are taken 
by the women into the house to be finished. A single worker can dress five or 
six thousand stones in a week. The use to which the flints are applied is not 
known to M. Belot, who has described the manufacture ; but the business seems 
to be profitable. The work is attended with danger of lung disorders caused by 
the dust, a liability which the workers accept philosophically. The business is in 
the hands of a single family. 

A recent investigation by Mr. Thomas Whitelegge, of Sydney, may cast some 
light as to the causes which influence marine food supplies. He found that a 
sudden discoloration of the water in Port Jackson Harbor was caused by the pres- 
ence of a minute organism which he identified as a species of the genus Qleno- 
dinium; and, so far as he was able to judge, fully half of the shore fauna was 
destroyed by the invaders. The bivalves were almost exterminated wherever the 
organism was abundant during the whole of the visitation. 



EDITOR'S TABLE. 



267 



EDITOR'S TABLE. 



THE ''AMERICAN EXPERIMENT" IN 
EDUCATION. 

STATE Superintendent of Education 
Andrew S. Draper lately delivered 
an address on education before certain 
teachers' associations. He also lately 
made a report on the same subject to 
the Legislature of New York. In the 
address he spoke of the " stern logic of 
the American experiment" having forced 
free schools upon the countries of Eu- 
rope. What the stern logic of the 
American experiment teaches we are 
ourselves not prepared to say ; but we 
notice that, in his annual report, Super- 
intendent Draper tells us that one re- 
sult of the American experiment is that 
since 1851 there has been a steady de- 
crease in the percentage of attendance 
at the public schools. These are his 
words : 

"The reports show that in 1851 the 
' total attendance ' comprised 75*6 per 
cent of the school population. This 
percentage has constantly fallen off with 
surprising regularity during the inter- 
vening forty years. In 1861 it was 65*6 
per cent, in 1871 it was 68*4 per cent, 
in 1881 it was 61*4 per cent, and in 1891 
it was 57*8 per cent. This is a showing 
which must engage the attention of all 
thoughtful persons. There should be 
some explanation of it, or there should 
be vigorous measures to remedy the 
growing evil of non-attendance upon 
the schools. Is there any explanation ? 
Are the circumstances as unfortunate as 
the figures indicate ? It should be said, 
in the first place, that the ' school popu- 
lation,' being all between five and twen- 
ty-one years, includes many children 
whose parents deem them too young to 
go to school, and a great many more 
who have gone through the schools and 
commenced work. In other words, the 
statutory school age is both younger and 
older than the actual school age is, or 



ever can be, in the greater number of 
cases, and is therefore misleading. This 
will indicate why the percentage is 
small, but not why it continually grows 
smaller." 

The fact is that, since the establish- 
ment of kindergartens, children are go- 
ing to school at a younger age now than 
they did a generation ago ; and it is 
also the case that boys and girls stay 
longer at school nowadays than they 
used to do ; so that, in the absence Of 
other influences, the percentage of at- 
tendance ought to be higher considera- 
bly than it was in 1851. Perhaps it was 
that forty years ago people had not yet 
learned to undervalue education on ac- 
count of its very cheapness. "Whatever 
the explanation, it seems to us that "the 
logic of the American experiment " re- 
quires to be further explored. 



THE LAW AND THE DOCTORS. 

Mr. Frederic Harrison and Mrs. 
Fawcett have been having a little con- 
troversy of their own on the subject of 
"the emancipation* of women." Mr. 
Harrison is desirous that women should 
have all possible educational advantages, 
and he says many fine things about their 
intellectual and moral powers ; but he 
still holds that their place is in the 
home, not in the factory, the counting- 
house, the Government office, or the 
political meeting. Mrs. Fawcett points 
out the impossibility of confining women 
to the home in these days when 60 
many of them have no home, or none 
that can give them a living ; and, apart 
from that, she resents the idea that 
women are not adapted to extra- 
domestic tasks and duties. The con- 
troversy is in able hands, and we have 
no wish to intervene at present. One 
remark that Mrs. Fawcett makes, how- 
ever, seems to call for a word. She 



268 



THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY 



speaks of " people who are in rebellion 
against all order in society ; who think 
marriages should be dissolvable at will ; 
that parents ought to have no control 
over their children," and so on through 
quite a list of absurdities, the last being 
the opinion that " any quack or im- 
postor who chooses to put a brass plate 
on his door calling himself a physician, 
a lawyer, or what not, should occupy 
exactly the same position as those who 
have entered the various professions 
after complying with the constituted 
educational test of fitness." Now, we 
are not acquainted with any persons, 
nor have we heard of any, who hold 
this opinion ; but we do know of some 
who consider that if there is anything 
that tends to bring the capable man 
and the ignoramus down to a common 
level, it is the brass door-plate under 
existing conditions. The public under- 
stand now that they have a guarantee 
that the M. D. on a door-plate or 
diploma means something definite ; 
whereas the fact is that it may cover 
the widest possible diversity of attain- 
ments and abilities. The present sys- 
tem casts a kind of mysterious sanctity 
round the very blunders of the author- 
ized physician, so that good wives may 
be heard talking of them with bated 
breath almost as if they were treading 
on holy ground. The doctor in fact is 
treated in general with far more con- 
sideration and even reverence than the 
minister, and, so far as we can see, his 
science only suffers through the dis- 
tinction made in his favor. Whatever 
Mrs. Fawcett may think of it, we are 
strongly of opinion that medical science 
will never make the progress it is capa- 
ble of till it is wholly set free from 
state control. Instead of such freedom 
placing the impostor and the competent 
practitioner on a level, it is the very 
thing, we are persuaded, that would 
do most to drive impostors, certified 
and non-certified, out of the "profes- 
sion." 



LITERARY NOTICES. 

Moral Teachings of Science. By Arabella 
B. Buckley (Mrs. Fisher). New York: 
D. Appleton & Co. Pp. 122. Price, 15 
cents. 

Science has been many times accused of 
having no tendency toward morality, and, in 
fact, of exerting an opposite influence by re- 
leasing men from some restraints that for- 
merly held them to the path of virtue. It is 
true that the adherents of science have not 
yet been able to construct a complete system 
of ethics, based on the evolution philoso- 
phy, but their position has been that of a 
builder who is jeered at because his house 
has no roof before he has had time to raise 
its walls in the face of the hindrances 
thrown in his way by his critics. The old 
conception of the universe is a growth of tens 
of centuries ; must the new be thoroughly 
worked out in a single generation? How- 
ever, scientists have no disposition to shirk 
the ethical problem, and now that they have 
achieved a suitable vantage-ground are already 
beginning to develop a solution of it. The 
present volume is designed to show in a sim- 
ple manner that science does tend to produce 
moral conduct, and how its moral teachings 
are to be looked for. The author affirms at 
the outset that acquaintance with scientific 
truth can not give us false guidance with re- 
spect to conduct. If selfishness is not the 
universal law of progress, she says, "we 
need have no fear that the study of natural 
laws will mislead us into believing it. With 
our limited knowledge we may often be per- 
plexed, but so long as we do not overstrain 
the facts we shall not be confounded. If it 
be true that the instincts which lead us to 
be just and merciful, honest and unselfish, 
pure and affectionate, to fear moral degra- 
dation, and to aspire to nobleness of charac- 
ter, are inherent in the very laws of our 
being, then we shall find the gradual devel- 
opment of these qualities in the groundwork 
of living nature. In a word, we shall find 
evidence that high moral duties are not 
true merely because all religions have taught 
them, but that all religions have taught them 
because they are true." 

The author admits no question as to the 
existence of God, but declares that his " ul- 
timate nature and attributes" "must tran- 



LITERARY NOTICES. 



269 



scend our utmost efforts of intuition or im- 
agination." Yet, she continues, " we can not 
surely fail to recognize that partial mani- 
festations of that nature are taking place 
within and around us at every moment of 
our lives." Science has revealed how the 
First Cause proceeds in the creation of a 
particular kind of plant or animal ; it has 
shown, as no other testimony has been able 
to show, that " his ways are not as our 
ways," and that he is " without variableness 
or shadow of turning," and it has made men 
feel that every right or wrong act is sure to 
have its proper recompense. The presence 
of pain and strife in the world has long been 
a mystery. The great scientific doctrine of 
natural selection first gave a clew to their 
usefulness. 

In both the animal and the vegetable 
kingdoms the author points out that species 
and individuals that satisfy the conditions of 
their surroundings flourish, while those that 
behave differently perish. From this she 
draws the lesson that in order to attain the 
highest life of which he is capable, man 
must adapt his conduct to the will of the 
Author of all things, as expressed in the 
laws of the universe. Although one's con- 
duct is largely influenced by heredity, this is 
no excuse for resigning one's self to a down- 
ward course. From the very beginning of 
animal life we see a power of choice devel- 
oping together with consciousness, and out 
of this power springs responsibility. The 
success and the enjoyment achieved by dis- 
regarding moral laws are only a short-lived 
success, and an imperfect enjoyment. 

The question of immortality Mrs. Fisher 
deems a profound and difficult one. Regard- 
ing it as intimately connected with all higher 
morality, she feels obliged to state her con- 
viction upon it, which is that "our moral 
nature and the conclusions of science, even 
apart from religious belief, all point to a 
continuation of individual existence beyond 
the few short years we pass in this world." 
The reasons that she gives in support of this 
opinion are not, however, as clearly teachings 
of science as are those which she finds as a 
basis of moral conduct. The chief argument 
is that persons who suffer inherited disad- 
vantages in this life ought to have compen- 
sation. Thus it will be seen that the book 
accepts the main principles of religious eth- 



ics, and supplies reasons for obeying moral 
laws in addition to those which the most 
enlightened religions contain. Its influence 
on the adult or the young reader can not fail 
to be elevating, and it should prove to be a 
valuable textbook for the teaching of pure 
ethics. 

Principles and Practice op Plumbing. By 
S. Stevens Hellyer. London: George 
Bell & Sons, 1892. Pp. 294. Price, 
$1.25. 

This is one of the Technological Hand- 
books issued by the London publishers, George 
Bell & Sons, and edited by Sir H. Trueman 
Wood, Secretary of the Society of Arts. It 
appears to cover the subject quite completely 
though briefly, and contains much informa- 
tion that the householder would find it ad- 
vantageous to know, though it is addressed 
primarily to the plumber. The contents of 
the volume range from a consideration of the 
metallurgy of lead and tin to the proper fix- 
ing in place of the various apparatus which 
it is the business of the plumber to know 
about. 

The Elements of Politics. By Henry 
Sidgwick. London and New York: 
Macmillan & Co., 1891. Pp. 632. Price, 

$4. 

Prof. Sidgwick has undertaken in this 
volume a general survey of the field of poli- 
tics, with the object of determining what 
work a government may properly undertake 
to do, and what form of structure is best 
suited to the purpose. Holding to the in- 
dividualistic view of social organization as 
contrasted with the socialistic, and seeking 
his sanctions in the main in the principle of 
individualism, he yet departs widely at times 
from the laisser-faire school of political 
thinkers. He rejects the strictly individu- 
alistic test of what things a government may 
properly attempt to do as being inadequate, 
and adopts instead the " general welfare," as 
the test of what things are permissible and 
what are not. From this point of view he 
is able to find adequate sanction for 6uch 
extensions of government activity as public 
education, the care and relief of the indi- 
gent, public hospitals, public parks, sanitary 
supervision, etc., and the carrying on of cer- 
tain businesses that are semi-public in char- 
acter, such as the transmission of mails and 



270 



THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 



telegrams, and the supply of water and light- 
ing in towns. 

The scope of the author's inquiry in this 
branch of his subject may perhaps be best 
indicated by the following extract : 

" The legislation of modern civilized com- 
munities, then, is, in the main, framed on 
an individualistic basis; and an important 
school of political thinkers are of opinion 
that the coercive interference of government 
should be strictly limited to the application 
of this principle. I propose, accordingly, in 
subsequent chapters, to trace in outline the 
chief characteristics of the system of law 
that would result from the consistent appli- 
cation of the individualistic principle to the 
actual conditions of human life in society. 
I shall then examine certain difficulties and 
doubts that arise when we attempt to work 
out such a consistent and exclusive individu- 
alistic system. I shall analyze the cases in 
which, in my judgment, it tends to be inade- 
quate to produce the attainable maximum of 
social happiness ; and I shall consider to what 
extent, and under what carefully defined 
limitations, it is expedient to allow the intro- 
duction of paternal and socialistic legisla- 
tion, with a view to remedy these inadequa- 
cies." 

In the branch of this subject relating to 
the structure of a government, Prof. Sidg- 
wick is occupied with a discussion of what 
he esteems the most desirable relation be- 
tween the three prime departments of a gov- 
ernmental structure the executive, legisla- 
tive, and judicial. His discussion is well 
worth study, and abounds in suggestions of 
improvements in details as well as in prin- 
ciples of the more prominent features of 
modern governments. 

The Horse. By William Henry Flower, 
Sc. D., Pres. Z. S., etc. Modern Science 
Series, No. II. New York : D. Appleton 
& Co. Pp. xiv + 204. Price, $1. 

Prof. Ball's instructive book on The 
Cause of an Ice Age, which opened the new 
popular scientific series, edited by Sir John 
Lubbock, is followed by the present volume, 
in which the structure of the most interesting 
of the domestic animals is described. The 
author begins by defining the horse's place 
in nature, as indicated by its ancestors, 
whose fossil remains have been found in 



considerable abundance, and by its relatives. 
In the second chapter the horse and its 
nearest existing relatives are described. 
These are the Perissodactyle ungulates com- 
prising the three families, tapirs, rhinoce- 
roses, and horses. Of these the tapirs retain 
more of the primitive characteristics of the 
common ancestors of the three families than 
either of the others. Of the tapirs there is 
but one genus. The rhinoceroses are grouped 
in three sections or genera the rhinoceros 
with one horn, the ceratorhinus and the 
atelodus, each with two. The horses (fam- 
ily Equidce) comprise the horse proper, the 
asses, and the zebras. Although wild horses 
have been abundant in both America and 
Europe, the nearest approach to a wild horse 
existing anywhere at present is the tarpan 
of the steppes in southeastern Russia. The 
latter half of the volume is devoted to the 
structure of the horse, chiefly as bearing 
upon its mode of life, its evolution, and its 
relation to other animal forms. The bones 
of the head and neck and the dentition are 
fully described, and the chief characteristics 
of the lips, nostrils, and neck are pointed 
out. In describing the cervical ligament, 
which is attached like a stay-rope to the 
neck and to the fore part of the backbone, 
the author takes occasion to condemn the 
useless cruelty of the bearing-rein. The 
fourth and last chapter is devoted to the 
limbs, and contains an interesting compari- 
son between the arrangement of the bones 
in the limbs of the horse and in those 
of man. Twenty-six figures illustrate the 
text. 

Principles of Economics. By Alfred Mar- 
shall. Vol. I. Second edition. London 
and New York: Macmillan & Co., 1891. 
Pp. 770. Price, $3. 

This well-known treatise of Prof. Mar- 
shall has undergone but slight changes in the 
present edition, the more important of which 
are pointed out by the author in his preface. 
The work is a general presentation of the 
science on the general lines laid down by the 
English economists, but there is to be traced 
in it the influence of more recent economic 
thought in modifying the treatment of many 
problems and altering the weight given to 
conditions and considerations not strictly 
economic. As Prof. Marshall points out, the 



LITERARY NOTICES. 



271 



older economists were disposed to view the 
science too largely from the point of view of 
the needs and actions of the " economic man " 
an ideal construction actuated only by eco- 
nomic motives, instead of those of the actual 
man, in the determination of whose economic 
action many motives enter besides those that 
are strictly economic. Paramount among 
these are the ethical forces, family affections, 
and other altruistic feelings, which in any 
given set of conditions are sufficiently uni- 
form to produce conduct that may be pre- 
dicted. The introduction of considerations 
of this kind as economic factors, while leav- 
ing the older conclusions substantially as 
they were, tends to give to them much less 
sharpness of outline, and presents economic 
laws more as statements of general tenden- 
cies than as a set of fixed and invariable 
conditions. 

The book is well printed and bound and 
of convenient size, and is provided with 
marginal notes indicating the subject-matter. 
An appendix concerned with the application 
of mathematics to economic problems, and 
an index complete the volume. 

Manual of Chemical Technology. By Ru- 
dolf von Wagner. Translated and ed- 
ited by William Crookes, F. R. S. From 
the thirteenth enlarged German edition 
as remodeled by Dr. Ferdinand Fischer. 
New York : D. Appleton & Co. Pp. 24 
+ 968. Price, $7.50. 

So great have been the changes in the 
chemical treatment of materials in the vari- 
ous industries since the author's last edition 
of this work appeared that the present edi- 
tion is practically a new book. The elev- 
enth edition was completed by Wagner 
shortly before his death in 1880. The 
twelfth edition, which was issued in 1886, 
was edited by Dr. Fischer, who cut out the 
matter that had become obsolete, and in- 
serted references to recent improvements in 
the processes treated, but made no exten- 
sive changes. In the present edition the 
work has been wholly remodeled; the al- 
phabetical arrangement of the subject-matter 
has been replaced by a classified grouping ; 
new subjects have been introduced, the latest 
developments in old subjects have been in- 
serted, and about half the six hundred il- 
lustrations are new. 

Since fuel is indispensable in every de- 



partment of technology, it is first considered, 
over one hundred pages being given to this 
subject and lighting. Both the preparation 
and use of heating and lighting materials 
are considered. The greater part of this 
section is new matter. In Section II, Met- 
allurgy, a new subdivision on potassium and 
sodium is inserted. Section III is devoted 
to Chemical Manufacturing Industry, includ- 
ing the production of sulphur, sulphuric acid, 
soda, explosives, ammonia, salts of the met- 
als, etc. New topics in this section are 
water, manures, and thermo-chemistry. Sec- 
tion IV, on the Organic Chemical Manufact- 
ures, has been written entirely anew. This 
chapter includes alcohols and ethers, organic 
acids, benzol colors and other organic color- 
ing matters, etc. The fifth section is de- 
voted to glass, earthenware, cement, and 
mortar ; the sixth deals with Articles of Food 
and Consumption ; and the seventh with the 
Chemical Technology of Fibers, while the 
eighth is a miscellaneous group, comprising 
the products of hides, bones, and fats, the 
essential oils, resins, and the preservation of 
wood. Thermometric, hydrometric, and other 
tables are appended to the volume. The 
translation has been carefully edited by Prof. 
Crookes, with the omission of some passages 
of merely local application and the insertion 
of notes and bibliographical references, mak- 
ing the version much more valuable to Eng- 
lish readers than a simple translation would 
have been. 

The Working and Management of an Eng- 
lish Railway. By George Findlay, 
General Manager of the London and North- 
western Railway. New York : Macmillan 
& Co., 1891. Pp. 354. Price, $1.50. 

In this small volume of three hundred 
odd pages Mr. Findlay has detailed the work- 
ing and management of one of the great 
English railways the London and Northwest- 
ern. His description includes the financial 
and business as well as the mechanical oper- 
ations of the road. What strikes the reader 
of these pages the most forcibly is the thor- 
oughness with which all the details of oper- 
ation have been worked out, and the care 
exercised over these details to assure the 
perfect operation of the road at all times. 
To this end the road is placed under the most 
detailed supervision, as well as being pro- 
vided with the various modern appliances 



272 



THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 



which experience has shown are essential to 
safety. It is, of course, operated under the 
block system, without which the operation 
of any great railroad with its multifarious 
traffic can not be safe. To listen to the ex- 
cuses often made by railroad officials for not 
adopting this system, one would get the idea 
that it is in some way complex and intricate 
and not easy of application to railway oper- 
ation under all circumstances. It is, how- 
ever, simplicity itself. It does not consist in 
any necessary forms of appliance, but is sim- 
ply a method of operating. Mr. Findlay de- 
scribes some simple forms of indicators used 
on the London and Northwestern, but any 
form of indicator may be used. The block 
system consists simply in dividing a road 
into a number of sections and allowing but 
one train at a time in either direction in any 
given section. To apply it to a road re- 
quires only the erection of proper signals 
and suitable means for operating them, and 
knowing their condition by the operators sta- 
tioned along the line at the entrance of every 
block division. It is a matter of no small 
wonder that the officials of any considerable 
road should resist the introduction of so sim- 
ple a method of insuring safety, and that 
any community should tolerate a railway 
service not operated in such a manner. The 
book is very readably written, and can be 
read with interest by the general public who 
have to make use of the railways, and with 
profit by not a few of our railway mana- 
gers. 

Diseases of the Urinary Apparatus. By 
J. W. S. Gouley, M. D. New York : D. 
Appleton & Co. Pp. xiii + 342. Price, 
$1.50. 

Criticism of the substance of this trea- 
tise must be left to that very small minority 
of the medical profession who are familiar 
with the latest contributions, made in Europe 
and in this country, to the author's special 
branch of their science. It is enough to say 
on this subject that Dr. Gouley has here 
brought into one small volume everything 
which the well-educated practitioner, who is 
not yet a specialist, needs, to set him on a 
level with the foremost specialist in urinary 
surgery and medication except experience. 
The physician of a scientific habit of inquiry 
will find it a most stimulating book ; full, in- 



deed, of the facts of observation and prac- 
tice, but with each fact set forth, not as an 
isolated fragment of knowledge, but as an 
essential part of an organic system of truth. 
At the same time the spirit of inquiry per- 
vades the whole. The student of the subject 
is taken into partnership with the teacher in 
the great work of advancing the boundaries 
of knowledge. The dogmatism which claims 
finality and universality for its own formulas 
is excluded ; and every acquisition is made a 
stepping-stone in the way to new discovery. 
One hardly knows, in ending the perusal of 
these pages, whether the writer is most to 
be congratulated as the representative of the 
generation of reformers, who have recon- 
structed this important branch of medical 
science and placed it on a lasting basis, or 
as the harbinger of their successors, who 
will surely, by following out the same meth- 
ods to far greater results, add immeasurably 
to its power to serve mankind. 

It is rather our province to speak of the 
literary form of the work, which certainly 
deserves special notice. Technical treatises, 
in every line of professional learning, are so 
often marked by everything that is forbid- 
ding in style that it is a rare privilege to 
meet with one which can be treated as litera- 
ture. Of course, no such work is designed 
for popular reading; and this one, in par- 
ticular, is addressed only to students of spe- 
cial education and high intelligence. But its 
special merit is that it is perfectly adapted 
to its end. There is no waste of words, no 
tedious repetition, no looseness of statement) 
no parade of impertinent learning, no obtru- 
sion of personality. Concise in style, precise 
in definition, clear in reasoning, orderly and 
progressive in arrangement, and with an ac- 
curacy and care in terminology almost with- 
out precedent, it leads on from the elements 
of the subject to the very border lines of 
contemporary knowledge in a steady march, 
which offers a model in plan to all who 
would teach subjects of difficulty. We trust 
that it will receive from the profession a 
welcome which will be an object-lesson to 
many medical writers ; for it would be easy 
to name many whose books, while containing 
information of great value, would be doubled 
in usefulness, though halved in size, if re- 
written after the fashion of this admirable 
tnulium in parvo. 



LITERARY NOTICES. 



2 73 



Travels among the Great Andes of the 
Equator. By Edward Whymper. With 
a Supplementary Appendix, bound sepa- 
rately. New York : Charles Scribner's 
Sons. Pp. xxvi + 456, and xxvi+147. 
Price, $6. 

Whether regarded as a book of travel 
or as a record of scientific exploration, Mr. 
Whymper's production has eminent claims 
to attention. The chief object of his expe- 
dition was to investigate the physiological 
effects of the diminished air pressure at high 
altitudes. That some disturbance of the 
bodily functions is caused by ascending to 
great elevations had been established by the 
testimony of "multitudes of persons of di- 
verse conditions by cultured men of science 
down to illiterate peasants. . . . Nausea and 
vomiting ; headaches of a most severe char- 
acter ; feverishness, haemorrhages, lassitude, 
depression, and weakness ; and an indescrib- 
able feeling of illness have been repeatedly 
mentioned as occurring at great elevations, 
and have only been cured by descending into 
lower zones. To these maladies the term 
mountain sickness is now commonly ap- 
plied." AVhile such effects have been felt 
by persons who have slowly climbed mount- 
ains to heights of fourteen thousand to fif- 
teen thousand feet, balloonists have often 
risen within an hour to much greater heights 
without such inconvenience. This fact 
gives reason to believe that symptoms pro- 
duced by fatigue have been attributed often 
to rarefaction of the air. Accordingly, in his 
Andean explorations, Mr. Whymper took 
especial care to eliminate the effects of fa- 
tigue from his observations. 

The scene of his operations was that 
part of the chain of the Andes crossing the 
Republic of Ecuador, and among the mount- 
ains climbed were Cotopaxi, on the summit 
of which a night was spent, and Chimborazo 
twice, the summit being reached only in the 
second ascent. Many less noted peaks also 
were scaled. Besides making the observa- 
tions which were his chief care, Mr. Whymper 
determined the altitudes and the relative posi- 
tions of the chief mountains of Ecuador, made 
comparisons of boiling-points and aneroid 
readings with the readings of the mercurial 
barometer, and made botanical, lithological, 
zoological (chiefly entomological), and archae- 
ological collections. As stated in the intro- 
duction, he concerned himself "neither with 

VOL. XLI. 21 



commerce nor politics, nor with the natives 
and their curious ways." Yet the incidents 
of the expedition, which are plentiful and are 
recounted with much vividness and humor, 
tell not a little about the " curious ways " of 
Ecuadorian bipeds and quadrupeds, likewise 
of hexapods and centipedes. The baggage- 
mules were inexhaustible mines of original 
sin, and the insects in the lower regions 
were everywhere. One full - page plate 
crowded with figures of flying and creeping 
things is described by the author as " selec- 
tions from my bed-fellows at Guayaquil." The 
volume is copiously illustrated with carefully 
drawn and engraved pictures, many of them 
from the author's photographs. The mete- 
orological observations are appended to the 
main volume. In the supplementary vol- 
ume Mr. Whymper's zoological collections 
are described, with illustrations. They in- 
clude a goodly number of species which were 
new to science. 

The Chinese Scientific and Industrial 
Magazine, John Fryer, LL. D., editor, is now 
in its sixth volume. Its purpose is to con- 
vey to intelligent Chinese a knowledge of 
the principles and progress of Western sci- 
ence and art. It contains, quarterly, one 
hundred pages of matter, printed in the best 
Chinese style, liberally illustrated, relating 
to subjects of practical as well as theoretical 
interest. In the number before us such sub- 
jects are treated as photography, the art 
of living long, sugar-making, therapeutics, 
pressing, drawing, shearing, and stamping 
machinery, electricity, materia medica, ice- 
making machinery, the manufacture of lu- 
cifer matches, dual consciousness, electric 
railroads, Edison's kinetograph, and mathe- 
matical problems. Presbyterian Mission 
Press, Shanghai ; Ralph Waggoner, 10 
Spruce Street, New York. Price, $1 a year. 

Dr. John Aulde, acting upon the belief 
that with the better knowledge of the physi- 
ological action of drugs large doses are not 
needed to produce desired clinical effects, 
has prepared The Pocket Pharmacy a book 
intended both for practical use and as a plea 
for small doses, to be administered in ac- 
cordance with physiological deductions. We 
are learning, he holds, instead of the gross 
manifestations of disease, to regard more 
closely the derangement of cell function on 



THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY 



which they depend. Having acquired this 
knowledge by studying the pathological 
changes occurring in disease, we endeavor to 
discover remedies which, by their known 
physiological actions, would be calculated to 
arrest or counteract those changes. This 
leads to the study of the effect of medica- 
tion on the diseased cell, and logically to the 
conclusion that small doses are to be pre- 
ferred. The present work is the outgrowth 
of personal experience in practice, and it is 
adapted to use with the pocket case. It con- 
tains a list of remedies, with the diseases to 
which they are suited, and a therapeutic in- 
dex of diseases with reference to the remedies 
prescribed for them. (D. Appleton & Co., 
publishers.) 

A hand-book on Chemical Calculations 
(New York: Longmans, Green & Co., 60 
cents) has been prepared by Mr. R. Lloyd 
Whiteley, to supply a need for a work giving, 
besides a fair selection of problems, a con- 
cise and yet explicit account of the methods 
of solving them. It is intended to form a 
part of the course of teaching or study suita- 
ble to the chemical student who wishes to 
prepare himself for whatever duties in his 
line he may be called upon to perform, and 
is also an aid to examinations. A short sum- 
mary of chemical facts or processes is given 
before explaining methods ; and the ex- 
planations concern methods of calculating 
the results of specific gravity determinations, 
of analyses of all kinds, and of atomic and 
molecular weight determinations, and are 
brought up to date. The author is a labora- 
tory teacher and a lecturer on certain special 
branches of chemistry, and brings the re- 
sults of his experience and of his intercourse 
with students to aid in his work. Prof. F. 
Clowes furnishes the preface. 

A translation of Dr. Walther HempeVs 
Methods of Gas Analysis, made by Prof. L. 
M. Dennis, of Cornell University, is published 
by Macmillan & Co. It has been the pur- 
pose of the author, omitting the complete 
description of known methods, which would 
make the book too bulky for a laboratory 
guide, to describe his own researches and 
the construction of apparatus, and all the 
operations which are involved in the analysis 
of gases with his apparatus. The apparatus 
devised by Pettersson has been described 
because a wholly new principle in the meas- 



urement of gases is there brought into use 
In the translation, which has been made 
with the personal co-operation of Prof. Hem- 
pel, the chapter upon the determination of 
the heating power of fuel has been largely 
rewritten, with the introduction of new cuts 
of the latest forms of apparatus, the chapter 
upon the analysis of illuminating gas has 
been changed, and a new method for the de- 
termination of the hydrocarbon vapors has 
been inserted. Price, $1.90. 

In the treatise of R. Lovett and C. Davi- 
son on The Elements of Plane Trigonometry, 
the subject is divided into three parts, deal- 
ing, respectively, with arithmetical, real al- 
gebraical, and complex quantity. Such an 
arrangement appears to the authors to be a 
natural one, and has the advantage of intro- 
ducing the new names and formulae that be- 
long to the subject before the student en- 
counters the difficulty of the application cf 
signs to denote the sense and direction of 
lines. The work differs mainly from those 
most generally read in the extent to which 
the treatment adopted by Prof. De Morgan, 
the influence of whose writings appears 
throughout it, has been followed. Abundant 
examples for exercise have been collected 
from university and other examination papers. 
Published by Macmillan & Co. Price, $1.60- 

A book on the Essentials of Physics has 
been added to the series of Saunders's Ques- 
tion Compends (W. B. Saunders, Philadel- 
phia), by Dr. Frederick J. Brockncy. It has 
been prepared especially for students of 
medicine, and is intended to be a compromise 
between such books as Ganot's, which is 
found too large to be used as a text-book, 
and some elementary books on the subject 
which do not contain all that is necessary for 
the student to know. The questions are 
classified as On Matter and its Properties 
Solids, Liquids, and Gases ; On Heat ; On 
Light ; On Sound ; and On Magnetism and 
Electricity. Price, $1. 

Mr. David Denning's hand-book on The 
Art and Craft of Cabinet-making (Macmil- 
lan, $1.50) will be welcomed by amateurs 
and young craftsmen, and even experienced 
workmen may derive pleasure and profit from 
it. It relates to the construction of cabinet 
furniture, the use of tools, the formation of 
joints, etc., explaining the ordinary reliable 
methods of the workshop, but not exploiting 



LITERARY NOTICES. 



275 



novelties in style or processes. It marks the 
distinction between cabinet-making and join- 
ery, and between cabinet-making and decora- 
tion ; gives a review of the development of 
furniture, in which the tricks and deceits of 
a class of dealers in pretended antiques are 
exposed ; and then furnishes practical infor- 
mation, with more than two hundred illus- 
trations, concerning the various matters per- 
taining to cabinet-making furniture woods, 
glue, nails, tools, wooden appliances made 
by the user, grinding and sharpening tools, 
joints, structural details, construction of 
parts, drawing, veneering, etc., and the con- 
struction of various articles. 

Mr. J. Traill Taylor's manual on the Op- 
tics of Photography and Photographic Lenses 
(New York : Macmillan & Co., $1) is prac- 
tical rather than theoretical, and is intended 
for the users of photographic lenses. It in- 
cludes the substance of articles furnished to 
the photographic journals and photographic 
clubs of Great Britain. It furnishes brief 
accounts of the nature and properties of 
light, the principles on which the use of 
lenses is based, their defects and the means 
of remedying them, the different classes of 
lenses ; the methods of preparing, mounting, 
fitting, and using them ; and such other in- 
formation as the photographer needs respect- 
ing them. The author distinguishes the op- 
tics of photography from that of the tele- 
scope or microscope by showing that the 
former takes cognizance of rays transmitted 
obliquely as well as axially, and brings both 
the chemical and visual rays to a focus on 
the same plane. 

A book, small enough to be carried in 
the pocket and convenient for reference at 
any time, entitled American Citizenship and 
the Right of Suffrage in the United States, has 
been compiled by Taliesen Evans, and is pub- 
lished by him at Oakland, Cal. It comprises 
abstracts of national and State laws affecting 
citizenship and suffrage in the United States, 
and of such questions relating thereto as 
have from time to time been passed upon 
by the courts. The effort has been made to 
treat the subject in such a way as to make 
the presentation acceptable and instructive 
to the American student, and interesting and 
useful to persons of foreign birth who de- 
sire to become citizens and voters. It in- 
cludes general reviews of the conditions of 



American citizenship and of the right of 
suffrage ; literal quotations of the constitu- 
tional provisions of each of the States con- 
cerning the qualifications of voters ; a chap- 
ter on the qualifications for holding office ; 
and the Constitution of the United States. 

The Rev. Emory Miller, D. D., LL. D., 
apparently endeavors, in a book on the Evo- 
lution of Love, to approach the deepest ques- 
tions of divinity. Superstition, opinion, and 
discrimination, he says, are three epochal 
words, of which the first has had its day and 
the second its noon, while the sun of dis- 
crimination is dawning. Casting away super- 
stition, refusing to be bound by opinions, the 
author tries, he says, honestly and by the 
method of discrimination, to seek the truth. 
In this spirit he discusses the Implication of 
Being as perceived, as conceived, and as 
conditioned, and finds perfection of Being in 
perfect love. He next discusses Creation, 
with the conclusion that it is an indulgence 
of love's eternal, altruistic spirit; finds the 
origin of evil in selfishness, and its solution 
in conditions within which it is held that 
provide for either its merciful remedy or its 
self-extinction. The last chapters relate to 
The Atoning Fact, The Revelation of Aton- 
ing Fact, and Eschatology, or the doctrine of 
" last things." Chicago : A. C. McClurg & 
Co. Price, $1.50. 

The Bureau of Education has issued a 
Circular of Information on Sanitary Condi- 
tions for School-houses, the result of an ex- 
tended study of this subject by Dr. Albert 
P. Marble, of Worcester, Mass. This mono- 
graph is concerned with practical devices for 
ventilation and heating, drainage and light- 
ing. Appended to the body of the circular 
are papers on Ventilation of School-houses 
heated by Stoves, Hygienic Construction of 
the Bridgeport High-school Building, Wor- 
cester School Buildings, Plans and Specifica- 
tions of School-houses prepared for the Wis- 
consin State Bureau of Education, and De- 
signs for School-houses accepted by the De- 
partment of Public Instruction of the State 
of New York. The whole document is copi- 
piously illustrated; the main portion has 
twenty-three figures in the text and seventy- 
one plates, showing heating apparatus, the 
arrangement of ventilating ducts, the course 
of heated air through rooms, sanitary closets, 
etc. The appendixes are accompanied by 



276 



THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY 



eighty illustrations, showing plans and views 
of school-houses, and arrangements for heat- 
ing and ventilating. 



V. Wood Notes Wild. 
Boston : Lee & Shep- 

Two Fly-catchers from 



PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED. 

Aldrich, Wilbur. Farming Corporations. New 
York : W. Aldrich & Co., 1*0 Broadway. Pp. 255. 
Si- 
Baldwin, Joseph. Psychology applied to the 
Science of Teaching. New York : B. Appleton & 
Co. Pp. 381. 

Barrows, H. D., Los Angeles, Cal. The Farm- 
ers and the Currency. Pp. 4. 

Benedict, James E. Thirty-seven New Species 
of Hermit Crabs. Washington : United States 
National Museum. Pp. 26. 

Bottone, S. R. A Guide to Electric Lighting. 
New York : Macmillan & Co. Pp. 189. 75 cents. 

Brooklyn Ethical Association. Lectures, etc., 
on Man and the State. Nos. 18, 19, 20, 21, and 23. 
By E. B. Andrews, R. G. Eccles, E. D. Mead, 

D. S. Remsen, and Lewis D. Janes. 10 cents 
each. 

Bryant, William M. The World-Energy and 
its Self-Conservation. Chicago : S. C. Griggs & 
Co. Pp. 304. $1.50. 

Burt, Stephen Smith. A Flying Trip from New 
York to California. Pp. 10. 

Bushnell, Allen R., M. C. Free Coinage of Sil- 
ver. Pp. 14. 

Butler, N. M. The Place of Comenius in the 
History of Education. Syracuse, N. Y. : C. W. 
Bardeen. Pp. 20. 

Chemical Society of Washington. Bulletin 
No. 7. Pp. 32. 

Cheney, S. P. and J. 
Notations of Bird Music, 
ard. Pp. 261. 

Cherrie, George K. 
Costa Rica. Pp. 2. 

Clark, Alvan & Sons, Cambridgeport, Mass. 
Notes on the Telescope. Pp. 22. 

Columbia College, New York. President's An- 
nual Report, 1891. Pp. 121. 

Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station. 
Report for 1891. New Haven. Pp. 208. 

Cope, E. D. Characters and Variations of 
Snakes. Washington : United States National 
Museum. Pp. 108. 

Creighton, Charles. A History of Epidemics 
m Great Britain. New York : Macmillan & Co. 
Pp. 706. $4.50. 

Davies, Charles. New Elementary Algebra. 
New York : American Book Co. Pp. 294. 90 
cents. 

Dominion Illustrated Magazine. April, 1892. 
Montreal : Sabisten Publishing Co. Pp. 64. 15 
cents, $1.50 a year. 

Douglas, C. H. J. The Financial History of 
Massachusetts. New York : Columbia College. 
Pp. 148. $1. 

Eckstein, Ernst. Hertha. Translated by Mrs. 

E. H. Bell. New York : G. Gottsberger Peck. 
Pp. 360. 

Eigenmann, Carl H. and Rosa 8. Catalogue of 
the Fresh-water Fishes of South America. Wash- 
ington : United States National Museum. Pp. 81. 

Food. Monthly. April, 1892. Vol. I, No. 1. 
New York : The Clover Publishing Co. Pp. 64. 
20 cents. 

Forbes, S. A., State Entomologist of Illinois. 
Report on Noxious and Beneficial Insects. Spring- 
field. Pp. 90, with Plates and a Supplement. 

Gage, S. H., Cornell University. Life-history 
of the Vermilion-spotted Newt. Pp. 25, with 
Plate. 



Gannett, Henry. The Mother Maps of the 
United States. Washington : American Geo- 
graphical Society. Pp. 16. 

Gatschet, A. S. The Klamath Indians of South- 
western Oregon. Washington : United States 
Geological Survey. Two volumes. Pp. 711 each. 

Gill, Theodore. The Genus Hiatule of La- 
cfipede, or Tautoga of Mitchill. Pp. 2. 

Good Roads. Monthly. Tsaac B. Potter, Ed- 
itor. New York : League Roads Improvement 
Bureau. Pp. 50. 20 cents, $2 a year. 

Goodfellow, John. Dietetic Value of Bread. 
New York : Macmillan & Co. Pp. 313. $1.50. 

Gouley, J. W. S. Diseases of the Urinary Ap- 
paratus. New York : D. Appleton & Co. Pp. 
342. 

Graves, John A. Substantialism. Washing- 
ton, D. C. : Terry Brothers. Pp. 75. 

Greeley, A. W. Geography ot the Air. Wash- 
ington : National Geographic Society. Pp.16. 

Hill, R. T., Austin, Texas. Notes on the 
Texas-New Mexican Region. Pp. 16. Topogra- 
phy and Geology of Northern Mexico and South- 
west Texas, 1 lid New Mexico. Pp. 8. Recon- 
naissance of the Ouachita Mountain System. Pp. 
14. 

Hubbard, G. G. The Evolution of Commerce. 
Washington, D. C: National Geographic Society. 
Pp. 18. 

Indiana Agricultural Experiment Station, La- 
fayette. Fourth Annual Report. Pp. 30. 

James, J. F. The Palaeontology of the Cin- 
cinnati Group. Pp. 16. 

Keen, W. W., M. D. Amputation at the Hip- 
joint by Wyeth's Method. Pp. 13. And D. D. 
Stewart. Nephrotomy for Calculous Pyelitis. Pp. 
10. 

Lacroix-Danliard. Le Poil des Animaux et les 
Fourrures. Paris : J. B. Bailliere & Son. Pp. 
419. 4 francs. 

MacDonald, Arthur. Views of Dr. A. Baer on 
Drunkenness. Pp. 8. 

Marsh, O. C. Recent Polydactyle Horses. Pp. 
16. 

Massachusetts Agricultural Experiment Sta- 
tion. Ninth Annual Report of the Board of Con- 
trol. Pp. 352. 

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston. 
Annual Catalogue, 1891-'92. Pp. 243. 

Michigan State Pharmaceutical Association. 
Proceedings of Ninth Annual Meeting. Pp. 1 )0. 

Milo, William. Notes on Beauty, Vigor, and 
Development. New York : Fowler & Wells Co. 
Pp. 21. 10 cents. 

Mooney, James. The Sacred Formulas of the 
Cherokees. Washington : United States Geologi- 
cal Survey. Pp. 100 ; and other ethnological 
papers. 

Nebraska. Fifth Annual Report of the Agri- 
cultural Experiment Station. Pp. :-i00. 

Newel], Jane H. Outlines of Lessons in Bota- 
ny. Boston : Ginn & Co. Pp. 393. 90 cents. 

The New World. Quarterly. Vol.1, No. 1- 
March, 1892. Boston : Houghton, Mifflin & Co- 
Pp. 200. 75 cents, $3 a year. 

Ohio State Academy of Science. Constitu- 
tion, etc., and Historical Sketch. Columbus. 
Pp. 12. 

Parsons, J. R., Jr. French Schools through 
American Spectacles. Syracuse, N. Y.: C. W. 
Bardeen. Pp. 136. $1. 

Ramsey, Samuel. The English Language and 
English Grammar. New York : G. P. Putnam's 
Sons. Pp. 571. $3. 

Randall, C. D. The Fourth International Pris- 
on Congress. Washington : Bureau of Education. 
Pp. 253. 

Smithsonian Institution. Annual Report of 
the Board of Regents to July, 1890. Pp. 808. 



POPULAR MISCELLANY. 



277 



Stephens, C. A. Pluri-cellular Man. Norway 
Lake, Maine : The Laboratory Co. Pp. 114. 

Stowell, T. B. The Lumbar, Sacral, and Coc- 
cygeal Nerves in the Domestic Cat. Pp. 28, with 
Plate. 

Strahan, 8. A. K. Marriage and Disease. New 
York : D. Appleton & Co. Pp. 326. 

Wadsworth, M. E. The South Trap Range of 
the Keweenawan Series. Pp. 3. Geology of the 
Marquette and Keweenawan Districts. Pp. 24. 
The Dofia Inez and the Llano del Inca Meteorites. 
Pp.6. 

Ward, Lester F. The Utilitarian Character of 
Dynamic Sociology. Pp. 7. 

Wistar, Tsaac J. Consumption, etc., of North 
American Coal. Pp. 16. 

Wrightmour, Rev. J. S., Xenia, Ohio. The 
Accuracy of the Bible in the Light of Scientific 
Knowledge. Pp. 20. 6 cents. 



POPULAR MISCELLANY. 

Possibilities of Wheat-raising. Within 
twenty years, according to a bulletin of the 
State Agricultural Experiment Station, the 
area annually sown to wheat in Ohio has in- 
creased from an average of 1,800,000 acres 
during the eighth to 2,500,000 acres during 
the ninth decade. This area represents 
twelve per cent of the area in farms with- 
in the State ; but several counties are sow- 
ing annually from eighteen to twenty and 
even twenty-five per cent of their farm-lands 
to wheat. A further increase in acreage 
is anticipated from the clearing away of 
more forest and the reclamation of waste 
lands by drainage, so that it will be possi- 
ble to devote 3,000,000 acres to wheat with- 
out interfering with any other agricultural 
interest. Such an increase, at the present 
rate of production, would represent an an- 
nual crop of 40,000,000 bushels. But it is not 
to be supposed that Ohio farmers will rest 
content with a yield of only thirteen bushels 
of wheat per acre. The northern third of 
the State has increased its average yield 
within forty years by nearly three bushels, 
and the middle third by from one to two 
bushels, and it is reasonable to expect a fur- 
ther increase within the next forty years. 
At the average already reached in Summit 
County, the whole State would produce about 
60,000,000 bushels, or bread for twelve million 
persons. What is true of Ohio is true, to a 
greater or less extent, of the entire winter- 
wheat belt of North America. The area 
now sown to wheat in this region may be ex- 
panded largely without infringing upon other 
productions, and the rate of yield may and 
will be very materially increased by better 



husbandry, including an intelligent use of 
manures and fertilizers, and more thorough 
drainage. The profitable culture of wheat 
on the steep hillsides of southern Ohio ap- 
pears to be hopeless. The great problem 
before the grower in the central belt of 
counties is winter-killing, but it may be 
partially solved by under-draining and the 
intelligent use of clover and manures. The 
influences are more generally favorable to 
wheat culture in the northern counties than 
elsewhere in the State. A general improve- 
ment in the methods of agriculture appears 
to have contributed more largely to the in- 
crease of the wheat crops than the use of 
commercial fertilizers. 

Distribution of Diphtheria. A paper by 
Dr. Samuel W. Abbott, Secretary of the State 
Board of Health, on the Distribution of Diph- 
theria in Massachusetts, brings out some cu- 
rious results from an examination of the con- 
ditions in the several parts of the State in 
which the disease has prevailed during the 
past eighteen years. The town which suf- 
fered relatively most of all was Florida, a 
hilly town of small population, situated over 
the Hoosac Tunnel. Next to it was Spencer, 
an interior town of Worcester County, having 
a comparatively dense population (7,466 in 
1880), mostly engaged in the shoe manufact- 
ure. The third town in the list was Free- 
town, with 1,329 inhabitants in 1880, adjoin- 
ing Fall River, and situated on low and sandy 
ground. Other towns that suffered greatly 
were Adams, Williamstown, and Hancock, on 
high land ; Webster, a manufacturing town 
on comparatively low land ; Ayer, and Nan- 
tucket. Four towns had no deaths from diph- 
theria during the period under consideration. 
They are all small towns, distant from rail- 
roads, and not visited by the general public. 
Dividing the towns and cities according to 
the density of their population, the author 
found that the average annual death-rate from 
diphtheria and croup in ninety-two densely 
settled towns and cities was ll - 39 per 10,000 
of the population, while that of two hundred 
and fifty-four rural or sparsely settled towns 
was 6"53 per 10,000 for the same period. Out 
of the twenty-eight cities, twenty, including 
all of the most populous, except Fall River, 
had a death-rate from diphtheria and croup 
higher than the average of the State. Divid- 



278 



THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 



ing the counties into three groups those in 
which there were, respectively, jfo of an acre, 
14 acres, and 4 - 8 acres to each person, the 
corresponding rates of mortality from diph- 
theria and croup were 12% 10"2, and 8 - 8 an- 
nually for every 10,000 persons. The rela- 
tion of certain railway lines to the diphtheria 
death-rate is worthy of note. It was com- 
paratively high in the greater number of 
cities and towns traversed by the Boston and 
Albany Railroad a leading road for traffic, 
carrying large numbers of passengers, and 
having many stations ; was less upon the line 
of the Fitchburg road, which is of about the 
same length but does less business ; and still 
less upon the line of the more recently built 
Massachusetts Central road. The term diph- 
theria first appeared in the registration re- 
ports of the State in 1858. The number of 
deaths assigned to it increased rapidly till 
1863, when 1,420 were registered. There 
was then a rapid decline to 251 in 1867, after 
which the annual number continued nearly 
uniform (about 275) for seven years, when it 
rose again to 2,610 in 1876 and 2,734 in 1877. 
The census of 1890 gave the number of deaths 
as 32,716. The diphtheria death-rate bore 
no relation to the general death-rate, except 
during the period from 1862 to 1867. In 
1872, when the general mortality-rate was at 
its highest point and infectious diseases were 
generally very prevalent, the diphtheria death- 
rate was far below the mean, and in 1876 and 
1877, when the general death-rate was near 
the mean, the diphtheria death-rate was at 
its highest point. The author concludes, 
further, that diphtheria is eminently conta- 
gious ; that it is infectious by direct expos- 
ure and through indirect media, but less so 
than some other diseases, such as small-pox 
and scarlet fever ; that overcrowding, faulty 
ventilation, and filthy conditions favor its 
spread ; that the direct influence of plumb- 
ing and transmission through public and pri- 
vate water-supplies is not proved ; that its 
propagation is favored by soil moisture, damp 
cellars, and general dampness of houses ; and 
that the poison may remain dormant in 
houses for a long period. 

Scientific Observation of Children. In 

a paper on this subject addressed primarily 
to mothers, Mrs. Helen Adler has laid out a 
plan of work of considerable scope, and 



calling for the exercise of careful judgment. 
Mothers, the author says, " must first of all 
learn to appreciate the value of true scientific 
observation, must train themselves to observe 
correctly, methodically. They must humbly 
learn that their own powers of appreciation 
are worthless without the strict selection of 
valuable facts, the subordination of what is 
interesting and delightful to them to the 
universally interesting and profitable. . . . 
Method, strict, logical method, is the first 
desideratum ; then vigilant observation, ve- 
racity, discrimination, and ingenuity in the 
study of the child. Baby ways are charm- 
ing and irresistible ; they will be no less so 
when an attempt is made to discover the 
order of progress that dwells in them." The 
development of language alone is mentioned 
as offering a fascinating field of observation ; 
the study of the baby will and its evolution 
another ; and the psychic life of the child 
will seem somewhat nearer to us, the growth 
of its faculties a little more clearly revealed, 
if we trace the record of their development 
day by day. Later in life comes the devel- 
opment of the character of the child as a 
social being. A practical direction is given 
to these observations by appending to them 
a classified schedule of the points to which 
attention may be directed. 

Olives and Olive Oil. The olive is culti- 
vated on about seventy thousand acres in the 
department of the Alps Maritimes, France, 
and yields a revenue of more than two mill- 
ion dollars a year. Two species of the tree 
are described by our consul at Nice as grow- 
ing in the south of France : the oleaster, or 
wild olive, which has a kind of thorn and 
very short leaves, and produces only a few 
small berries, which appear to be proof 
against insect enemies ; and the sativa, or cul- 
tivated olive, which produces a large fruit, and 
is known in several varieties. The olive tree 
flowers every year ; but, while some growers 
advocate an attempt to gain a yearly crop, 
the majority are content to try to get a good 
crop every two years. Olives to be preserved 
green are plucked in September ; those des- 
tined for oil, from November till the follow- 
ing May ; but the best results to crop and 
tree seem to follow harvesting near mid-win- 
ter when the olive is black ; while oil made 
from olives gathered as late as February and 



POPULAR MISCELLANY. 



March is preferred for its keeping properties. 
The mill in use at the present day to crush 
the olives differs but little from those which 
have been used for centuries. A mill has 
lately been invented which, as it crushes the 
pulp, extracts the stone and throws it out, 
thus allowing the pulp, the true virgin oil, to 
be obtained from the press without any ad- 
mixture of that obtained from the stone or 
kernel. To prepare virgin oil, olives are 
taken, free from blemish, when only three 
quarters ripe, slightly crushed, with care that 
the seed be not touched by the millstone, 
then placed in a heap so arranged that the 
oil shall run out of itself and be collected. 
Oil thus prepared is greenish, has an exqui- 
site perfume, and can be kept for many years. 
A second quality of oil is extracted by the aid 
of water ; and after all the usual means of 
extracting the oil from the pulp have been 
employed, ten per cent of oil can still be ob- 
tained by using bisulphide of carbon. After 
the oil is extracted, the skins and refuse are 
employed in heating boilers ; the muddy sub- 
stance found at the bottom of the most infe- 
rior quality of oil is used as manure ; and the 
broken stones, or grignons, make an excel- 
lent fuel. 

The Pace of Mind. The appearance of 
a new quickly calculating man, Jacques Inau- 
di, a Piedmontese, in Paris, has suggested 
the inquiry, What is the nature of the power 
that gives men of this kind their remarkable 
faculty ? The Spectator suggests that such 
cases are abnormal instances of the differ- 
ence in pace which we all know exists be- 
tween the working of different and even of 
equal minds. " Everybody who has studied 
his acquaintance at all," it says, " knows 
that this difference is very great ; that one 
man can comprehend an interrogation in half 
the time taken by another ; that no two chil- 
dren are alike in quickness of thought, as 
distinguished from accuracy or depth of 
thought ; and that clever women constantly 
reach results, which can only be reached by 
their thinking more rapidly than men." The 
difference is especially marked in mental 
arithmetic; and the difference, though it 
can be affected by practice or neglect, is ul- 
timately independent of both. Inaudi was 
asked to mention the day of the week on 
which a given date would fall some years 



hence, and answered accurately, Monday. It 
is not to be supposed that he guessed, for he 
had done the like before, and there was no 
ground for assuming collusion ; then " his 
mind must, say, in three seconds, have trav- 
ersed a calculation which it would take the 
few men who could do it in their minds at 
all, many minutes. Such pace is almost un- 
thinkable, even if we remember that, the date 
on which this day falls in this year being once 
ascertained, the rest of the problem is only a 
swift effort of memory, the days advancing 
in a regular sequence, accelerated by leap- 
years ; but still, superior pace is a theory 
which does meet all the conditions." The 
existence of differences in the pace of mind 
being conceded, the question next arises 
whether speed can be cultivated. If it can, 
we have a way pointed out by which intelli- 
gent life may be rendered longer and fuller. 
Dr. Martineau is said to believe, what many 
other persons fancy, that the English middle 
class has in the last two generations gained 
so greatly that the gain is perceptible in 
mental quickness. The Brahmans of India 
are celebrated for their superiority in this 
faculty. Teachers admit that the children 
of the educated poor are easier to teach than 
children of the uneducated poor ; that " they 
have not only more ' receptive minds,' which 
may mean only better memories, but that 
their minds move positively quicker." On 
the other hand, the English educated never 
seem as quick as the Irish uneducated. 

The Destiny of Sea-coast Land. Among 
the results of his examination of the provis- 
ions of the shore towns of Massachusetts for 
public places of resort, and the industries and 
resources of the people, Mr. J. B. Harrison 
says, in Garden and Forest, that he found 
"everywhere recent changes in the owner- 
ship of land and a movement of people of 
means from the cities and the interior of the 
country to the shore regions of the State. I 
found leagues and leagues together of the 
shore line all private holdings, without a 
rood of space in these long reaches to which 
the public has a right to go. ... I found a 
great population inland hedged away from 
the beach, and all the conditions pointing to 
a time, not remote, when no man can walk 
by the ocean in Massachusetts without pay- 
ment of a fee, as we formerly had to pay 



280 



THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 



for glimpses of Niagara. I could see that 
the movement for open spaces for public re- 
sort has vital relations to civilization, and 
has been instituted in response to a pressing 
need." In view of the changes in industrial 
conditions that are likely to take place under 
these circumstances, Mr. Harrison finds one 
resource which has received comparatively 
little attention of late the soil, which in 
most of the shore towns appears to be much 
better than the popular estimate of it. " It 
has greater capabilities than are yet recog- 
nized. This is especially true of the Cape 
Cod country. The soil there is better than 
that of southern New Jersey ; and I have 
seen many Massachusetts men in Dakota, 
Montana, and Idaho, trying, in great priva- 
tion, to make a living in regions more forlorn 
and hopeless than any part of the shore 
country of the Old Bay State. ... I think 
these towns might yet support a great popu- 
lation by a highly developed agriculture and 
horticulture, and that owners of the land 
might wisely keep it and cultivate it." 

Snow Effects in the Pamirs. The region 
of the Pamirs, or the roof of the world, in 
central Asia, where the empires of Russia, 
India, and China corner upon one another, 
consists of a succession of long, broad, open 
valleys, running approximately parallel to 
each other in a general direction from north- 
east to southwest, and separated by low (for 
that region) ranges of mountains. The cli- 
mate is very severe. The lowest point of the 
Pamirs is 10,300 feet above sea-level, and 
their usual average is from 13,000 to 14,000 
feet. Hence the cold must be very intense. 
Captain Younghusband, while he had no ex- 
perience of the winter weather, found tem- 
peratures at the end of October and begin- 
ning of November of 18 Fahr. below zero. 
Some interesting snow phenomena were wit- 
nessed by this explorer. He has looked at a 
mountain-peak, and then, a few moments 
later, seen it gradually disappear ; and only 
by closer observation could he make out that 
it had been overshadowed by an impercepti- 
ble snow-storm. " The snow, indeed, in these 
mountains was often very fine, and almost 
like dust ; and a very beautiful effect is, that 
it nearly always falls in perfect little hex- 
agonal flakes, like little stars of lacework, 
each one quite distinct, and remaining intact 



until it reaches the ground ; then, as it has 
fallen, the snow of course remains white on 
the surface, but, digging into it, appears of 
a beautiful delicate pale-blue color. Anoth- 
er effect of the snow is seen at the mount- 
ain-tops, when the peaks seem to be fading 
away, and vanishing off like clouds of whit- 
ened smoke. It is produced by the high 
wind blowing away the fine dust-like snow at 
the summits. Again, another almost similar 
phenomenon on the mountain-tops is that of 
long, level clouds, like streamers, flowing 
away from the peaks. The moisture-laden 
air from the plains of India has been con- 
densed on the icy mountain summits, and 
the wind has blown the mist away in a long, 
thin streamer." Another effect of snow-parti- 
cles glittering in the air in clear sunlight is 
also common among us on very cold winter 
days. 

The " Down-below People." The Have- 
su-Pai, otherwise known as the Koxoninos, 
or Cochnichnos, are a dying race of Indians, 
their numbers being estimated at less than 
two hundred souls, who were visited a few 
years ago by Mr. Benjamin Wittick. Dr. R. 
W. Shufeldt, seeking for information about 
them, has found that very little is known 
concerning them, but was able to obtain 
two photographs taken by Mr. Wittick, il- 
lustrating their general appearance and the 
style of their huts. They exist in one of the 
grandest canons in Arizona, living along the 
banks of the stream that passes through it. 
Their name, which is given them by the 
Yumas, means the " down-below people," or 
a tribe or race that live down in the canon. 
They call themselves the " Ah-Supai." The 
canon in which they dwell is that of Cata- 
ract Creek, is forty-five hundred feet deep, 
and the stream tumbles by a series of cas- 
cades into the Grand Canon of the Colorado, 
fifteen hundred feet deeper. The Indians 
raise, according to Captain John G. Bourke, 
fine peaches and good corn and melons, and 
weave fine and beautiful baskets. They are 
great hunters, and live by trading off buck- 
skins and sometimes mountain-lion pelts to 
the Moquis, Navajos, and Apaches. Mr. 
Frank H. Cushing describes their home as 
in a green, moist plain of sandy soil, nearly 
two miles long by half a mile at its greatest 
width, of which he could catch only occa- 



P OP ULAR MIS CELL ANY. 



281 



sional glimpses through the rank growth of 
willows with which the trail was lined. 
" These glimpses, however, revealed numer- 
ous cultivated fields of corn, beans, sunflow- 
ers, melons, peaches, apricots, and certain 
plants used in dyeing and basket-making, 
and usually carefully protected by hedges of 
wattled willows or fences of Cottonwood 
poles. Everywhere these fields were crossed 
and recrossed by a network of irrigating 
canals and trails. Here and there were little 
cabins, or shelters, flat-roofed, dirt-covered, 
and closed in on three sides by wattled flags, 
canes, and slender branches, while the front 
was protected by a hedge like those of the 
fields, only taller, placed a few feet before 
the house, and between which and the house 
burned smoky fires. The houses were always 
nestled down among the thick willows bor- 
dering the river, or perched on some con- 
venient shelf, under the shadows of the 
western precipices." Little buildings of 
stone laid in mud plaster, somewhat like the 
cliff dwellings, were also seen in the hori- 
zontal cracks of the western cliffs, often 
high up. These Indians have medicine-men, 
use the sweat-house, possess many dogs, have 
considerable families, and are on good terms 
with the whites. 

The Purposes and Arrangement of Mu- 
seums. The museums of the future in this 
country, says G. Brown Goode, " should be 
adapted to the needs of the mechanic, the 
factory operator, the day laborer, the sales- 
man, and the clerk, as much as to those of 
the professional man and the man of leisure. 
It is proper that the laboratories be utilized 
to the fullest extent for the credit of the 
institution to which they belong. No mu- 
seum can grow and be respected which does 
not each year give additional proofs of its 
claims to be considered a center of learning. 
On the other hand, the public have a right 
to ask that much shall be done directly in 
their interest. They will gladly allow the 
museum officer to use part of his time in 
study and experiment. They will take pride 
in the possession by the museum of tens of 
thousands of specimens, interesting only to 
the specialist, hidden away perpetually from 
public view, but necessary for purposes of 
scientific research. These are foundations of 
the intellectual superstructure which gives 



the institution its standing. Still, no pains 
must be spared in the presentation of the 
material in the exhibition halls. The speci- 
mens must be prepared in the most careful 
and artistic manner, and arranged attract- 
ively in well-designed cases and behind the 
clearest of glass. Each object must bear a 
label, giving its name and history so fully 
that all the probable questions of the visitor 
are answered in advance. Books of refer- 
ence must be kept in convenient places. 
Colors of walls, cases, and labels must be 
restful and quiet, and comfortable seats 
should be everywhere accessible, for the task 
of the museum visitor is a weary one at 
best. In short, the public museum is, first 
of all, for the benefit of the public. When 
the officers are few in number, each one 
must of necessity devote a considerable por- 
tion of his time to the public halls. When 
the staff becomes larger, it is possible by 
specialization of work to arrange that cer- 
tain men may devote their time uninterrupt- 
edly to laboratory work, while others are 
engaged in the increase of the collections 
and their installation." 

The Technical School at St. Etienn?, 
France, At the technical school in St. Eti- 
emie, France, according to the United States 
consul in that city, three hundred students 
are taught weaving, dyeing, sculpture, iron- 
founding, cabinet-making, and other arts, free 
of charge. The apprenticeship course lasts 
four years, and after completing it a certifi- 
cate of aptitude is given, under which the 
pupil may obtain a situation in the line of 
industrial labor he has chosen. In the first 
year the students pass through all the work- 
shops, to be initiated into the proper handling 
of the different tools. After that, the boys 
are classed according to their tastes, desires, 
and aptitudes. They work at manual labor 
three hours daily during thesecond year, four 
hours in the third, and five hours in the first 
and seven in the last six months of the fourth 
and last year. Great attention is paid to the 
teaching of the theory of the different trades, 
the fitters being taught to trace and cut out 
cog-wheels, and the carpenters to design and 
execute a certain number of works, such as 
stairs of different kinds, shutters, balconies, 
etc., on a reduced scale. The weavers are 
also given special lessons in book-keeping, 



282 



THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY 



legislation, commercial geography, and one 
of the modern languages. Careful attention 
is paid to design. 

Embroidering by Machinery. The re- 
cent invention, at Arbon, of a new steam 
machine for making embroideries threatens, 
says Consul Byers, of St. Gall, to revolutionize 
some of the most important manufacturing 
interests of the Swiss Republic. Eastern 
Switzerland, with St. Gall as a center, has 
been for a hundred years the headquarters 
of the embroidery industry of the world. 
Embroidery by hand alone had been prac- 
ticed when the present hand-machine was 
brought into use in 1827. Under the former 
system the technical skill and readiness of 
hand of the Appenzell women were marvel- 
ous, and the embroidery made by them be- 
came famous all over the world. At the 
present day possibly not five per cent of the 
embroideries are made exclusively by hand. 
The Schiffli steam machine, invented about 
fifteen years ago, produces a low class of 
goods of inferior quality. For the more re- 
cently invented Arbon machine its owners 
claim that it will at least triple the product 
of the hand-machine, that it can produce 
goods cheaper, and can turn them out of bet- 
ter quality than the old method, and do it 
without so much wear and tear to the mus- 
cles of men and women. 

The Pnnir. The puma (Fells concohr of 
Linnaeus), known also as the panther, painter, 
cougar, American lion, and by several other 
names, is, according to Mrs. Frederick W. 
True, the only large, unspotted native Amer- 
ican cat. It varies much in color, and is 
from five to seven feet long. The area over 
which it ranges extends from New Eng- 
land and British Columbia to the straits of 
Magellan. On the Atlantic coast the species 
has apparently not been found in New Hamp- 
shire, Rhode Island, New Jersey, or Dela- 
ware. No mention appears of its having 
been found in Michigan or Indiana. It was 
extirpated in Ohio before 1838, and probably 
more recently in Indiana and Illinois. With 
these exceptions, and Nevada, there are re- 
corded instances, more or less numerous, of 
the occurrence of the puma, since the begin- 
ning of the century, in every State and Terri- 
tory of the Union. Regarded as a species, 



the puma possesses in a remarkable degree 
the power of adapting itself to varied sur- 
roundings. It endures severe cold during 
the winter in the Adirondack Mountains and 
other parts of our northern frontier, and 
hunts its prey in the snow. It is equally at 
home in the hot swamps and canebrakes and 
along the river-courses in our Southern States. 
In South America it inhabits the treeless, 
grass-covered pampas, as well as the forests. 
In the Rocky Mountains it ascends to the 
great altitudes at which the mountain sheep 
are found ; and it is also met with high up 
on other ranges. It selects for its abode 
such spots as afford some shelter, but is 
found in the thickets and copses rather than 
in the great forests. It seeks its prey chiefly 
at dawn and twilight and under cover of 
night, but sometimes also hunts by day. Deer 
are its principal quarry, but it also preys upon 
the smaller mammals and on wild turkeys. 
Of the larger domestic animals, such as the 
horse and cow, it attacks only the young, but 
it will carry away a full-grown sheep from 
the fold, and in South America often preys 
upon the llama. It does not ordinarily at- 
tack men, but is disposed to flee from them 
when surprised ; but such attacks have been 
known. Like the cat, it scratches the bark 
of trees, purrs when satisfied, and has been 
heard to mew. 

Influence of the Indian Trade. As to the 

effect of the Indian trading post, Mr. Fred- 
erick J. Turner says, in a paper on The Char- 
acter and Influence of the Indian Trade in 
Wisconsin, of the Johns Hopkins Historical 
and Political Science Series, that, giving him 
iron and guns and a market for furs, it tend- 
ed to prolong the hunter stage ; leaving the 
unarmed Indian at the mercy of those who 
had bought firearms, it caused a relocation 
of tribes and a demand for the trader by 
remote and unvisited Indians, made the sav- 
age dependent on the white man's supplies, 
and gave the Indians means of resistance to 
agricultural settlement. On the side of the 
white man, the Indian trade gave both French 
and English a footing in America, invited 
exploration, and fostered the advancement 
of settlements as long as they were in exten- 
sion of trade. In Wisconsin the sites of the 
principal cities are the sites of the old trad- 
ing posts, and those earliest fur-trading set- 



POPULAR MISCELLANY. 



283 



tlements furnished supplies to the farming, 
mining, and lumbering pioneers. Reports 
brought back by the individual trader guided 
the steps of the agricultural pioneer. The 
trader was the farmer's path-finder into some 
of the richest regions of the continent. In 
Wisconsin, at least, the traders' posts, located 
at the carrying-places around falls and rapids, 
pointed out the water-powers of the State. 
The trails became the early roads. " An old 
Indian trader relates that the path between 
Green Bay and Milwaukee was originally an 
Indian trail and very crooked, but the whites 
would straighten it by cutting across lots 
each winter with their jumpers, wearing bare 
streaks through the thin covering, to be fol- 
lowed in the summer by foot and horseback 
travel along the shortened path. The pro- 
cess was typical of a greater one. Along the 
lines that Nature had drawn, the Indians 
traded and warred ; along their trails and in 
their birch canoes the trader passed, bringing 
a new and transforming life. These slender 
lines of Eastern influence stretched through- 
out all our vast and intricate water-system, 
even to the Gulf of Mexico, the Pacific, and 
the Arctic Seas, and these lines were in turn 
followed by agricultural and by manufactur- 
ing civilization." 

French Silk-weaving Center?. Accord- 
ing to the United States consular clerk at 
Lyons, the geographical position of silk- 
weaving in France has undergone consider- 
able changes since the introduction of the 
industry. Cities in which silk-weaving was 
formerly of great importance, have turned 
their attention toward other industries, while 
new centers have sprung up and attained 
more or less prosperity. Tours was the first 
great silk-weaving center of France, but its 
industry in this line has been declining for 
the last sixty years. Nimes was likewise one 
of the early centers, and reached great pros- 
perity in the eighteenth century ; but it has 
now less than one sixth as many looms as it 
had then. About twenty-five thousand looms 
are employed in Paris and the adjoining dis- 
tricts in weaving silk and silk-mixed goods, 
galloons, fringes, cords, and other varieties 
of passementerie and trimmings. Nets, tulles, 
and laces constitute the specialties of Ca- 
lais. Whenever the demand for silk nets 
is low, the manufacturers substitute cotton or 



wool on their looms. During the latter half 
of the present century Roubaix has become 
the center of an extensive industry, manu- 
facturing silk and wool and silk and cotton- 
mixed goods. These articles, though often 
wanting in originality, find ready sale on ac- 
count of their low price. At Saint-Chamond, 
silk-weaving has been established in a mod- 
est way ever since the thirteenth century ; and 
by confining their attention to braids and 
similar articles, the manufacturers have ad- 
vanced their specialties to a degree of ex- 
cellence that has established for them a 
world-wide reputation. At Saint-Etienne the 
weaving of ribbons is carried on, with great 
variations in the value of the yearly manu- 
facture. Lyons is considered the most im- 
portant silk center of France, and of Eu- 
rope as well. Its total production averages 
about $80,000,000 a year. The quantity of 
goods produced is now greater than ever be- 
fore, and constitutes two thirds of the pro- 
duction of France, and one quarter of the 
total production of the world. 

Swiss Watch-making. The Swiss watch 
industry is chiefly situated in the west of 
Switzerland, where the French language is 
spoken, and particularly in Geneva, Vaud, the 
canton of Neutchatel, and the Bernese Jura. 
An ingenious labor organization has sprung 
up there, which combines at once the advan- 
tages of principal and minor industry. Com- 
posed of small workshops, grouped in a given 
region, it is under the control of a manufact- 
urer who gives orders to the workman, and 
supplies him with the necessary materials, 
and, when the watch is finished, effects a sale. 
Under this system the master has not the gen- 
eral expenses of a factory, and the diminu- 
tion in production and holidays affect him 
but little. In his turn, the operative working 
at home has a particular part of the watch to 
construct. He is both journeyman and fore- 
man, who combines his dwelling with his 
shop. Paid by the piece, he works at his 
leisure from early in the morning till late at 
night. Such a system, which allows the wife 
to assist in the labors of the husband, and 
the children to be initiated by an easy ap- 
prenticeship into the manufacture of a spe- 
cial part of the watch, must suit the mount- 
aineers. They preserve their intelligence, 
realize often large profits, and by the intel- 



284 



THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY 



ligent practice of industrial art improve 
their social status. Little by little the heads 
of business houses have drawn into their 
locality a large number of families from the 
rural districts, and in the mountains, at one 
thousand metres altitude, and on the plains 
where only the abundant pasturage affords a 
means of livelihood for the native, towns 
have risen rapidly for instance, Chaux de 
Fonds, Locle, and Saint-Imier. Thus, the sys- 
tem of collective industry, with work at the 
domestic hearth, has formed several genera- 
tions of watch-makers. But, for thirty years, 
competition, and particularly American com- 
petition, has necessitated the erection of 
works with mechanical appliances. 

The Sources of Gntta Percha. Of the 

various kinds of gutta-percha, only those pro- 
duced by trees of the old genus Iso?iandra, 
now sunk in Dichopsis, are available for use 
as insulators of cables. Their natural habi- 
tat is exclusively in the Malayan region. The 
destruction of this zone of forests proceeds 
rapidly. The natives cut every available tree, 
and repeat the process as fast as the plants 
spring up again. The scanty plantations 
started in the East Indies are, moreover, not 
formed of the best species, but of those 
which yield an inferior product. The best 
species has, in fact, become excessively rare, 
but is still in existence. Its adult represent- 
atives were yet propagating themselves in 
1887 at the Chasserian estate in the ravines 
of the ancient forest of Boukett Tinah, in the 
center of Singapore. When M. Serullas, of 
Paris, found the spot in 1887, gutta-collect- 
ing had ceased for thirty years. 

The Kanjntis. The Kanjutis, of Hunza, 
the robber tribe of the Pamir table-land, in- 
habit the deeply cut valley which runs from 
the apex of central Asia, where the Hindu- 
Kush and Himalaya systems meet, and the 
water-shed between eastern and western Asia 
joins that between northern and southern 
Asia. Captain Tounghusband found them 
to be small, well-built, hardy, determined, 
though not fierce-looking men, wearing long 
black curls, which gave them a very wild 
appearance. Perhaps the most remarkable 
feature about them is their capacity for en- 
durance. " They issue from their strong- 
holds on their raiding expeditions, and cover 



often two hundred miles of mountainous and 
uninhabited country, entirely on foot, and 
carry their own supplies for the whole dis- 
tance on their backs ; and I have known 
cases of men carrying news of my move- 
ments to their chief in an incredibly short 
time. Dressed in long cloaks of thick, home- 
made woolen material, they sleep out in the 
open in the most intense cold, and yet live 
upon almost nothing. They are also very 
avaricious, although they know and care little 
for money ; but they covet goods greedily." 

A Stronghold of Birds. The Bird Rocks, 
or Three Islands of Birds, near Newfound- 
land, were so resorted to by gannets in Au- 
dubon's time that their tops seemed covered 
with snow. The birds were then much used 
for bait, and Audubon's captain told him 
that his boat's crew had once killed six hun- 
dred and forty of them in an hour, with no 
better weapons than sticks. Up to 1860 
they covered the tops of the rocks and many 
of the ledges on the sides. The erection of 
a lighthouse on the Great Rock, in 1870, was 
followed by a rapid decrease in numbers. 
In 1881 Mr. Brewster found the birds on 
the Great Rock confined to the ledges along 
the sides, while the Little Rock was still 
densely populated. In 1887 not a gannet 
was raised on the Little Rock, although a 
few were breeding on the pillar of rock 
adjacent to it. The murres, razor-bills, and 
puffins, Mr. Frederick A. Lucas believes, have 
probably suffered somewhat less than their 
more conspicuous comrades, although even 
among them the decrease must have been 
very great. Still, their smaller size, and con- 
sequent ability to breed in crevices of the 
rocks and on ledges too narrow to accommo- 
date a bulky gannet, has been of great serv- 
ice to them ; while the razor-bill also seems 
to be learning by experience the desirability 
of putting an egg out of sight whenever 
practicable. The puffins find safety in their 
burrowing habits, and breed extensively in 
the decomposed sandstone at the northeast- 
ern portion of the Great Rock, as well as un- 
der the overhanging inaccessible ledges of the 
northern side of the Little Rock. The little 
rocky pillar already mentioned is well occu- 
pied by birds of various species, and, owing 
to the difficulty of scaling the rock, the little 
colony is fairly secure. But, from its size, 



POPULAR MISCELLANY. 



285 



the precipitous nature of the sides, and the 
fact that only one landing lies contiguous to 
the breeding birds, the Great Bird Rock must 
ever remain the stronghold of this interesting 
colony of sea-fowl. There is no regular di- 
vision of the birds into large colonies accord- 
ing to species, but the separation is rather by 
size, gannets occupying the highest and broad- 
est ledges, and murres and razor-bills taking 
what is left. 

A Buddha, and its Moaning. A bronze 
Buddha in the United States National Mu- 
seum, as described by Charles De Kay, is 
thirty-eight inches and three quarters, or in- 
cluding the halo, seventy inches high, has a 
bronze halo, and differs from the famous 
seated Buddha at Kamakusa in size and in 
the position of the forefingers. These do 
not touch each other along the two upper 
joints, but lie one within the other. A slight 
trait of this kind is of the greatest impor- 
tance to a Buddhist. It marks the difference 
between figures of the greatest of all Bud- 
dhas at the moments of his ecstasy or absorp- 
tion into the Nirvana, or it distinguishes the 
Buddha from foreign or local saints who 
have presumably reached Buddhahood by 
meritorious pondering. The figure has the fa- 
mous knob on the forehead, about which 
many legends revolve ; also the short round 
curls over the head, supposed to be the snails 
which guarded Buddha from sunstroke, and 
it carries the mark on the top of the head. 
It has the large ears, with their lobes pierced 
and distended, but no ear-rings. The figure 
represents Buddha, after having taught his 
doctrine, merging himself into Nirvana. To 
an adept, the position of the thumbs and fore- 
fingers expresses a world of hidden mean- 
ings. The figure is luckily provided with 
a copious inscription which is couched in 
phrases anything but easy of translation. Its 
name is " the Buddha of the Five Wisdoms," 
and its motto, " All the world can share the 
blessings of Buddhism." 

Biological Physiology. The Director of 
the Marine Biological Laboratory (Wood's 
Holl, Mass.) for 1891 calls attention to the 
needs of physiology as one of the most im- 
portant branches of biological science which, 
for want of room, has thus far been neg- 
lected. It is not animal or human physiol- 



ogy, as commonly understood, that the di- 
rector has more especially in mind, but what 
he calls biological physiology, or the prov- 
ince of the biological economy of organisms. 
" It is in this almost new province that we 
meet the great problems of geographical and 
geological distribution, and those of the in- 
terrelations of species in both the animal 
and vegetable kingdoms. It is here that we 
study life-histories, habits, food ; the influ- 
ences of the physical environment, and the 
reciprocal relations, which are ever varying 
according to the issues of the universal strug- 
gle for existence. It is in this direction that 
experimental physiology finds one of the 
most inviting fields in the whole range of 
biology." As instances of what varied and 
interesting problems here await the experi- 
menter, are mentioned the experiments of 
Pfliiger and others to determine the influence 
of gravitation on the development of the 
egg; Boveri's experiments to determine 
where the formative power resides, and 
whether it is shared equally by both sexes ; 
Fol's studies on fertilization ; Auerbach's 
determination of the sexual distinction be- 
tween the paternal and the maternal ele- 
ments of the nucleus ; Weismann's studies 
on the laws and causes of variation; the 
effects of chemical agencies on germ-cells 
as tested by Oscar and Richard Hertwig; 
the experiments of Beudant, Plateau, and 
Schmankewitsch in transferring animals from 
fresh to salt water, and vice versa ; Semper's 
observations on the effect of the volume of 
water on the size of the creatures living in 
it; and others. 

A Meteorological Poet. A curious paper 
has been published by Naval Surgeon Gre- 
maud, of Brest, France, on the tempest de- 
scribed in the first book of Virgil's iEneid. 
He answers some of the criticisms that have 
been made of it, and shows that the critics 
were not meteorologists. Having carefully 
compared the latest accounts of cyclones 
with Virgil's description, he has found the 
descriptions of the dangerous semicircle, the 
tractable semicircle, the plunging winds, and 
the columns of water rising like a wall and 
falling upon the ships to demolish them, cor- 
rect ; and establishes a complete analogy be- 
tween them and the determinations of sci- 
ence. Hence, Virgil was not only a poet, 



2 86 



THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY 



but a good meteorologist as well one of the 
scientific men of his time. M. Vice-Admiral 
Vignes, President of the Geographical So- 
ciety of Paris, on reading the paper, re- 
marked that he was surprised to find in Vir- 
eil the exact laws of cyclones, which sailors 
did not learn till a comparatively modern time. 

British Fisheries. The North Sea fish- 
eries of Great Britain were reported at the 
meeting of the British Association to be de- 
clining. It was proposed to draw up a his- 
tory of the North Sea trawling grounds, com- 
paring their present condition with their 
condition some twenty or thirty years ago, 
when comparatively few boats were at work ; 
to continue, verify, and extend observations 
as to the average size at which prime fish 
became sexually mature ; and to collect sta- 
tistics as to the size of all fish captured in 
the vicinity of the Dogger Bank and to the 
eastward, so that the number of immature 
fish annually captured may be estimated ; 
also, to make experiments with beam trawl 
nets of various meshes with a view to deter- 
mine the relation, if any, between the size 
of mesh and the size of fish taken. 

The Kingfisher. The habits of the king- 
fisher (Halcyon vagans) are the subject of a 
paper by Mr. J. W. Hall, of the Auckland 
(N. Z.) Institute. His observations, while not 
decisive, favor the opinion that kingfishers 
capture live birds. They are also sometimes 
captured by hawks ; but the hawk does not 
always come off best. One day the author 
saw a hawk sailing round the bend of a hill 
followed by a kingfisher. Then at once 
arose a great outcry, and the hawk came 
again in sight, bearing the kingfisher in its 
talons. But, nothing daunted, the kingfisher 
with its pickaxe of a bill pegged away at 
the breast and abdomen of its captor to 
such good effect that the hawk was glad to 
liberate its prey, whereupon the kingfisher 
flew away, apparently but little the worse for 
the encounter, and carrying with it the full 
sympathy of the onlookers. 



NOTES. 

The Japanese observe very exact propor- 
tions between leaves and flowers in the ar- 
rangement of irises. With three leaves they 
use one flower, with seven leaves two flowers, 



with eleven leaves five flowers, with thirteen 
leaves only three flowers, and with fifteen 
leaves only two flowers again. When we 
examine pictures that show the results of 
the application of these rides, says Garden 
and Forest, we are convinced that they have 
been dictated by a very true feeling for ar- 
tistic effects of the most delicate sort. 

According to the analyses of Dr. C. F. 
Millspaugh, of the West Virginia Experi- 
ment Station, weeds vary largely in the per- 
centages of nitrogen, phosphoric acid, and 
potash which they contain. One of the 
evening primroses has only one per cent of 
nitrogen, while the poke-weed has three per 
cent of that substance, and a dry ton of the 
weed will contain twenty-two dollars' worth 
of it. By composting weeds with plaster, a 
valuable manure may be obtained. 

According to the story of George Hunt, 
keeper of the lighthouse at Tillamook Rock, 
on the Pacific coast, in the storm of Decem- 
ber 7, 1891, the waves swept clear over the 
house, washing away the boats, and tearing 
loose and carrying off the landing platform 
and tramway which were bolted to the rock. 
On the 29th the waves were still higher, and 
streams of water poured into the lantern 
through the ventilators in the balloon top of 
the dome, one hundred and fifty-seven feet 
above the sea-level. 

Dr. Alanus, a tianslation of whose letter 
relating his experiences is published in the 
Medical and Surgical Reporter, says that 
after having lived for a long time as a vege- 
tarian without feeling any better or worse than 
he had felt w ith a mixed diet, he discovered 
one day that his arteries were showing signs 
of atheromatous degeneration. Consulting a 
work by Dr. E. Morin, of Paris, he found 
that affection pointed out as one of the re- 
sults of living on an exclusively vegetable 
diet. He now no longer considers puieiy 
vegetable food as the normal diet of man, 
but only as a curative method of great serv- 
ice in various morbid states. 

According to an article in the Overland 
Monthly, many women in California gain a 
livelihood by raising flower bulbs and seeds 
for market, and many others send to San 
Francisco every day hampers of wild flowers 
and ferns which have been picked from the 
neighboring canons. Mrs. Theodosia Shep- 
herd, of Ventura, stands foremost among 
these successful floriculturists, although only 
eight years have passed since, without means 
and broken down in health, she grew her 
first seeds for market in the old mission town 
of San Buena Ventura. She now fills orders 
from prominent Eastern florists, with occa- 
sional calls from Europe, Australia, and the 
Sandwich Islands. 

An attempt has been made by Herr 
Pf eiffer to prove and measure, by the change 
in electric conductivity, the solvent action cf 



NOTES. 



287 



water on glass. He found that a cubic centi- 
metre of water dissolved at 20 C. in one 
hour from one to two millionths of a milli- 
gramme from a square centimetre surface of 
glass ; that with temperature rising arith- 
metically, the growth of solubility is consid- 
erably more rapid than that of a geometrical 
series ; that the increase of conductivity of 
the water for a given kind of glass under 
like conditions is a characteristic constant; 
and that later, when a certain quantity of 
alkali is dissolved, further action involves a 
dissolving also of silicic acid, and the salts 
then formed may cause a decrease of con- 
ducting power. 

A vein of asbestos has been found near 
Broken Hill, New South Wales, in which 
there are fibers thirteen inches long, of silky 
and flexible texture, but less tough than Ital- 
ian asbestos. It is reddish in color. 

The sixth annual meeting of the Iowa 
Academy of Sciences was held at Des Moines, 
December 29th and 80th. The programme 
of discussions was full, and besides technical 
subjects of biology, zoology, petrology, etc., 
included several topics of domestic and other 
economical importance, such as the determi- 
nation of the active principles of bread- 
making, the bacteria of milk, the effect of 
feeding on the composition of milk, sugar 
beets, the coal-bearing strata, brick and other 
clays, and aluminum in Iowa ; the artesian 
well question, and the report of the commit- 
tee on State fauna. The President of the 
Academy, Prof. C. C. Nutting, made an ad- 
dress on Systematic Zoology in Colleges, 
and Mr. J. E. Todd gave some Further 
Notes on the Great Central Plain of the Mis- 
sissippi. 

The statement that the adoption of elec- 
tric lighting in the English Savings-Bank De- 
partment has been followed by a considera- 
ble reduction in the amount of sick-leave 
points to what will probably be one of the 
chief advantages of this mode of lighting 
rooms. An electric lamp does not draw on 
the oxygen of the room, and does not give 
off irrespirable gases as do gas and oil lights. 

According to the Minneapolis Tribune, 
as cited in Garden and Forest, the leading 
opponents of the proposed forest reservation 
in northern Minnesota have become support- 
ers of the measure. The Duluth Chamber of 
Commerce sent its secretary, Mr. Thompson, 
to the meeting of the State Forestry Associ- 
ation, to protest against the movement, but 
when he learned that instead of withholding 
the timber from use it was proposed to se- 
cure a constant lumber-supply, and that the 
forests when protected from fire and larceny 
would be more productive than they are 
under the present lack of supervision, Mr. 
Thompson himself joined the Association and 
was made a member of the Executive Com- 
mittee, which is laboring to induce the Presi- 



dent to make the proclamation withdrawing 
the forest lands from sale and entry. 

A collection of letters and unedited 
memoirs by the Swedish chemist, Scheele, is 
in course of publication, under the direction 
of Baron Noidenskiold. The question of 
preparing an English-American edition of 
the work is under consideration. 

In the Cambridge Antiquarian Society, 
November 11, 1891, Prof. Hughes described 
the results of his examination of some de- 
serted Indian villages in Arizona, one of 
which consisted of caves excavated in the 
top of a small hill of lava ; and another of 
dwellings built under the shelter of over- 
hanging ledges in the cliffs of the Walnut 
Canon, much resembling the cliff dwellings 
of mediaeval times along the rivers of Dor- 
dogne. 

Statues of Boussingault, by M. Dalon, 
and Chevreul, by M. Fagel, are to be erected 
in Paris, in connection with the Conservatoire 
des Arts et Metiers. The Chevreul statue is 
a repetition of one executed by M. Fagel in 
1889. 

Manganine is the name of a new alloy, 
consisting of copper, nickel, and manganese, 
which has been brought into the market by 
a German firm, as a material of great resist- 
ing power; it having a specific resistance 
higher than that of nickeline, which has 
hitherto passed as the best resisting metal. 
It is said to be affected in only minute de- 
gree by high temperatures, and is therefore 
adapted for the manufacture of measuring 
instruments and measuring apparatus in gen- 
eral, which are required to vary in resistance 
as little as possible under different degrees 
of heat. While the resistance of other met- 
als is increased by the raising of their tem- 
perature, that of manganine is diminished. 

TnERE is an art in dusting which does not 
receive the attention it demands. According 
to the various analyses of different observers, 
the components of ordinary dust exhibit 
special characters in almost endless variety. 
Mineral matters, animal and vegetable debris, 
morbid germs, and whatever is small and 
light enough to remain for any time sus- 
pended in the air, falls into the category ; 
and among these things are many substances 
that in the air do mischief. The spread 
of cholera and exanthematous diseases has, 
doubtless with truth, been attributed to its 
influence. Methods of dusting, therefore, 
which merely remove the dust to another 
place or fill the air with it, are not sufficient 
and are not harmless. It should be wiped 
rather than brushed away, and carried away 
off, or destroyed. Then let the sunlight in 
to kill the infection that may remain. 

An examination of tinned peas, greened, by 
Drs. M. Charteris and William Snodgrass, of 
Glasgow, showed, by deposits on the crucible 



288 



THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 



and on the blade of a steel knife inserted into 
the gastric solution, the presence of copper. 
The copper and its albuminate were digested 
in solutions similar to those of the pancre- 
atic and gastric juices, and in the stomach of 
the living animal. Administered to a rabbit 
and a pig, the salts of copper produced toxic 
symptoms. 

A novel rice-pounding machine used in 
the northern Shan states (Indo-China) is de- 
scribed by Lord Lamington as including bam- 
boo pipes through which water is led into a 
hollow cut into one end of a pestle such as 
is usually worked by foot. The other or 
mallet end rises with the weight of the 
water till the water is automatically dis- 
charged, and then the pestle falls back and 
does its work of pounding the unhusked 
paddy. 

The Acarus saccliari, or sugar-mite, is 
very frequently found in raw sugar, but not 
in refined. In an inferior sample of raw 
sugar, Prof. Cameron found five hundred of 
the organisms in ten grains. They may be 
avoided by eating only refined sugar, but it 
is doubtful if they would do any harm if 
they were eaten. The disease knowTi as 
" grocer's itch," however, is probably due to 
the presence of this mite, which works its 
way under the skin and produces symptoms 
identical with those produced by the common 
Acarus scabiei, and the remedies are the 
same for both. The parasites multiply very 
rapidly, and Gerlach found that a single 
female would produce fifteen hundred thou- 
sand progeny in three months. The most 
common agents for destroying them are mer- 
curic chloride and sulphur. 

Discussing the value of the tree as a 
schoolmaster, Garden and Forest presents as 
the first of its lessons that " it teaches man 
to reserve judgment by showing that the in- 
significance of a germ is no criterion of the 
magnitude of its product, that slowness of 
development is not an index of the scope of 
growth, and proves to him that the most far- 
reaching results can be attained by very sim- 
ple means. A barrel of acorns may be the 
nucleus of a forest that shall cherish streams 
to fertilize a desert ; a handful of cedar cones 
may avert an avalanche, while a bushel of 
pine seed may prevent the depopulation of 
a great section of country by mountain tor- 
rents." 



It should be mentioned pertinently to 
President Jordan's article on Agassiz at 
Penikese, that the buildings of the Anderson 
School on that island were totally destroyed 
by fire in August, 1891. The fire caught 
Mr. George O'Malley, of New Bedford, in- 
forms President Jordan under one corner 
of the building, and in a very short time 



nothing was left. 



The Laboratory for Investigators of the 
Marine Biological Laboratory at Wood's 



Holl, Mass., will be open from June 1st to 
August 1st. The laboratory for teachers and 
students will be opened July 6th for regular 
courses of seven weeks in zoology, botany, 
and microscopical technique. The number 
of students will be limited to fifty, and pref- 
erence will be given to teachers and others 
already qualified. Students may begin their 
individual work as early as June 15th without 
extra charge. A spacious new wing of the 
laboratory building will be ready for use on 
July 1st. 

A summer course in botany is held annu- 
ally in the lecture-room of the College of 
Pharmacy, 209 and 211 East 23d Street, New 
York, to consist of ten lectures, beginning 
this year April 28th, and closing with the ex- 
cursion of July 5th. The extensive appliances 
for instruction of the institution are used ; 
fresh material is collected weekly ; and com- 
petent lecturers are provided by a committee 
of the Torrey Botanical Club. In addition 
to the lectures, the course includes ten ex- 
qursions. The lectures will be given on 
Thursdays, at four o'clock in the afternoon, 
and the excursions will be made on Tues- 
days and Saturdays, each member choosing 
the series of excursions which he will attend. 

The fourth meeting of the Australasian 
Association for the Advancement of Science 
was held at Hobart, Tasmania, January 7th to 
14th, under the presidency of Sir Robert Ham- 
ilton, and was in every way successful and 
creditable. The president, in his inaugural 
address, gave a sketch of the history of the 
Royal Society of Tasmania, and suggested 
reasons why all intelligent persons in Aus- 
tralia should do their utmost " to hasten the 
advent of the time, which is undoubtedly 
approaching, when science will form a much 
more integral part of the life of the people 
than it does at paesent." The next meeting 
will be held at Adelaide, and Prof. Tate will 
be its president. 



OBITUARY NOTE. 

Dr. Charles Metmott Tidy, an eminent 
English chemist and analyist, died March 
15th. He had been joint lecturer on chemis- 
try and Professor of Chemistry and Medical 
Jurisprudence and Public Health at the Lon- 
don Hospital, and was at the time of his 
death Official Analyist to the Home Office 
and Medical Officer of Health for Islington. 
He also held the office of Reader of Medical 
Jurisprudence at the Inns of Court. Among 
his publications were a course of Cantor Lect- 
ures on the Practical Applications of Optics 
to the Arts and Manufactures and to Medi- 
cine ; a paper on the Treatment of Sewage ; 
a work on Legal Medicine ; a paper on Am- 
monia in the Urine in Health and Disease ; 
and a Hand-book of Modern Chemistry, the 
second edition of which appeared in 1887. 




LUTGI GALVANI. 



Hferarnii Librar r. 

NEW YORK. 
T II E 

POPULAR SCIENCE 
MONTHLY. 



JULY, 1892. 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL WORK IN AMERICA. 

By Prof. FREDERICK STARR. 

THE object of this article is not to present a history of anthro- 
pology in America, but to sketch briefly some of the work 
at present done, so as to show the aims and methods of our work- 
ers in the science. 

That anthropology is yearly attracting greater attention among 
us is shown by the way in which institutions of learning are 
recognizing its importance. Not many years ago a scientific jour- 
nal made the statement that but one institution of learning in the 
United States, the University of Rochester, had the science upon 
its curriculum. The way in which it was introduced there is 
somewhat interesting. At that time the scientific work offered 
to students at Rochester was admittedly insufficient in quantity, 
but the way seemed hardly clear to the employment of any addi- 
tional teaching force to do extra work. At this stage of affairs 
Prof. Joseph Gilmore, in charge of the Department of Rhetoric 
and English Literature, offered, in some degree at least, to meet the 
need, to announce an optional course in anthropology. The work 
was very elementary, extending over but a single term, and cov- 
ering the field considered in De Quatrefages's little volume, The 
Natural History of Man. From the beginning the course was a 
favorite one, and many students elected it, The effect was good 
and the example has been followed. Since that time instruction in 
anthropology has entered into the work of a considerable number 
of American colleges and universities. It is suggestive to inquire 
how and why it has been introduced. At Yale, Prof. Sumner has 
for several years given such courses, because he felt that students 
unacquainted with the science could not profitably undertake 

VOL. XLI. 22 



290 



THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY 



his work in political science and economics. At Union College, 
Prof. Hoffman has found it necessary to give lectures on anthro- 
pology, as preliminary to the best work in psychology. At the 
University of Mississippi we believe it has been introduced as 
fundamental to historical study. In one way or another the sub- 
ject has been crowding itself into the curricula, until now, in 
addition to the institutions already mentioned, Brown, Harvard, 
Clark, Vermont, and the University of Pennsylvania offer facili- 
ties for such study. At the new University of Chicago anthropol- 
ogy is to be recognized, and 
several courses, covering a 
wide field, will probably be 
offered. The work at two 
or three of the universities 
deserves special notice. At 
Yale, Prof. W. G. Sumner 
gives two courses of instruc- 
tion in alternate years one 
for undergraduates, the oth- 
er for graduate students. 
The elementary course is 
based upon Tylor's Anthro- 
pology and Joly's Man be- 
fore Metals, both of which 
are carefully read by the 
students, and form the basis 
of class - work. Lectures, 
discussions, and prepara- 
tion of original papers up- 
on selected topics make a 
suggestive and excellent 
course. Supplementary reading of important French and German 
writers is arranged for such students as desire to do the best 
work. In the second course similar methods are pursued, and 
the required reading consists of Topinard's Anthropology and 
Letourneau's Sociology. These two courses are deservedly popu- 
lar with the students. The instruction work in anthropology at 
Harvard is an outgrowth of the Peabody Museum of American 
Ethnology. Of the museum itself we shall speak later. The 
work of Harvard University is divided into twelve departments, 
of which the most recently established is the Department of 
American Archaeology and Ethnology. This department is equal 
in rank to any in the university, being on the same footing as the 
Department of Ancient Languages, or the Department of Mathe- 
matics. Graduate work leading to a Ph. D. degree is offered. 
We quote the following announcement from the latest catalogue : 




Prof. W. G. Sumner. 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL WORK IN AMERICA. 



291 



" A course of special training in archaeology and ethnology, 
requiring three years for its completion, will be given by Prof. 
Putnam. It will be carried on by work in the laboratory and 
museum, lectures, field-work, and exploration, and in the third 
year by some special research. The ability to use French and 
Spanish will be necessary. For this course a knowledge of ele- 
mentary chemistry, geology, botany, zoology, drawing, and sur- 
veying is required, and courses in ancient history, ancient arts, 
and classical archaeology are recommended as useful." Students 
are now pursuing such study at Harvard under Prof. Putnam's 
direction. Since the establishment of this department a fellowship 
at Harvard University has been founded by Mrs. Mary C. Thaw, 
of Pittsburgh. Founded largely from personal admiration of Miss 
Alice C. Fletcher, and appreciation of her work, the fellowship is 
to be held by this lady during her life. In the event of Miss 
Fletcher's death, "the in- 
come from the fund of thir- 
ty thousand dollars is to be 
paid as a salary to such per- 
son as shall be appointed by 
the trustees of the museum 
to carry on the same line of 
work and research relating 
to the Indian race of Amer- 
ica, or other ethnological 
and archaeological investi- 
gations." At the Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania a spe- 
cial chair of American Ar- 
chaeology and Linguistics 
is held by Dr. D. G. Brin- 
ton, than whom no man in 
America is better qualified 
to offer courses in Indian 
languages. The broadest 
anthropological work at 
present offered in an Ameri- 
can institution is that conducted by Dr. Franz Boas at Clark Uni- 
versity, Worcester, Mass. Dr. Boas received his training in an- 
thropological study in Germany. Although partial to work in the 
direction of comparative mythology and linguistics, he is thor- 
oughly trained in the methods of ethnography and physical an- 
thropology. A great traveler and an excellent field-student, he 
has done admirable work among the Eskimos and the tribes 
of the northwest coast of America. For several years he has 
directed an exploration among these people, supported by a fund 




Prof. F. W. Putnam. 



292 



THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 



supplied by the British Association for the Advancement of Sci- 
ence, and his animal reports, published by that body, have been 
veritable storehouses of new and valuable information. Dr. Boas 
has lately prepared an important work upon the Mythology of 

North America, which will 
soon appear from the fjress. 
Dr. Boas is in charge of the 
Physical Anthropology Sec- 
tion of the Department of 
Ethnology and Archaeology 
of the World's Columbian 
Exposition of Chicago. In 
connection with this work 
he plans to gather such 
a mass of anthropometric 
data concerning the red man 
as has never before been 
brought together. Within 
the next few months he 
hopes to have fully twenty 
thousand Indians of differ- 
ent tribes carefully meas- 
ured. Important facts may 
be discovered from a care- 
ful study of the material 
thus secured. Dr. Boas at 
present lectures to a class of students upon statistics in anthro- 
pology and other sciences ; how to secure, tabulate, and use them. 
Special graduate students are put at work in his laboratory, which 
is fairly equipped, upon some line of original research and study, 
the results of which may be published as contributions to sci- 
ence. 

Museums in ethnography and anthropology are not yet nu- 
merous in America. Collections of considerable size and worthy 
of special notice exist at Cambridge, Salem, New York, Phila- 
delphia, Washington, and Davenport. Of very great importance 
is the Peabody Museum of American Ethnology at Cambridge, 
connected with Harvard University, and under direction of Prof. 
Frederick W. Putnam. At first a zoologist, especially interested 
in fishes. Prof. Putnam has long since laid aside everything 
except archaeology. The present work and importance of the 
museum are mainly due to him. Nine large rooms are filled with 
valuable collections, a great part of which have been gathered 
under his personal supervision. No man has done so much to 
bring about the careful and systematic method of excavation of 
mounds now followed as he. To refer to all the objects of 




Albert S. Gatschet. 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL WORK IN AMERICA. 



293 



special interest in this museum would take us far beyond our 
limits. Among the collections are magnificent series from the 
mounds of Ohio and the stone graves of Tennessee; complete al- 
tars of baked clay from Ohio " altar mounds " ; Kentucky cavern 
finds ; interesting series from the caverns of southern California, 
comprising perishable objects seldom preserved, such as a feather 
head-dress, basketry, wooden objects, and a wonderful lot of bone 
whistles found in a single basket ; Flint's interesting gatherings 
from Nicaragua ; collections from the old cities of Yucatan ; the 
Agassiz collection from ancient Peruvian graves ; the rich yield 
from the Madisonville cemetery : Wyman's collection from the 
fresh-water shell-heaps of the St. John's River, Fla. ; and the 
famous Abbott collection from New Jersey, the basis of Dr. Ab- 
bott's paper, The Stone Age in New Jersey. Two other series 
deserve especial mention the one of specimens from Honduras, 
some of the pottery in which is exceedingly interesting as show- 
ing a field for exploration scarcely known to our archaeologists. 
Prof. Putnam has made arrangements with the Government of 
Honduras whereby the museum has the exclusive right of ar- 
chaeological exploration in that country for a term of ten years. 
Mr. Saville, the museum as- 
sistant, is now in that field. 
Very important is the great 
collection of American " pa- 
lseoliths." Here are Dr. Ab- 
bott's argillite implements 
from the Trenton gravels, 
and the skulls from the 
same locality ; Miss Bab- 
bitt's quartzite flakes and 
rude implements from the 
Minnesota drift deposits ; 
and the Ohio, Indiana, and 
Delaware specimens from 
post-glacial or glacial de- 
posits. Nowhere else is there 
any such an exhibit of these 
rude, early types, which 
have caused so much bitter 
discussion. We have spoken 
only of American collec- 
tions, but there are also in 

this museum series illustrative of European archaeology, fine 
specimens from the South Seas, and a Semitic museum, which 
deserve more than a passing reference. The museum has pub- 
lished annual reports for twenty-four years ; some of them have 




Dr. D. G. Brinton. 



294 



THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 



contained papers of much value. At present octavo monographs 
by such writers as Mrs. Zelia Nuttall and Mr. A. S. Gatschet are 
also published by the museum. One important and original ac- 
complishment of the museum remains to be mentioned. In Adams 
County, ( >hio, on a high bluff at some distance from the nearest 
railroad town, is the Great Serpent Mound, in some respects the 
most remarkable monument of antiquity in America. It was 

in danger of destruction, 
when Prof. Putnam made 
an appeal for funds for its 
purchase and preservation. 
Ladies of Boston responded 
to the appeal, the money 
needed was raised, and paid 
over to the museum, which 
made the purchase. The 
place has been pleasantly 
laid out as Serpent Mound 
Park, and the old monu- 
ment itself has been careful- 
ly surveyed, restored, and 
put into a condition to with- 
stand the destroying action 
of time and the elements. 
Prof. Putnam is Director of 
the Department of Ethnol- 
ogy of the Columbian Ex- 
position, and in connection 
with its work has kept par- 
ties in the field excavating mounds and gathering material. His 
plan of display is a vast one, and a most instructive and interest- 
ing object lesson in American anthropology (ethnography, physi- 
cal anthropology, archaeology) is sure to be prepared. 

New York is not so much a center of anthropological work as 
it should be. At the American Museum of Natural History there 
is much good material. Here one may see what is left in Amer- 
ica of the Squier and Davis collection from the Ohio mounds, 
containing many specimens figured in the Ancient Monuments of 
the Mississippi Valley ; the Squier collection from Peru, compris- 
ing a wonderfully fine lot of greenstone carvings ; the collection 
of Colonel C. C. Jones, made chiefly in Georgia, numbering five 
thousand specimens, and the basis of his book, The Antiqui- 
ties of the Southern Indians ; a remarkable collection in Euro- 
pean archaeology, including series from the river gravels and 
caves of France, from the lake dwellings of Switzerland, and from 
the famous localities of Denmark ; the Emmons collection from 




Dr. C. C. Abbott. 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL WORK IN AMERICA. 



295 



Alaska, which is perhaps the best collection from the Tlingits ; 
the Sturgis collection from the South Seas, recently purchased by 
the museum, and far larger than any other in America, and sur- 
passed by few in Europe. Besides these collections belonging to 
the museum, and on display, there are in the building two remark- 
able and extensive series belonging to private collectors men of 
wealth Mr. James Terry and Mr. Andrew E. Douglass. The 
Terry collection is mainly the personal gathering of the owner, 
and is particularly rich in Pacific coast specimens. The Douglass 
collection is made up of exceedingly choice stone implements 
from every part of the United States, and it is unsurpassed in the 
number of rare and beautiful objects banner-stones, bird and bar 
amulets, hematites, and grooved axes. These two collections will 
no doubt ultimately become the property of the museum. Not- 
withstanding its treasures in material collections, the museum 
has never published one line of contribution to anthropological 
science, nor has it under- 
taken, apart from a few 
lectures to its membership 
any educational work in the 
subject. 

In Philadelphia a vast 
amount of work has been 
done by a few individual 
workers, with no pecuniary 
return, and with but very lit- 
tle financial backing. What 
is there has been brought 
about by truly heroic work 
from love of the cause. The 
work is mainly done at the 
Philadelphia Academy of 
Science or at the University 
of Pennsylvania. At the 
academy is the Morton col- 
lection of crania, gathered 
by our earliest great anthro- 
pologist, and at that time 

one of the largest in the world ; here, too, are the collections in 
archaeology gathered by Poinsett, Vaux, and Haldeman. For 
several seasons, including the present one, Dr. D. G. Brinton has 
presented at the academy courses of lectures upon some ethnologi- 
cal subject. The most active work in Philadelphia at present, 
however, is at the university. In reference to it, Mr. Culin, who 
is one of its heartiest supporters, writes us : 

" The chief center is the new Department of Archaeology and 




Prof. Edward S. Morse. 



296 



THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 



Palaeontology of the University of Pennsylvania, which is main- 
tained by an independent organization the University Archeeo- 
logical Association. This department covers a broad field. It. 
Las had an expedition for two years in Babylonia; it contributes 
annually to the Egyptian Exploration Fund.; and has carried on 
explorations in various parts of the United States. In two years 
it has established a museum in four sections American, Baby- 
lonian, Egyptian, and Ori- 
entalwith remarkably full 
collections in each. It has 
just opened a loan exhibi- 
tion of objects used in wor- 
ship, intended as the first of 
a series of such special ex- 
hibitions of an educational 
character in which the re- 
sources of the museum and 
of private collections will 
be made accessible and dis- 
played." 

An unusual number of 
active societies exist in Phil- 
adelphia, which more or less 
directly assist anthropolog- 
ical science. Such are the 
American Philosophical So- 
ciety, Numismatic and An- 
tiquarian Society, and the 
Oriental Club. In all of 
these, so far as anthropological work is concerned, Dr. Daniel G. 
Brinton is a moving spirit. Dr. Brinton scarcely needs an intro- 
duction to American readers ; no one has done more to make an- 
thropology known to the people and to raise up other workers. 
His writings upon American religions are delightful reading. For 
several years he has edited a most important work, the Library of 
American Aboriginal Literature ; of this some eight volumes have 
appeared. Each volume is devoted to some one literary produc- 
tion of the American race. The original text is printed in full ; 
and a translation, critical notes, and a vocabulary make the subject 
available to the student. Dr. Brinton has lately issued two little 
volumes Races and Peoples and The American Race of popular 
but scholarly character. The other workers in Philadelphia who 
are best known are the curators of the departments of the Univer- 
sity Museum, Dr. C. C. Abbott, Prof. Morris Jastrow, Jr., Mrs. Cor- 
nelius Stevenson, and Mr. Stewart Culin. Dr. Jastrow is one of 
the best Semitic scholars in America. Mrs. Stevenson is perhaps 




Major J. W. Powell. 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL WORK IN AMERICA. 



297 



our only lady Egyptologist. She may justly be compared in that 
held to Miss Edwards, of England. Her lectures on Egyptian 
subjects have made a sensation. 

To the work of Dr. C. C. Abbott we briefly referred in connec- 
tion with the Peabody Museum at Cambridge. Dr. Abbott lived 
for many years at Trenton, gathering a great collection of archae- 
ological specimens from the State of New Jersey. The series, now 
at Cambridge, numbered 
many thousands of speci- 
mens, and was the basis for 
The Stone Age in New Jer- 
sey and for the later book 
Primitive Industry. In 1875 
Dr. Abbott found the first 
argillite palaeolithic imple- 
ments in the Trenton gravel. 
This gravel is said by geolo- 
gists to date back to the 
close of the Glacial Period, 
and any evidence of hu- 
man workmanship in un- 
disturbed gravels of that 
kind carries the existence 
of man in the Eastern Unit- 
ed States back to a consid- 
erable antiquity. A lively 
warfare has been waged 
against these "finds." It 
has been questioned wheth- 
er the objects were of human workmanship, and whether they were 
really of the same age as the gravels. But similar implements have 
been found in similar deposits in other States within the glaciated 
area, and each new discovery tends to establish those which pre- 
ceded it. Since his connection with the University Museum, Dr. 
Abbott has continued field-work in the Delaware Valley, and has 
lately made many interesting discoveries, such as workshops 
where argillite implements (non-palaeolithic, but ancient) were 
made and quarries where the Indians gathered their materials for 
arrow-heads and spear-heads. Dr. Abbott aims to exhaust the 
archaeology of the Delaware Valley before he ends his work. 
Such thorough study of limited areas is what we most need in 
American archaeology. After such work has been done for each 
section of the United States, then, and then only, can our students 
reach sure conclusions. 

The loan exhibition of religious objects above mentioned is 
mainly due to the energy and efforts of Mr. Stewart Culin, who 




Gaerick Mallery. 



298 



THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 



finds his most interesting work in the neglected fields of popular 
superstitions and games, and who is an earnest student of com- 
parative religion. The exhibition was formally opened on March 
Kith, when crowds of visitors were present. The collection is the 
first of its kind publicly shown in America. It is on the general 
plan of the Muse'e Guimet in Paris, and, although not to be com- 
pared with that in size, it presents some valuable features that are 
lacking there. Some eight hundred objects illustrated Brahman- 
ism, Buddhism, Taoism, Mohammedanism, the fetich-worship of 
South Africa, the Shamanism of North America, the idolatry of 
Polynesia, and the old religions of Egypt. There has been much 
hard work given to this display, and great credit is due those who 
have been interested in its preparation. 

While we speak of work done by noble individual effort and 
sacrifice^ and without the assistance of Government or of wealthy 
organizations, we must describe what is done at Salem and at 
Davenport. No museum in America has exerted a greater influ- 
ence than that in Salem, 
Massachusetts. A large pro- 
portion of the most active 
scientific men in our coun- 
try, directly or indirectly, 
owe much of their first im- 
pulse and enthusiasm to 
some department of its 
work. In 1799 the Salem 
East India Marine Society 
was organized, with a mem- 
bership confined to persons 
who had actually navigated 
the seas beyond the Cape of 
Good Hope or Cape Horn 
as masters or supercargoes 
of vessels belonging to Sa- 
lem. Those were the palmy 
days of commercial suprem- 
acy and the seas were dotted 
with vessels from the old 
town. The third of the ob- 
jects stated as reasons for organizing the society was " to form a 
museum of natural and artificial curiosities, particularly such as 
are to be found beyond the Cape of Good Hope or Cape Horn." 
The museum began November, 1799, with a gift of objects from 
Sumatra by Captain Jonathan Carnes. In course of time much 
choice material in ethnography was brought here particularly 
from the South Sea Islands, China, India, Africa, and South 




Frank Hamilton Cushing. 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL WORK IN AMERICA. 



i 99 



America. Meantime, the Essex Institute was gathering collec- 
tions in other lines and from the neighboring district. In 1867 
the collections of the two organizations were combined in the old 
East India Marine Society Hall, becoming the property of the 
new organization the Peabody Academy of Science. The acad- 
emy has gone on quietly but 
constantly, with little blow- 
ing of trumpets, and good 
work has been done. Late- 
ly an additional exhibition 
hall has been built, and in 
it are displayed the ethno- 
graphical collections. No 
one in America who is en- 
gaged in studying the eth- 
nography of the South Sea 
Islands can afford to neglect 
this series. Prof. Edward 
S. Morse, whose chief con- 
tributions to ethnography 
are his paper on Methods 
of Arrow Release and his 
book on Japanese Homes, is 
the director of the academy, 
and Mr. John Robinson is 




m 



charge of the museum. 



Prof. 0. T. Mason. 



Some day the story of the 

Davenport (Iowa) Academy of Science will be an interesting chap- 
ter in the history of science in the United States. It has never 
had a large donation in money, and much of its work has been 
done by poor men. It has had a constant struggle to survive. It 
is certainly fit to live, for there, with no trained anthropologist or 
professional ethnographer to direct or develop a definite plan of 
work, has grown up an excellent collection in archaeology. Prob- 
ably nowhere except in Salisbury, England, is there so large a 
series of " curved-base pipes " of stone from the mounds ; nowhere 
else is there so interesting a series of copper axes wrapped in 
cloth ; nowhere, except at Washington, so fine a series of pottery 
from the Arkansas mounds, nor many much better collections of 
mound crania. Nor has the academy been silent. Notwithstand- 
ing its money poverty it has published valuable Transactions, by 
the exchange of which it has gathered a creditable library. 

Washington has become a great scientific center, and of the 
whole circle of sciences none is more cultivated there than an- 
thropology. Under Major Powell a remarkable organizer and 
an indefatigable worker has been organized the Bureau of Eth- 



3 oo 



THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 



nology, with its band of workers each in some special line. 
Work is actively conducted both in the field and office, and the 
results are published as papers in the annual reports, as bul- 
letins, or as monographs. Major Powell himself is our best au- 
thority on the Utes. For years he has been mainly interested in 
linguistics, and his Introduction to the Study of Indian Lan- 
guages has led to the gathering of many vocabularies. The mass 
of linguistic material in the possession of the bureau is almost 
incredible. In his last annual report Major Powell presents a 
paper upon the Linguistic Families North of Mexico. This paper 

is accompanied by a map 
showing the conclusions he 
reaches. The best-known 
linguist in the employ of 
the Bureau of Ethnology 
is Mr. Albert S. Gatschet, 
whose studies are most thor- 
ough and critical. Mr. Gat- 
schet is by birth a Swiss, 
and has devoted his time 
since 1875 to the study of an- 
thropology and the Ameri- 
can races and languages. Of 
his more important works, 
the earliest is the Migration 
Legend of the Creeks, in 
two octavo volumes ; the 
original Creek text, transla- 
tion, vocabulary, and criti- 
cal notes upon the language 
and ethnology of this im- 
portant tribe compose the 
work. Very recently the Government has published his great 
work upon The Klamath Indians of Southwestern Oregon, in two 
quarto parts. Mr. H. W. Henshaw, the general assistant in the 
bureau, has also collected much linguistic material, especially 
in California. One of the most complete studies, the results of 
which the bureau is printing, is that of Rev. J. Owen Dorsey 
among the Omahas. Mr. Dorsey has already published exten- 
sively upon the language and the sociology of this people, but 
he has still much material. Mr. James Mooney has made a special 
study during three field seasons of the Cherokees of the North 
Carolina Mountains, and his report upon their ceremonials has 
just appeared. One of the brightest workers of the bureau is 
Mrs. Stevenson, whose husband was one of the most indefatigable 
collectors in the Pueblo regions. Mrs. Stevenson's Religious Life 




Thomas Wil.son. 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL WORK IN AMERICA. 



301 



of the Zuiii Child is a very good bit of work. Two of the bureau 
force have been particularly interested in pictography Colonel 
Garrick Mallery and Dr. W. J. Hoffman. The former was fortu- 
nately sent to the seat of the Dakota war in 1870. He there 
found a rude and interesting native picture record, which he pub- 
lished in 1877 under the title A Calendar of the Dakota Nation. 
At its founding, during that same year, he was invited to a posi- 
tion in the Bureau of Ethnology. He has continued his study of 
picture-writing and has investigated gesture language, and by pub- 
lication and encouraging research has added much to the knowl- 
edge of both subjects. Through his Israelite and Indian (Vice- 
Presidential Address before the American Association) and other 
articles published in these pages, Colonel Mallery is already 
known to the readers of this journal. With Colonel Mallery, Dr. 
Hoffman has been much in- 
terested in picture-writing, 
but he has also written up- 
on a wide range of subjects 
in ethnology, archaeology, 
and folk lore. His most im- 
portant contribution is The 
Grand Medicine Society of 
the Ojibwas. W. H. Holmes 
is an artist, and his papers 
upon art in pottery and text- 
ile fabrics are among the 
most delightful in Ameri- 
can archaeology. Mr. Frank 
Cushing, as a village boy 
in western New York, was 
a hunter of Indian relics on 
the old village sites of the 
Iroquois ; invited to the 
Smithsonian Institution, he 
was sent to New Mexico to 
study Pueblo life. The story 

of his life at Zuiii, his adoption, his initiation into mysteries, his 
conduct of an " aboriginal pilgrimage " to the Ocean of Sunrise, 
has been told and retold in magazine articles. At the establish- 
ment of the Hemenway Southwestern Archaeological Exploration, 
in January, 1887, Mr. Cushing was placed in charge of its work 
and conducted it for two years, first in the Salado and Gila Val- 
leys in Arizona, and later at Zufii and its neighborhood. Two 
years of such work brought on a serious illness, from which Mr. 
Cushing is only now recovering. Some results of his w T ork were 
published in the report of the meeting of the International Con- 




Dr. J. Walter Fewkes. 



302 



THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 



gress of Americanists for 1888. From these years of experience 
Mr. dishing has gained a stock of information, little of which has 
yet been published. At present he is again officially connected 
with the Bureau of Ethnology. We have only suggested the 

work of this bureau, and 
have not even mentioned 
some workers who have 
done good work. 

The collections made by 
Government workers go to 
three museums the mate- 
rial in physical anthropol- 
ogy to the Army Medical 
Museum, that in ethnogra- 
phy to the United States 
National Museum, and that 
in prehistoric archaeology 
to the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion. The Army Medical 
Museum is a great collec- 
tion, beautifully arranged. 
There is much material here 
to interest the anthropolo- 
gist many fine anatomical 
specimens ; a wonderful se- 
ries to illustrate the effects 
of gunshot wounds and their healing; a goodly number of mon- 
strosities ; most important of all are the skeletons and crania of 
North American tribes more than two thousand of the latter. 

Prof. Otis T. Mason is in charge of the ethnological treasures 
at the United States National Museum. He is a most systematic 
worker, and his card catalogue of references to literature of eth- 
nography is well worthy of study. His annual summaries of an- 
thropological progress are exceedingly valuable. More than any 
other American ethnographer he has carefully studied casing, 
display, and labeling. Where, as in the Eskimo series, the mate- 
rial from any given region or tribe is large in amount and varied 
in character, the arrangement is geographical. In general, how- 
ever, the idea in the arrangement is to show culture history. 
This idea, so admirably carried out in Oxford, is scarcely found 
elsewhere in American museums. Some of the series are excel- 
lent ; the development of the knife, the history of musical instru- 
ments, the history of fire-producing instruments are good. Some 
cases tell the story of a whole technique ; thus the case of Guada- 
lajara (Mexico) pottery shows by specimens and by small figures 
of potters at work every step in the manufacture. A point that 




Adolf F. Bandelier. 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL WORK IN AMERICA. 



33 



Prof. Mason particularly wishes to emphasize is the way in which 
primitive man works. Thus he is not content with securing the 
various fire-making machines, but he must have Mr. Hough dem- 
onstrate their use by actually making fire with them. So he has 
encouraged Mr. Maguire to illustrate how stone tools were made 
by making them. One is astounded by the vast collections in 
this museum there is a bewildering wealth of material. All 
that is received is divided into three series the smallest is dis- 
played in cases ; the second, much larger and wonderfully rich, 
is placed in drawers for students to use ; the third is stored away 
for purposes of exchange. The museum publishes its own Trans- 
actions, in which many valuable monographs appear. 

The Curator of Prehistoric Anthropology of the Smithsonian 
Institution is the Hon. Thomas Wilson, who at one time repre- 
sented our Government in Europe. While there he had unusual 
opportunities for field-work in the famous localities, for study of 
museums, and for acquaintance with the workers. He has charge 
of a vast mass of material. Here are surface-found specimens 
from every State in the Union ; the beautiful objects from the 
mounds which supplied the 
illustrations for Holmes's 
Art in Shell ; the famous 
copper plates from the Eto- 
wah mounds ; the Perkins 
collection of copper imple- 
ments from Wisconsin ; the 
Latimer collection of stone 
implements from Porto Rico ; 
good series from Mexico, Yu- 
catan, and Central America. 
Here, too, are the results of 
Dr. Cyrus Thomas's mound 
explorations and Warren K. 
Moorehead's deposit. A large 
space is devoted to Mr. Min- 
deleff's wonderfully natural 
and interesting miniature re- 
productions of the pueblos 
of New Mexico. There is, in 
fact, such a wealth of mate- 
rial that one is confused by 

its very abundance. Mr. Wilson has done a very wise and in- 
structive thing in arranging "synoptical cases." These are table- 
cases, placed in two groups, one on each side of the entrance-door. 
In one is given, by a few carefully selected, carefully labeled, and 
illustratedly explained specimens, a synopsis of the prehistoric 




Mrs. Zelia Nuttall. 



34 



THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 



archeology of Europe, tlie arrangement following De Mortillet's 
classification. In the second group of cases a similar synoptical 
arrangement illustrates American archaeology. As to the general 
collection, it is arranged strictly on a geographical basis, speci- 
mens from one State being together. Under this grouping a 
sub-classification according to form or type is carried out. One 
important work undertaken by Mr. Wilson deserves mention. 
From specimens in the museum a series of about one hundred has 

been selected, from which 
copies in plaster have been 
carefully made. One hun- 
dred such sets of casts have 
been prepared, and printed 
labels accompany them. 
These sets of casts are to be 
distributed to various insti- 
tutions of learning in the 
United States, and consid- 
erable public interest in ar- 
chaeology should be the re- 
sult. 

To complete our sketch 
we must refer to some indi- 
vidual explorations or work, 
and to anthropological pe- 
riodicals. The Hemenway 
Archaeological Exploration 
has been mentioned. This 
important work is support- 
ed by Mrs. Hemenway, of 
Boston. At present Dr. J. Walter Fewkes is the director of the 
work, which is centered upon the living tribes in the Moki pueblos. 
Dr. Fewkes is admirably qualified for the task, as he has had a 
thorough training in scientific methods of study. His field-work 
is excellent, and his own taste leads him to investigate the exceed- 
ingly interesting but difficult subject of the significance of the 
religious-dance ceremonials. Dr. Fewkes is perhaps the first 
scientist who has used the phonograph in taking down the re- 
ligious music of a barbarous tribe. He has gathered consider- 
able Zuni music in this way, which Mr. Benjamin Ives Gilman 
has studied carefully. The results of this study as well as those 
of Dr. Fewkes's own work are published in the Journal of Amer- 
ican Ethnology and Archaeology, the official organ of the explora- 
tion. Work in the Southwest presents many attractions, and a 
recently organized expedition under, Mr. Warren K. Moorehead,. 
is now in the field. This expedition is, we believe, the child of a 




Miss Alice 



Fletcher. 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL WORK IN AMERICA. 



35 



New York journal the Illustrated American. Its object is a 
thorough study of the cliff-buildings of the Colorado district. 
Mr. Moorehead is one of the most enthusiastic of our young 
archaeologists, and has already done admirable work in Ohio 
mound exploration. He was for some time with Mr. Wilson at 
the Smithsonian Institution, and has recently been making some 
remarkably successful excavations for the World's Fair. The 
Colorado expedition started February 29th, and is to be in prog- 
ress for some months. 

Mr. Ad. F. Bandelier, by parentage a Frenchman, is one of our 
most scholarly and critical students in that most difficult field 
Spanish America. He has been markedly successful both in 
field-work and in study of the old Spanish records. Follow- 
ing the line of criticism so ably used by the late Lewis H. Mor- 
gan, Mr. Bandelier has destroyed much of the romance of Aztec 
and Peruvian history ; but from the ruins he has reconstructed 
pictures of these most interesting societies that are lifelike, and 
far more in accordance with 
the genius of the American 
race than the old ones. His 
papers at first published in 
the annual reports of the 
Peabody Museum, but lat- 
terly in the publications of 
the American Archaeologi- 
cal Institute are models of 
scholarship. Mr. Bandelier 
is now planning an impor- 
tant exploration into Peru- 
Ecuador. It is to be hoped 
that he may have no diffi- 
culty in finding the finan- 
cial support that he needs. 

Two ladies are doing re- 
markable work in Amer- 
ican anthropology. Mrs. 
Zelia Nuttall works in the 
same field as Mr. Bande- 
lier. Although an Ameri- 
can, Mrs. Nuttall lives at Dresden, Germany. She surrounds herself 
with an Aztec atmosphere ; her library, one of the richest in Mexi- 
can works in existence, is cased in pieces of furniture whose forms 
and decorations are drawn from Mexican architecture. On all 
relating to Mexican archaeology and history she is an authority. 
Two of the Peabody Museum monographs are by her one upon a 
curious feather head-dress, the other upon the Mexican throwing- 

VOL. XLI. 23 




Kev. S. D. Peet. 



3 o6 



THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY 



stick, or aflafl. Recently Mrs. Nuttall had the pleasure of discov- 
ering at the old castle of Ambras (Germany) a fine shield of an- 
cient Mexican feather-work. In the last number of the Interna- 
tionales Archiv fur Ethnographie she publishes an exhaustive 
and handsomely illustrated article upon the subject of feather 

shields from Mexico. In a 
recent visit to Florence. 
Italy, Mrs. Nuttall discov- 
ered in the library an Aztec- 
manuscript with pictures. 
It turned out to be a treatise 
upon dress and ornament, 
and contains a text in Span- 
ish letters. This, reprinted 
in fac-simile, with critical 
notes and an English trans- 
lation, Mrs. Nuttall will pre- 
sent at the next congress of 
Americanists in October. 
Miss Alice C. Fletcher, al- 
though a fellow of Harvard 
University, assistant of the 
Peabody Museum, and em- 
ployed in the Indian Bu- 
reau, is really a free lance in 
American ethnology. She 
is more she is a firm friend 
of the Indian, and has shown herself so in many, many ways. As 
special Indian agent she has personally located five thousand In- 
dians upon their own lands under the " Land in Severalty Bill." 
Her studies in sociology and religious beliefs among the Ponkas, 
Winnebagoes, etc., have been scientifically carried on. She is 
about to publish a work upon Ponka music, that has occupied 
much time and hard labor during several years back. All who 
know Miss Fletcher or who are acquainted with her work expect 
this work to be a most valuable contribution to knowledge. 

Three periodicals in America busy themselves with anthro- 
pology the American Antiquarian, the American Anthropolo- 
gist, and the Journal of American Folk-lore. The Journal of 
American Folk-lore is the organ of the American Folk-lore Soci- 
ety, and is under the editorship of Mr. W. W. Newell. The Ameri- 
can Anthropologist has grown out of the Anthropological Society 
of Washington ; it is coming to be more and more a representa- 
tive journal of our national work in the field of anthropology. 
The American Antiquarian deserves a longer notice, because it is 
the pioneer journal. Mainly occupied with American archaeology, 




Sir Daniel Wilson. 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL WORK IN AMERICA. 307 

it has always been open to papers in other departments. From 
the beginning it has been under the editorship of the Rev. Stephen 
D. Peet, who has worked hard to put it where it now is, and who 
deserves hearty support in an undertaking which has never been 
a money success. Mr. Peet has himself been a field-worker and 
an original thinker. His field of labor is one that was for years 
left almost untouched, although none is more interesting the 
effigy mounds of Wisconsin. Years ago Dr. Lapham prepared a 
work on the subject, which was very creditable for that time. 
Mr. Peet has gone over the same ground, and has resurveyed the 
groups. But he has done much more : he has surveyed many new 
groups, has made a careful study of the animal forms represented 
and of their attitudes, and has tried to work out their significance. 
The theories he suggests are certainly entitled to consideration, 
and his study deserves recognition and higher praise than it has 
yet received. 

Nor are our Canadian neighbors neglecting anthropology. Sir 
Daniel Wilson's works, Prehistoric Man and Prehistoric Annals 
of Scotland, were training-books for the present generation of 
scholars. Very recently he has added an interesting contribution 
to a curious field in his little book Left-handedness. 

Another veteran worker whom we love to recognize is Horatio 
Hale, who, half a century ago, went around the world as the 
ethnologist of the Wilkes Exploring Expedition. Of him Dr. 
Brinton, in the dedication of his recent little book on Races and 
Peoples, justly says, " His many and valuable contributions to 
linguistics and ethnography place him to-day among the foremost 
authorities on these sciences/' Both, in advanced years, preserve 
the zeal for scientific progress, which shows itself in the planning 
and directing of anthropological investigations, in the founding 
of collections such as those of Toronto University and the Cana- 
dian Institute, and in the development of such students as David 
Boyle and Mr. Chamberlain. This archaeological collection of the 
Canadian Institute at Toronto is a surprisingly rich and interest- 
ing one, and the annual reports regarding it are becoming valued 
contributions to archaeological literature. In one of the more 
recent of these reports Mr. Chamberlain presents a valuable bib- 
liography of Canadian work in anthropology a long list of valua- 
ble papers. We only regret that we have not the space to refer 
to some of them and to their authors in detail. 

Such, briefly sketched, is some of the work Americans are 
doing in the great field of anthropological science. 



3 o8 THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

PHYSIOLOGY AND THE PREVENTION OF DISEASE. 

By Dr. J. M. RICE. 

THAT disease is far more prevalent than our knowledge of pre- 
vention justifies can hardly be doubted. An inquiry into the 
cause of this evil, as well as into the manner in which it can be 
removed, is therefore, in my opinion, not inopportune. 

With few exceptions, that which is done at present for the 
prevention of disease is limited to improving the sanitary condi- 
tions surrounding the individual, in consequence of which two 
very important factors are left out of consideration : Firstly, that 
many diseases are caused by unfavorable internal conditions, 
which for the most part can be traced to imperfect development 
and improper modes of living ; and, secondly, that exposure to 
unfavorable external conditions is not necessarily followed by 
illness, for the reason that the body itself offers a certain amount 
of resistance to the same. Unless, therefore, our efforts be ex- 
tended *to the prevention of diseases arising from internal causes 
as well as to increasing the power of resistance, they must to a 
considerable extent remain inefficient. 

As the means employed for the purpose of improving the sur- 
rounding conditions are well known, it will be unnecessary to enter 
into detail here regarding them. The deleterious substances in 
the outer world are principally germs and other impurities of 
various kinds in the atmosphere and food. That diseases arising- 
from such causes have considerably diminished during the past 
few decades, owing to the attention given to isolation, disinfec- 
tion, antisepsis, sewerage, cleanliness, ventilation, etc., is unques- 
tionable. 

The remaining elements in prevention, namely, the regulation 
of the internal conditions and the increasing of the power of 
resistance, are so intimately connected that they are furthered by 
the same measures. 

Although the conditions upon which the power of resistance 
depends are for the most part obscure, physicians agree that, 
other things being equal, an individual is strongly guarded 
against disease when he is in good health, and that resistance 
diminishes when the vitality becomes lowered. Now, in order, 
that there may be good health, normal functional activity of all 
the organs is essential. By endeavoring to secure good functional 
action, therefore, we do all possible for increasing resistance to 
disease caused by unfavorable external influences ; but, in addi- 
tion, we obviously aid in the prevention of functional derange- 
ments which, together with their consequences, constitute a large 
percentage of all diseases. 



PHYSIOLOGY AND PREVENTION OF DISEASE. 309 

But where shall we look for guidance if we desire to learn how 
normal functional activity can be attained ? Naturally, to the 
science which treats of the bodily functions, 'physiology ; and we 
shall see in a moment that by the application of physiological 
principles, not only will the organs be temporarily aided in the 
performance of their functions, but, if continued, good physical 
development, that condition upon which permanent health de- 
pends, will be secured. Therefore, physiology is, as well as bac- 
teriology, to a certain extent a science of prevention, but, in our 
eagerness to catch and exterminate germs, it has been pushed far 
into the background, though so much nearer home to us than the 
latter. 

That physical development is an important element in the 
maintenance of health becomes obvious when we consider that, 
other things being equal, an organ performs its functions in pro- 
portion to its strength; hence, if all the organs be well developed, 
all the functions will be thoroughly performed. 

But good physical development is the result of adequate nour- 
isli7nent of all parts of the body, and such nourishment depends 
upon the proper performance of all the functions. That this does 
not lead us into an absurdity becomes evident when we consider 
that imperfectly developed organs may with assistance perform 
their functions efficiently, and physiology points out how this aid 
can be given. In consequence of this help, therefore, the organs 
develop and perform their functions properly with ever less as- 
sistance, and the condition of perfect health is gradually ap- 
proached. 

Now, if we assist the organs during childhood when they are 
weak, not only will much be done to secure good health during 
this period, but the age of maturity will be reached with a well- 
developed body, and good health, therefore, to a considerable ex- 
tent assured through life. It is true that, under ordinary circum- 
stances, a smaller body can be nourished, with weaker organs ; 
but if as early as the sixth year a child begins to labor from five 
to seven hours daily the conditions are entirely changed. During 
childhood a large quantity of nourishment is required for growth 
alone, and, if a good share of this be expended in labor, it is clear 
that, unless something be done to compensate for this unnatural 
state of affairs, when the period of growth is over the body will 
be imperfectly developed, with very little chance of recovering 
the lost ground. When this is the case, the individual will be 
liable to be afflicted with poor health ever afterward ; how often 
it now occurs is but too well known. 

As to the means for assisting the organs in their labor, none is 
so powerful as muscular exercise. This agent not only plays an 
important part in the general nutrition of the system, having a 



310 THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

favorable effect upon all the functions which, take part in the 
changes through which the food must pass before being con- 
verted into tissue, namely, digestion, absorption, circulation, oxi- 
dation, and assimilation ; but it likewise aids in preventing de- 
rangement of these functions that is, a large number of diseases. 
The following resume of the effects of exercise will show that its 
value has not been overestimated : 

First. Muscular contraction exerts a pressure upon the veins 
and lymphatics, thus pushing forward and facilitating the flow 
of venous blood and lymph, to the heart. In this manner the ex- 
cretion of the products of tissue waste is enhanced. These mat- 
ters are washed out of the tissues by the blood and lymph, and 
after their return to the heart pass through the lungs, where the 
carbonic acid is given off, then through the general circulation, 
the remaining substances being eliminated by the skin and kid- 
neys. When these matters, some of which are highly poisonous, 
collect in abnormal quantities in the system, they become more 
or less dangerous ; even such mild symptoms as headache, drowsi- 
ness, and general lassitude in those who lead a sedentary life may 
probably, in many instances, be traced to their toxic effects. By 
muscular exercise, which hastens the elimination of these sub- 
stances, therefore, many slight ailments, which, however, are suf- 
ficient to make labor burdensome and rob life of many of its 
pleasures, may be avoided. 

Second. The circulation is controlled mainly by the action of 
the heart. When the activity of this organ is increased, there- 
fore, the general circulation will be improved. Now, the heart is 
stimulated to action by the presence of blood in its cavities, and 
muscular exercise, by hastening the flow of venous blood, will be 
instrumental in sending more fluid through them in a given 
period of time, and consequently in stimulating the organ to in- 
creased activity. As many diseases, prominent among which are 
those of the abdominal and pelvic organs, are the consequences of 
congestion, and as good circulation does much for the prevention 
of such congestion, muscular exercise, by improving the general 
circulation both by increasing the activity of the heart and aiding 
in the venous return, will do much to prevent a large class of 
diseases. 

Third. The respiratory center is increased in activity when the 
blood is more venous than usual that is, when the amount of oxy- 
gen is diminished and the carbonic acid increased. Now, as an 
organ consumes more oxygen and gives off more carbonic acid 
when it is actively engaged in the performance of its functions, it 
follows that exercise exerts a stimulating effect upon respiration 
by making the blood more venous. When the activity of respira- 
tion increases, a larger quantity of oxygen enters the system ; 



PHYSIOLOGY AND PREVENTION OF DISEASE. 311 

and it lias been calculated that this extra supply more than com- 
pensates for that expended in exercise a circumstance which is 
readily understood when we consider that during muscular action 
more blood passes through the lungs, thus coming in contact with 
more oxygen. An increased supply of oxygen enhances the oxy- 
genation of the food, thus directly facilitating the development 
of energy ; and, besides, oxygen being a heart stimulant, the cir- 
culation will again be favorably affected. 

Fourth. Assimilation becomes furthered by muscular exercise, 
for the reason that more blood passes through an organ during its 
activity, and consequently the latter becomes enabled to absorb 
more nourishment and lay by a larger quantity of reserve force. 

Fifth. The blood, becoming more rapidly freed of its nutrient 
material by increased rapidity of assimilation, will be more ready 
to absorb such matters from the digestive organs. Improved 
absorption leads to more perfect digestion, and consequently mus- 
cular exercise aids considerably in the prevention of digestive 
disturbances. Further, when the digestion is enhanced, more 
food is called for. Increased appetite, together with improved 
digestion, absorption, oxidation, and assimilation, naturally ex- 
erts a marked influence upon the general nutrition of the sys- 
tem ; therefore, exercise is a powerful means to the prevention of 
so many diseases caused by malnutrition. 

Sixth. Muscular exercise by its direct effect upon the muscular 
system is the means not only of developing an active as well as 
a strong and healthy body, but likewise of storing up a large 
quantity of reserve force. 

But, in order that muscular exercise may result in good physi- 
cal development,^ must be carried on systematically for a long 
period, and especially, for reasons already given, during the years 
of childhood. The nature of the exercise plays by no means an 
unimportant part in its efficacy. In order that all parts of the 
muscular system may be brought into play, gymnastics and calis- 
thenics are indispensable. These exercises, however, should be 
supplemented by outdoor sports, such as games, rowing, swim- 
ming, skating, and the like, for two reasons : Firstly, the latter 
contain an element of pleasure without which that exhilaration 
which makes exercise doubly valuable is apt to be wanting ; and, 
secondly, the air inhaled at the time is purer than that in closed 
rooms, an advantage which can not be overestimated. 

But how can good physical development be placed within 
reach of all children ? Only in one way, namely, by the introduc- 
tion of effective methods of physical exercise into schools, for the 
reason that during the greater part of childhood systematic work 
outside of these institutions is, in the vast majority of cases, en- 
tirely out of the question. 



3 i2 THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

In our search for means of preventing disease we have been 
led, as we see, beyond the province of medicine and into that of 
education. But the connection between these two fields, from 
our standpoint, extends much further, as we shall find. Though 
muscular exercise be carried to the point of perfection, and the 
surrounding conditions leave nothing to be desired, health is not 
assured ; for, should the expenditure of energy be too great, there 
will still be marked interference with development. Hence, the 
expenditure as well as the development of energy must be con- 
sidered. 

Now, the energy is expended by the organs in the performance 
of their functions. Though ultimately derived from the food, its 
proximate source is, at least in great part, the tissues, which, by 
undergoing combustion, furnish the required energy ; whether it 
be all derived in this way, or whether it be in part supplied im- 
mediately by the blood, is a matter which has no influence upon 
our problem. It is essential, however, to bear in mind that the 
amount of energy which can be developed in a given space of time 
is limited to the quantity of food digestible during this period, 
and, if it be expended more rapidly tha n it is thus supplied, the func- 
tions are performed at the expense of the tissues. If, therefore, 
we desire to guard the system against waste and allow the organs 
to develop properly, we must, as far as possible, limit functional 
activity. There are, however, only two functions over which we 
can exert a direct voluntary influence, namely, the muscular and 
the mental. But as there is ample compensation for the energy 
expended in muscular activity while there is none, in the physical 
sense, for that used in mental action, it is clear that if we desire to 
economize we must do so by exercising control over mental labor. 
That the energy expended by the brain during its activity is de- 
rived from the same source as that required for the performance 
of the other functions is, to-day, a generally accepted fact. 

But, in order that it may not interfere with physical develop- 
ment, mental labor must be regulated both quantitatively and 
qualitatively. 

In regard to quantity, the number of school hours must not be 
excessive ; and introduction into school life should be gradual, so 
that the labor may be in proportion to the age and strength of the 
child. In Germany this rule is observed, the children beginning 
with about sixteen hours per week, to which two are added every 
year until the fifth or sixth, when the maximum is reached. 
The amount of work required at school, and in the preparation of 
lessons, likewise needs careful consideration. 

From the qualitative standpoint the methods of instruction 
play an important part. When the laws of psychology are ob- 
served, the mind being treated in accordance with its nature, the 



WAYS OF THE OWL. 313 

channels of least resistance are used, and the greatest amount of 
labor performed with a given amount of energy. 

As long, therefore, as physical exercise is grossly neglected, 
and unpsychological methods of teaching remain in general use, 
disease must continue in abundance, though ever so many im- 
provements be made in sewerage, ventilation, and disinfection ; 
for, as our argument has shown, attempts at prevention will in 
great part remain ineffectual until good systems of physical and 
natural methods of mental development have been introduced 

into the schools. 

** 

WAYS OF THE OWL. 

By FEANK BOLLES. 

SINCE June, 1888, I have had in my possession for longer or 
shorter periods eleven live owls, including snowy, great- 
horned, long-eared, barred, and screech owls. I have also had op- 
portunities of watching Acadian and screech owls in a wild state. 
In June, 1888, 1 secured two young barred owls from a hollow beech 
tree in a White Mountain forest. I have them still after three 
and a half years of happy companionship. During the first sum- 
mer they were pets not easily petted. They used beak and claws 
fiercely and resented familiarity. I kept them in a large slatted 
cage in my barn, where they had plenty of air and light. They 
bathed freely and frequently. They ate largely of animal food. 
They were awake by day, restless at twilight, but prof oundly quiet 
by night. They could see perfectly in bright sunlight, and better 
at night than most creatures. In the autumn I took them to Cam- 
bridge, where they were given a large cage in my cellar. During 
the winter I handled them more and more freely, beginning by 
using stout leather gloves, but soon stroking and rubbing their 
heads with my bare hands. They became more and more gentle, 
and I found that even when they nipped me with their beaks they 
did not attempt to cause serious pain. One of them, whose name 
is Puffy, injured his wing early in his captivity, and has never been 
able to fly. The other I keep clipped in one wing. In the spring of 
1889 I began taking Puffy with me on walks. I found at once 
that he was wonderfully useful in attracting other birds. During 
the summer of 1889, the following winter, and the summers of 1890 
and 1891 he was my companion on walks, drives, and trips in my 
Ruskton boat. To a smaller extent I have taken his mate Fluffy 
with me, but he is of a less patient disposition than Puffy, and 
during a long walk is sure to hop from the stick upon which 
I carry him many more times than Puffy would in an equal period. 
In May, 1891, 1 secured a third baby barred owl from the same beech 



3H 



THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 



tree. Fr< >m the first hour that he was imprisoned he has shown an 
irritable temper. His whining as a young bird was incessant by 
day and not always suspended by night. Now, at the age of nine 
months, lie whines whenever any one approaches him, and fre- 
quently makes violent assaults upon me when I enter the part of 
my cellar in which the owls are penned. Puffy and Fluffy dur- 
ing their first summer were quite timid, and Fluffy is an arrant 
coward now ; but Prince Edward, as the new captive has been 
named, has never shown fear of anything living or dead, large or 
small. 

Of two fully grown screech-owls which I owned, one in the 
spring of 1890, the other in the spring of 1891, little is to be said. 




Great-horned. 



Prince Edward. 



Puffy. 



Sxowdok. 



Fluffy. 



They were unhappy, and, although they ate well, both died from 
the effects of pounding their heads against wire netting in efforts 
to escape. These owls, when approached, stiffen their ears, make 
their feathers lie closely against their bodies, keep every joint and 
muscle rigid, and so nearly close their eyes that only an expres- 
sionless slit remains through which they watch the intruder. To 
the gentle caress of a hand they pay no heed. I have often taken 
one of them in my hand, laid him upon his back, and so carried 
him from room to room, and not been able to detect the movement 
of a feather. Let, however, the intruder retire, or let him take a 
dead mouse from his pocket and draw it by a string across the 



WAYS OF THE OWL. 31 5 

floor, and Scops is himself again in a twinkling. The ears are low- 
ered, the bright eyes open wide with a wicked glare, and the soft 
wings take the crafty and cruel little bird swiftly down upon the 
mouse. This habit of shamming unconsciousness appeared to be 
characteristic of the long-eared owl which was mine for a few 
brief hours in October, 1891. I handled him freely, but the closed 
eyes and rigid muscles did not move. I went away and watched 
him from a distance, and he was alert and making full use of his 
beautiful eyes. 

Early in the summer of 1890 a friend sent me three young 
screech-owls. They were as odd little gray hobgoblins as could 
be imagined. Their temper, their voices, their appetites all 
needed superlatives to describe them. They were sent to the White 
Mountains for the summer, and lived in a slatted box under the 
barred owls' big cage. They loved mice, birds, and fish, but did 
not take quite as kindly to raw liver as the barred owls did. For 
a week or more two of them were taken away from the third, and 
when they came back they no longer knew him as a brother. His 
life was made a burden to him, and one morning in August I 
found his body lying on the floor of their cage. They had re- 
moved nearly all his feathers and would probably have devoured 
him if I had not deprived them of the fruits of their unnatural 
crime. A few days passed and the two murderers quarreled over 
a mouse. In the frequent struggles that followed, one was killed 
outright and the other survived but twelve hours. My efforts to 
tame these young screech-owls were only partially successful. The 
murdered one had taken one or two excursions with me, and while 
I walked clung to a stick carried in my hand, or nestled between 
my arm and my body. If placed in a tree he served quite well as a 
decoy, although perhaps some species of birds did not take him as 
seriously as they did the barred owls when those intruded upon 
their breeding-grounds. 

In June, 1891, I was presented with Snowdon, a full-grown 
snowy owl, which had been captured during the preceding winter. 
He was a dangerous-looking bird, with a temper and a trick of 
jumping for one's fingers. I clipped one wing and began by hand- 
ling him roughly if he showed a disposition to fight. At the end 
of a week he learned to step upon a stick and cling to it while I 
carried him back and forth in the cellar. Taking him to the 
White Mountains, I gave up to his use a box stall in the northeast 
corner of my barn, and kept damp Iceland moss for him to 
stand upon, plenty of water for him to bathe in or drink, and a 
moderate supply of food for his sustenance. Although we had 
some warm weather, he was in perfect health throughout the sea- 
son, and is now in excellent condition. At first I kept the barred 
owls away from him, fearing that they might murder each other, 



3 i6 



THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 



but later experiments showed that Snowdon had no ill feeling to- 
ward the barred owls, and ignored them even when they stole his 
portion of the food. It is now six months since I turned them in 
together, and during the whole of that time the four birds have 
been on terms of quiet indifference. 

About the middle of September, 1891, a Boston dealer sent me 
a mature great-horned owl. He reached my country place just 
in time to be sent back to Cambridge with the snowy and barred 
owls. Clipping one of his great wings, I placed him with the 

others in the 250 square feet of 
cellar space fenced off for them. 
Puffy prepared for war, Fluffy 
fled, Prince Edward regarded the 
stranger with indifference, and 
Snowdon and the great - horned 
formed an alliance at once. Three 
months have passed, and, so far as 
I know, no conflict has occurred. 
The older barred owls fear and dis- 
like the great-horned. Prince Ed- 
ward treats him with brassy famil- 
iarity, and Snowdon stays with him 
in the corner of the cellar farthest 
from the favorite perch of the 
barred owls. 

Having introduced my charac- 
ters, I will now compare them in 
several particulars. They arrange 
themselves, when I think of them 
as owls merely, into two groups the brown owls and the gray 
owls. The great-horned, long-eared, screech, and Acadian owls 
seem to me much alike in disposition and their way of meeting 
man. They seem like kindred. 

The barred and snowy owls, while quite different from the 
brown owls, are somewhat alike in temper. They show fight 
when approached, and are very alert. The barred owls make 
several different sounds expressive of various emotions. They 
snap their beaks furiously when warning an enemy ; they whine 
when hungry ; they make a soft, rather musical " oo " when meet- 
ing after an absence ; they chatter with rage when pulling in op- 
posite directions on the same bird or mouse ; and they hoot when 
expressing the sentiments which make the domestic cock crow. 
While young they make a queer chuckling chatter when cuddled, 
and as the sound grows faint it suggests the music of a brood of 
chickens nestling under their mother's feathers. The hooting 
varies. In the August twilight I often hear the loud trumpeting 




Great-horned on a Stump, 



WAYS OF THE OWL. 



3*7 



" hoo " uttered at intervals of half a minute or more by wild owls 
in the woods. The common hoot, which suggests to some ears 
feline music, is generally "hoo-hoo hoo-h55, hoo-hoo hoo-hoo," 
but I heard a barred owl this winter in a remote White Mount- 
ain valley say " hoo-dS, hoo, hoo, hoo, hoo, hoo, hoo-00." He was 
a conversational and inquisitive bird. By hiding in some ever- 
greens and hooting to him I drew him little by little to the tree- 
top just above me. 

Wholly different is the conversation of the snowy owl. His 
warning is sometimes beak-snapping, but oftener an open- 
mouthed, hissing " ah/' which has a most menacing cpiality. He 
occasionally utters a shrill, whistling scream expressive of pain 
or the fear of pain, yet he makes it also when snatching a morsel 
of food held toward him. Thus far I have heard my great-horned 
owl make but four sounds : terrific beak-snapping ; ah-ing quite 
equal to Snowdon's ; a hooting which suggests wind sighing in a 
hollow tree, and taking the form of " whoo, hoo-hoo-hoo, whooo,. 
whooo " ; and a series of soft, musical notes, rolled from his throat 
when Snowdon comes too near his clutched breakfast. 

My barred owls eat raw butcher's meat, mice and squirrels, 
bats, any kind of bird, hawk and crow included, fresh fish, lake 
mussels, snakes, turtle-meat, 
some species of frog, earth- 
worms, some kinds of in- 
sects, and hen's or bird's 
eggs. They will not touch 
toads or the frogs which se- 
crete an offensive scent. They 
rarely eat tainted meat or 
stale fish. Once they played 
for hours with a dead weasel, 
much as a cat plays with a 
mouse, but they did not eat 
any part of it. They catch 
living fish from a tank, and 
kill mice, squirrels, birds, 
frogs, and snakes ; but they 
were at first greatly alarmed 

by a turtle, and a young hare running around their cage fright- 
ened them almost into fits. Puffy will face and put to flight a cat 
or a dog, but a pig is a terror to him. When Puffy was only six 
months old he caught and killed a two-pound pullet, yet in March 
and April, 1891, he roosted night after night on the same perch, 
with an old Cochin hen which had begun her stay in his cage by 
giving him an unmerciful trouncing. 

So far as I have been able to ascertain, Snowdon will not kill 




4., 



Snowdon on a Snow-covered Stump. 



3 i8 THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

anything, no matter how hungry he may be. He eats dead birds, 
mice, squirrels, fish, snakes, mussels, turtles, if opened, and butch- 
er's scraps ; but he will make no effort to catch or kill a squirrel, 
mouse, or snake, although shut up with them while hungry for a 
day or more. In one instance of this kind he ate a squirrel which 
he had allowed to live for twelve hours, as soon as it was killed 
and given to him. I have seen him drink once, and only once. 
If he bathes, it is a rare occurrence and done secretly. Early one 
morning in August, 1891, I heard a splashing in the owl's water- 
tank. It was about 3.30 a. m. Creeping to the cage, I peered in. 
and saw Snowdon shaking himself, as though he had just finished 
a bath. 

His method of eating is suggestive of a carrion-eater. The 
barred owls are deliberate in their way of treating their food. 
They search for and crush joints and finny projections. In a 
frog they feel of every limb from end to end, and crunch away at 
the joints until they are mellow. They generally pull out the 
stiff wing and tail feathers, even in quite moderate-sized birds. 
Small snakes they swallow squirming. Snowdon, on the other 
hand, ignores live snakes, and his first act with dead food is to 
swallow it whole if he can possibly distend his throat far enough 
to let it pass. I have seen the head of a large rooster vanish down 
his throat bill foremost without his making any effort to crush 
it. Often a piece of food will stick in his throat and refuse to go 
down, in spite of vigorous jerks, jumps, and convulsive swallow- 
ing. It is then ejected and sometimes dropped altogether. With 
a large piece of meat or fish his method is different. Standing 
upon it, he snaps at it viciously and tears off small bits, in eating 
which he makes a smacking noise. Engaged in this way he is a 
disgusting spectacle. His head is poked forward, and the feathers 
upon it seem flattened. The hairy feathers around his beak are 
drawn back, and his red mouth is open much of the time. If dis- 
turbed while eating, he makes his shrill and extremely piercing 
ory. He is perfectly willing to be fed by hand, snapping at and 
bolting morsels of liver as fast as they are passed to him. He 
sometimes eats enormous quantities of food in a short time. He 
ate the whole of a full-grown bittern in twenty-four hours, and 
on another occasion a cooper's hawk placed before him at night 
had only one leg and a few feathers remaining in the morning. 
Like other owls, he ejects hair and bone pellets from his mouth. 

The great-horned owl is not so ready to be fed. He prefers to 
eat while alone. Mice, however, are too attractive to be refused, 
and whenever held before him are slowly and quietly taken and 
swallowed. Other food he usually pretends not to see until I have 
left him. He seems ready to eat anything that the other owls like. 
I know that he has bathed at least once this winter, and, judging 



WAYS OF THE OWL. 



3'9 



"by his plumage, lie uses water freely. When given a cod's head 
or a large bird, he stands upon it and tears off morsels much as 
Snowdon does. His motions in doing this are sudden and his 
whole expression fierce and tiger-like. With horns slightly flat- 
tened and eyes glaring, he first plucks a piece of flesh from the 
carcass and then turns his head sharply from side to side to see 
whether any other owl dares to intrude upon his repast. My 




SXOWDON. 



Puffy. 



Great-horned. 



"barred, snowy, and great-horned owls all feed freely in the day- 
time. My screech-owls, on the contrary, usually waited until dark 
before devouring their food. One of them apparently ignored a 
live English sparrow for several hours while daylight lasted and 
the sparrow was able to see him, but when night came the spar- 
row was speedily caught, plucked, and eaten. 

The feeling with which other birds regard an owl seems to be 
a mixture of curiosity, hatred, and fear. Curiosity impels them 
to approach, hatred causes them to make violent and abusive 
cries, while fear inclines them to wariness and prevents them 
from open attack upon their sphinx-like enemy. This feeling of 
the birds is general, almost universal, and is shared in a modified 
form by the smaller owls when brought in contact with large 
ones. To the chickadee or the warbler it makes no difference 
whether an owl is large or small ; he is an owl, and that prompts 
inspection and vituperation. In several instances I have found 
Acadian owls in the woods in consequence of the racket made 
by birds scolding them. This winter, on the day after Christmas, 
I was walking through a spruce thicket in Albany, N. H., when 
the noise of nuthatches, Hudson Bay and black-capped titmice 



3 2 



THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY 



and king-lets enticed me into the darkest part of the growth. The 
birds were greatly excited, and as I softly drew near them I saw 
that they were in a circle, all facing toward some focus invisible 
to me. I crept farther, and saw the tail of a small owl projecting- 
from behind the trunk of a tree. Presently his tiny monkey 
face was screwed around over his back, and his timid yellow eyes 
fixed themselves upon me. His tormentors soon flew away, and 
after studying me attentively for some time the little Acadian 
floated off out of sight also. 

The young screech-owl, whose death at his brother's hands I 
have already mentioned, irritated the birds of the forest and 
meadow in the same way. I placed him, one morning, upon a, 
birch tree which was in use by a family of yellow-billed wood- 
peckers as a sap-drinking place. The sap-suckers made a great 
clamor on seeing him, and their cries called together all the birds 
which were within earshot. At least thirty individuals came, in- 
cluding kingbirds, cuckoos, catbirds, veeries, chickadees, four or 




Great-horned and Sxowdox. 



five kinds of warblers, red-eyed vireos, song-sparrows, and two 
humming-birds. Having scolded for nearly ten minutes, they 
departed, leaving a sap-sucker and a humming-bird, which soon 
forgot the owl and resumed their usual employment of drinking 
the birch tree's sap. 

Several times during the summer of 1891 I took my snowy 
owl out to walk. He weighs three and a half pounds, so the task 
of carrying him by hand upon an outstretched stick was rather 
a laborious one. The birds noticed him at once, and scolded as 
though he were of a species with which they were unpleasantly 
familiar, instead of one with which they were presumably wholly 



WAYS OF THE OWL. 321 

unacquainted. Thrushes of various kinds, warblers, vireos, swal- 
lows, and sparrows treated him precisely as though he had been 
a barred owl. Once a grouse, with a family of chicks, confronted 
him boldly for a moment, while her brood scattered to cover. 
His conduct while at liberty was somewhat peculiar. He shunned 
the woods, and if taken into them, quickly made his way out. 
His left wing being clipped, his only method of advance was by 
clumsy leaps, or by a queer wobbling run, aided by outstretched 
wings. Whenever I placed him upon the ground, he would hurry 
away to a distance, and stop to pant with his wings dragging 
wearily at his sides. One warm morning I left him on an open 
pasture hill-side, and walked away to a belt of woods nearly an 
eighth of a mile from him. Concealing myself in the bushes, I 
watched him closely through my glass for an hour and a half. 
The time was nearly a blank. The owl, satisfied that I had gone, 
walked toward me about a rod and sought the shady side of a 
small patch of juniper. There he remained almost motionless for 
the entire period. Sometimes he turned his head and watched 
crows at a distance. Once or twice he glanced at the sky, and in 
one instance he followed with his eyes the flight of a small bird. 
Looking toward the sun did not. seem to affect his vision. That 
he could see things at a distance was shown in several ways. 
When I came slowly from my hiding-place he saw me at once, 
and started jumping down the hill away from me. On another 
occasion I took him out in a pouring rain, thinking that he 
would go to the woods for shelter. He was content with stand- 
ing under a small apple tree which gave him practically no 
protection, a fact which he discovered and sought to remedy by 
running to another tree of the same kind. Inactive, unable or 
unwilling to kill mice or squirrels, even when most hungry, 
silent, vacant in expression, cowardly, apparently stupid, the 
snowy owl, judged by my one captive, is a dull and uninteresting 
member of an unusually acute family. I doubt Snowdon's being 
a fair type of his species. 

The barred owls are the particular abomination of other New 
England birds. They are courageous, keen of vision by day and 
in the twilight, strong, alert, quick, yet crafty. Their voracity 
makes them the terror of every nesting mother, the scourge alike 
of the forest, the field, and the meadow. Of their merits as de- 
coys there can be no doubt. If taken while young and clipped, 
they are readily tamed and taught to obey simple orders. Mine 
have been invaluable to me in studying the birds of New Hamp- 
shire. When going for a walk, I take one or both of the older 
ones. Entering their cage, I extend a short stick toward and on 
a level with their feet, and say, somewhat sternly, "Get on." 
They generally bite the stick once and then step upon it, and 

VOL. XLI. 24 



322 THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

cling to it patiently while I carry them through any kind of 
country. When I wish to have them attract other birds I hold 
them toward a convenient branch and say, " Get off/' which they 
are very willing to do. Then by whistles or cries I attract 
some bird's attention, and if it proves to be a titmouse, a wood- 
pecker, a thrush, or some other excitable bird, the alarm is given, 
and from all quarters the neighbors come pouring in to join the 
tumult. Even while holding Puffy on a stick and walking with 
him, I have had birds attack him. Once a pair of solitary vireos 
followed me for some distance, one of them flying between my 
head and the owl three times, apparently not noticing me any 
more than though I had been a tree. A similar attack from a 
sharp-shinned hawk was more surprising than pleasant. Some 
species are less demonstrative than others, and seem to think 
silence and retreat wiser than vituperation. Cedar-birds, great 
crested fly-catchers, and scarlet tanagers are three species which 
seldom greet Puffy noisily. Game birds, as a rule, are too much 
afraid of me to remain near the owl, and the same is true of 
water-fowl. Loons have, however, shown curiosity on discov- 
ering Puffy, and sandpipers clearly dislike him. I tested this in 
an amusing way one day, by taking Puffy out in my boat to a 
point just to windward of a solitary sandpiper, and then setting 
him adrift on a small board. At first the sandpiper did not see 
him, but as the wind carried the placid owl nearer and nearer the 
beach, the tattler suddenly discerned him, and became stiff with 
astonishment. He faced the owl, his head poked forward and his 
body rigid, then with a wild cry he flew, rising from the water 
and passing over the trees, away from the lake. 

Whip-poor-wills are not easy birds to watch at night, but they 
usually fly toward the owl, uttering excited clucks, and fly several 
times over it before going away to a distance. A mother night- 
hawk, with young, showed great courage and sagacity in dealing 
with Puffy. I placed the owl near her nest. She promptly flew 
down on the side of the owl away from her young, and fluttered in 
the grass as though wounded. Puffy hopped toward her. She flew 
a few feet, he followed, she flew a rod, he followed a third time. 
She flew three or four rods, and, as he hopped on, she rose and cir- 
cled around him until, if he had seen her nest in the first place, he 
never could have remembered in which direction it lay. 

The hooting of a barred owl in the daytime, or my imitation of 
the sound, almost invariably brings birds to the spot. Crows will 
come a long way in response to the hated call. So will blue jays, 
and several of the hawks and woodpeckers, hermit and Swainson's 
thrushes, chickadees, and a few other small birds, including the 
siskins in winter. Crows, in a particular region, soon learn that 
a barred owl implies a man in the same thicket, but for the first 



WAYS OF THE OWL. 323 

two or three times, hooting will surely call them within short 
range. 

Although game birds usually avoid the owl on account of my 
presence, a grouse with a large brood of young on one occasion 
showed much courage in watching Puffy. Her chicks scattered, 
but she remained in sight, whining and trailing her wings and do- 
ing her best to entice the owl away from the spot. Once she came 
within ten paces of him, her tail spread like a fan and her wings 
arched like an angry hen's. Puffy paid little attention to her, but 
seemed to be looking for the chicks which he had heard stirring 
in the leaves. Whenever he hopped she rushed into view, whin- 
ing. She remained near by during the whole of twenty minutes 
that I spent in her domain. 

In July, 1891, Puffy had a face-to-face meeting with a wild 
barred owl. Puffy was perched upon a stump facing a hemlock 
forest. Suddenly he became rigid and assumed a very unusual 
attitude for him, his head being thrust forward and his body flat- 
tened so that his breast rested upon the stump. Following the di- 
rection of his steady gaze, I saw a fine specimen of his race in the 
dark forest. He was as rigid as Puffy. How long they would 
have glared at each other I cannot tell, for it began to rain, and 
the stranger flew away. 

The hearing of all species of owls known to me is marvelously 
keen ; so keen, in fact, that I know of no way of testing it, since it is 
so much more acute than that of man. If owls have the sense of 
smell, I am unable to find satisfactory evidence of it. I have tried 
various experiments with them, hoping to prove that they could 
smell, but the results are all negative. They dislike putrid meat, 
but they bite it to ascertain its condition. They will not eat toads 
or frogs which yield an unpleasant odor, but they did not reject 
these species until they had tested them by tasting. They may be 
ever so hungry, yet they do not suspect the presence of food if it 
is carefully covered so that they can not see it. This test I have 
applied with the utmost care to the great-horned, snowy, and 
barred owls. The latter are shrewd enough to learn my ways of 
hiding their food, and when they suspect its presence they will 
search in the places where I have previously hidden it, pouncing 
upon pieces of wrapping-paper, and poking under feathers and ex- 
celsior with amusing cunning. I tested them with the fumes of 
camphor, ammonia, and other disagreeable and unusual smells, 
but they failed to show that they perceived them unless the fumes 
were strong enough to affect their breathing or to irritate their 
eyes. Finally, I put a cat in a basket and placed the basket be- 
tween the two owls. They were utterly indifferent to it until the 
cat made the basket rock, when both of them fled precipitately, and 
could not be induced to go near the basket again. Although Puffy 



3 24 THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

will put a cat to flight when on his mettle, Fluffy is frightened al- 
most out of his wits by them. 

A Japanese toy-bird, made of a piece of wood and a few scar- 
let feathers, was eagerly seized by Puffy, indicating not only a lack 
of power of smell, but the presence of an appreciation of color. I 
have fancied that an appreciation of color is also shown by barred 
owls in their frequent selection of beech trees as nesting-places, by 
great-horned owls in their choice of brown-trunked trees, and by 
Snowdon in an apparent preference for gray backgrounds. 

To this real or imaginary ability of the owls to select protect- 
ive backgrounds is to be joined an undoubted power of assuming 
protective shapes. My great-horned owl can vary at will from a 
mass of bristling feathers a yard wide, swaying from side to side 
as he rocks from one foot to the other, to a slim, sleek, brown post 
only a few inches wide, with two jagged points rising from its up- 
per margin. When blown out and defiant, his bill is snapping like 
a pair of castanets, and his yellow eyes are opening and shutting 
and dilating and contracting their pupils in a way worthy of a 
fire-breathing Chinese dragon. In repose he is neither inflated 
nor sleek, but a well-rounded, comfortable mass of feathers. The 
barred owls go through the same processes of expanding and arch- 
ing out their wings when awaiting attack, and of drawing all their 
feathers closely to their sides when endeavoring to avoid observa- 
tion. In one instance Puffy escaped from me in the woods, perched 
upon a small beech stump, drew his feathers into such a position 
that he seemed a mere continuation of the stump, closed his feath- 
ered eyelids until only a narrow slit remained for him to peep 
through, and stayed perfectly stiff for an hour while I hunted 
for him high and low. I passed by him several times without 
bringing my eyes to the point of recognizing him as a living thing. 
This power is shared by the screech-owl and the long-eared owl. 
The plumage of the snowy owl is so solid that he seems more scaly 
or hairy than feathered. He does not, so far as my specimen 
shows, expand and arch his wings. Instead of standing straight 
and becoming slim and rigid, he crouches and flattens himself 
when seeking concealment. I can imagine him in his Labrador 
wilds crouching thus amid a waste of junipers and reindeer moss, 
and baffling the eye which sought to detect him there. 

The control which owls have and exercise over their feathers 
is not limited to moments when they wish to appear terrible or 
inconspicuous. They seem to ruffle them or smooth them, ex- 
pand them or withdraw them in queer ways at pleasure. The 
barred owls, when stepping stealthily across a floor after a dead 
mouse drawn by a thread, tuck up their feathers as neatly as a 
woman hold her skirts out of the mud. When eating, the feathers 
nearest the mouth are pulled aside in a most convenient way. 



WAYS OF THE OWL. 325 

When wet, the feathers seem to shake themselves as well as to be 
shaken by motions of the body, head, and wings. My wife, in 
making a water-color sketch of Snowdon, complained that, al- 
though she could not see him move, he changed his outline a dozen 
times in an hour. 

The owl's eye is his most useful member. The popular belief 
that the owl is seriously blinded by light is almost wholly un- 
founded, at least so far as the species of which I am writing are 
concerned. When a man approaches an owl in broad daylight 
the owl, in nine cases out of ten, will close his eyes, and so appear 
sleepy. As I have already explained, this is an effort to escape 
notice by the assumption of a protective shape. That it is not due 
to any dread of light or inability to see is shown by the following 
instances of perfect seeing by owls in bright daylight : Walking 
through a Cambridge road in March, 1891, 1 saw an Acadian owl 
perched on a willow limb about fifty feet from me. His plumage 
was stiffened and his eyes nearly shut. I approached him and 
slowly raised my hand toward him. Suddenly his eyes opened 
wide and glared at me. Then the soft wings spread and he fell 
forward upon them, and flew toward the sun to a distant perch. 
The Acadian owl already mentioned as having been seen in 
December, 1891, in the spruce forest of the Swift River Valley, 
watched me keenly, and swung his small head around after the 
manner of owls, trying to see me clearly from more than one point 
of view. The screech-owl which I first owned, although sham- 
ming sleep one morning when I entered the room where I kept it, 
pounced upon a dead mouse which I let fall upon the floor, and 
flew off with it before I realized what had happened. One of 
my three young screech-owls when only two months old tried to 
catch a sap-sucking woodpecker which had perched near it in the 
sunlight on a dead tree. My snowy owl, as I have already stated, 
watches birds flying across the sky at a distance, and once saw me 
as I slowly emerged from the woods an eighth of a mile from him. 
Great-horned owls are well known to be active by day, and not 
inconvenienced by sunlight. The barred owls, however, exhibit 
the most marvelous powers of sight, and their eyes may well be 
called telescopic. In dozens of instances Puffy has seen, and by 
his fixed watching of the sky has called my attention to, hawks 
flying at so great a height that they were well-nigh beyond man's 
vision. More than this, he has on two or three occasions seen a 
hawk approaching in the upper air when my eyes, aided by a 
fairly strong glass, failed to see the bird until it drew nearer and 
grew large enough for me to detect it as a mere dot in the field of 
the lens. My eyes, by the way, are rather stronger and more 
far-sighted than the average. If the bird thus sighted by Puffy 
is a hawk or an eagle, he watches it until it is out of sight. If it 



TEE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY, 

pr< - - crow or a swift he gives it merely a glance and 

cs a The barred owls frequently look at the sun with 

their eyes half-closed for fifteen or twenty minutes at a time. Why 
the; ' I am wholly at a loss to explain. I am in doubt as 

how much Puffy can 91 ::ight. I onee held a eat within a few 

inches of him in the darkness, and he did not stir. Had he seen it 
he would certainly have moved and probably snapped his beak. In 
Aug - S I taftei ark on a patch, of closely cropped 

ss where the dim light enabled me to see him when he moved. 
I went to the nearest tree and seated myself with my back against 
ts trunk and my le r - - :ehed out before me. Half an hour 
I moving except when a bat flew over him. 

and I keeping perfectly motionless. At last he came toward me. 
5I0 1 1 I ime. When he was within a few feet 

I could see his outline quite plainly. One more hop brought him 

my knee, upon which he jumped. Instantly he bounded into 
the air and made off, unnii- ly frightened. He had no idea 

that he w. - g ingi strike a leg and not a log ; yet if his eyes had 

n much keener than a man's he would have seen not only that 

theswen n tw d, but that I was leaning against the tree- 

trunk " " hing him. In several instances I have called wild 

barred owls at night and have had them alight in tree-tops close 

above me. I could see them against the sky. but apparently they 

1] 1 n t see me fitting among the brakes and bushes below them. 
Once with an owl thus above me I imitated the squeaking cry of 
a wounded, bird. I wished I had not. for the owl's ghostly wings 
brushed past my socl sely that I fell back into the bushes. 

1 ing that he would strike at me again. 

The memory of my owls is noticeably good. Puffy and Fluffy, 
the two barred owls which I have had. longest, remember their fa- 
perches from season * season, and resume their chosen 
roosts after months of absence. In one instance Fluffy, on his 

urn t Cambridge after four months in the mountains, flew the 
length of the cellar, expecting to strike a perch which had been 
removed, and, failing to find it, fell to the floor. It is only neces- 

y for me to bring a box-trap into the barn for Puffy to come 
I :he front of his cage, eager to be given a chance to catch the 
chipmunk which past experience leads him to believe is in it. 
S lilar eagerness is shown in winter, when I bring a paper parcel 
int * r, the wis knowing - -ell that it contains food that 

y will tear it open themselves if I do not open it for them. If 
the bundle is brought in without their knowledge and thrown at 
random upon the floor, they do not find it, and will leave it for 
days untouched. Puffy does not like going out in my boat. If 
he finds that I am taking him to the shore near it, he invariably 
jumps off his stick and :o hide in the bushes. Snowdon 



WAYS OF THE OWL. 327 

knows a piece of cloth which I have used to thro ead 

when I have wished to handle him. and the Bight of it 

cause him to make strong efforts to escape from hi - -. All 

three of the barred owls hide their snrplns food, and remember 
where they keep it. Snowdon, on the contrary, sornetin. nds 

tons which he is not ready to devour, letting hi 
sink down bo as to cover them. Puffy not only nnd the 

commands " Get on " and " Get off," hut he knows his; own 
and generally an I call him V giving 

clap "with his beak. He has frequently aledhi -. to 

me by this answer when I have lost Mm in the bushes, tall g 
or at twilight. That he especially, and all my other owls to a 
degree, know me and distinguish me readily from strangers, :-. I 
think, undoubtedly a fact. Thus far I hav rn unable * 

that any of the owls have a clear notion of t: as indi- 

cated by the coming or _ a >f daylight. The a rk- 

ings of owls are extremely economical In summer the bird 
enormous appetites, and become frantic with hunger if not fed. 

:y forty or fifty hours. In winter, on the contrary, the ma- 
ture birds fast for a week or more without complaint. During 
the winter of 1889-'90 I could not ~ain that Fluffy ate any- 

thing for more than a month that is, from Christmas-time until 
first week in February. Throughout this period he seemed 
well, though inclined to keep quiet and t ~ y in the darkest 
corner of the cellar. When fed regular". amply, all the 

species of owls with which I have had any ience cast from 

their mouths egg-shaped "' pell " -." composed of the bone and hair, 
fish-scales, and feathers which remain in th-^: si machfi after the 
digestion of the more nutritious parts of recent meals. This 
tion is accomplished easily and quickly, with very little visible 
muscular action. It usually, or at least often, takes pi at the 
moment when the owl has anoth rty meal in view. TL 

furnaces burn nearly all that goes into them. Considering the 
amount of fuel put in, the extremely small amount of a - b 
wonderful. 

In disposition my owls vary widely. The barred as 

owls go remarkably - -tempered and gentle. I never have 

d one offer violence to another, even when two were struggling 
over a morsel which both v.- mined to hav - don is 

sullen, stupid, cowardly, and treacherous. The _ t-horned has 
a temper, but he generally k - it ncealed under an air of dig- 
nified reserve. My 9d -ch-owls, when not shamming sleep or 
death, were irritable, quarrelsome, and ferocious. Between 
three-barred owls the: idual diff- ss in disposition, 

which are readily learned but not easily described. They srand 
out distinctly in my mind as three characters, just as three chil- 



328 THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

dren or three horses would be distinguished when I thought of 
them. I feel as much attachment for Puffy as I possibly could 
for an intelligent and faithful dog. His crippled wing has proba- 
bly made him unusually docile and tractable, but, whatever may 
be the cause of his goodness, he certainly is a model of patience, 
placidity, and birdly virtue. This, in combination with pluck, 
which leads him to charge upon and vanquish dogs, cats, and do- 
mestic fowls, and a magnanimity which enabled him to roost for 
weeks alongside of an old hen, will make him worthy of owlish 
canonization when in good time he is gathered to his fathers. 



ALMOND CULTURE IN CALIFORNIA. 

By HENRY J. PHILPOTT. 

DURING the fiscal year ending June 30, 1890, the American 
people imported 5,715,858 pounds of almonds, valued at 
$813,278. The value of all other nuts imported was $800,376. I 
confess my surprise at this fact, that we spend more money for 
almonds than for all other imported nuts put together. It would 
not be so surprising if this were the cheapest of our imported 
nuts. But, on the contrary, it is the highest priced, not only 
in the countries of exportation whence we draw our supplies, 
but still more so to the consumer in this country, on account 
of the higher import duty. The duty on almonds is five cents a 
pound if unshelled, and seven cents and a half if shelled. The 
highest duty on any other nut is three cents on filberts and 
walnuts. 

The average import price of the almonds was fourteen cents 
and a quarter, and of the filberts and walnuts 5"7 cents. The 
almonds imported were almost exactly half shelled and half un- 
shelled, which would make the duty average six cents and a quar- 
ter ; and so, adding the duty to the import prices, the prices in 
this country, duty paid, were 20'5 cents for almonds and 8*7 cents 
for filberts and walnuts. Thus our preference for the almonds 
seems to be conclusively established, in spite of the fact that our 
imports by weight of filberts and walnuts were nearly double 
those of almonds. 

The home production of all these nuts is still so small that we 
have no reliable statistics of it. California produces both almonds 
and walnuts, but in small patches only. The southern end of the 
State has a considerable walnut belt, but the almond orchards are 
widely scattered. The area suitable for almond culture is con- 
fined to small spots distributed over the whole length of the State. 
It is doubtful whether there is enough of it all told to supply the 



ALMOND CULTURE IN CALIFORNIA. 329 

American market. What there is of it, however, is rapidly filling 
up with the trees. Not more than half of those already set out 
are now in bearing. So it may not be many years before the 
California almond-grower will be able to depress a market which 
he can never hope to wholly supply, even with the burden of a 
high protective tax of five cents a pound heaped upon his foreign 
competitor.* 

For the past year I have myself been an almond grower, in a 
small way, my total product being almost exactly one car-load. 
The purpose of this paper is to describe the processes by which 
the favorite nut of Americans is produced and made ready for 
their holiday tables. 

To begin at the beginning, the almond is strictly a budded or 
grafted tree. A seedling apple, peach, cherry, or plum is sure to 
be good for something and marketable at a fair price, though 
it may be far below the grafted stock in quality and product- 
iveness. The seedling almond may, like other seedlings, be an 
improvement, but it is very apt to be utterly worthless and 
unsalable, and may ue deadly poison. It is as if its evolution 
were so recent that its type is not well set, and its tendency to 
atavism, or " breeding back " to older types, quite strong. This 
inclination to " sport " shows itself even in budded and grafted 
trees. All except the oldest trees on this ranch were planted 
and budded on the ranch, under the careful supervision of the 
owner. In selecting the buds and scions he not only paid strict 
attention to varieties, but took care to cut from none but the 
most prolific bearers of the best nuts among the tested trees of 
each variety. In spite of all his care, we have some interest- 
ing sports. There are trees that never bear at all ; others bear 
worthless nuts. One yields a nearly perfect peach-pit inclosed 
in a nearly perfect almond drupe. And the four named varie- 
ties, though amply distinct when fairly represented, now and 
then shade into one another so gradually that the most experi- 

* The table on page 314, Internal Commerce of the United States, 1890, estimates the 
" shipment " of almonds as follows : 

Tear. Pounds. 

1885 1,050,000 

1886 600,000 

1887 500,000 

1888 450,000 

1889 600,000 

Whence or whither the " shipments " were made is not stated. The connection indicates 
that they were from the eight leading fruit and nut shipping points in California. The 
figures look like guesses, and no clew is given to the amounts shipped from the other points 
to San Francisco, to be reshipped and thus counted twice in the table, which does not in- 
clude some important almond-shipping points ; and would not include my 15,000 pounds 
sent from a point not named in it direct to Chicago. 



33Q THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

enced pickers have difficulty in deciding which box to empty 
their baskets into. 

Of the many varieties of almonds four only are cultivated on 
this ranch, and their most important difference is in the weight 
and hardness of shell. None of them is a hard-shell, but the 
standard is a rather hard soft-shell ; the Languedoc is the regular 
soft-shell, so quoted in the market reports ; the paper-shell is the 
nut regularly quoted as "paper-shell" ; and the California paper- 
shell is a new and very distinct variety which originated within a 
mile of here, and has made this ranch famous among the nursery- 
men of the State. The trees grown from its buds and scions prob- 
ably number at this writing half a million. At any rate, enough 
has been cut from it to produce a far greater number. It was a 
purely accidental seedling, not a premeditated hybrid. But its 
good size, plump kernel, extraordinarily thin, light shells, sweet 
flavor, and agreeable appearance have won its way in the mar- 
kets; and sold alongside of other nuts, hard-shell, soft-shell, or 
paper-shell, in San Francisco, New York, or Chicago, it brings 
the highest price of all by two or three cents a pound. It is the 
truest of all to type, and most distinct in the form of the tree. 
Mr. Morrison at first set out a twenty-five-acre orchard entirely of 
this variety. But, being disturbed by reports that it had proved 
a shy bearer, he sawed off three fourths of the trees and grafted in 
the better-known varieties. The new almond certainly has not 
borne so well as the others since I have been familiar with it, 
and I am afraid the difference in productiveness offsets the dif- 
ference in price. Otherwise the California paper-shell would 
be a valuable contribution, strictly American, to the improve- 
ment of the almond; and Mr. Webster Treat, who has tried it 
on a larger scale than anybody else, claims in his paper, read 
before the State Board of Horticulture, that it is the hardiest 
and most prolific as well as the most salable almond grown. He 
confidently predicts that it will drive the foreign almond out of 
the market. 

The almond is an unpruned apple tree in size and shape, and 
in smoothness and color of bark; a peach tree in foliage and 
green fruit. The leaf is so exactly like that of the peach, to which 
it is most nearly related, that the casual visitor can not distin- 
guish them. The same is true of the fruit in a very green state. 
The drupe is a peach in taste and smell, both green and dry. The 
almond is quite commonly grafted on peach stock, though some 
prefer the almond stock on account of its alleged greater hardi- 
ness and longevity. An almond orchard in bloom is a thing of 
beauty. The first one I ever saw was the one immortalized in the 
story of Ramona, and it happened on Washington's birthday. 
The date shows what an early bloomer it is. First of all the fruit 



ALMOND CULTURE IN CALIFORNIA. 331 

blossoms of spring comes the showy almond, a dense mass of 
white with a " hint of a tint " of pink in it.* 

The cultivation of the almond is easier than of any other tree, 
unless it be the prune. The orchard is plowed and harrowed once 
or twice a year, and then the weeds are kept down in any way the 
farmer chooses. The amount of work required to do this depends 
on the weather, and is just the same for the almond as for any 
other tree. But the almond tree, like the prune, is never pruned 
in this region. Like the prune, the fruit is never thinned on the 
tree, as the peach and apricot must always be, to produce a crop of 
good fruit. The heavy pruning and thinning required every 
year on our peach and apricot trees is a great expense, the thin- 
ning alone often costing fifty cents a tree, for an average of the 
whole orchard. Aside from stirring the soil and killing the 
weeds, a dozen apricot trees take more care and labor than a dozen 
acres of almonds. This is the consideration that makes almond- 
growing popular. Equally important is the fact that thus far the 
almond has no parasites, such as scales, moths, etc., while almost 
every year adds a new recruit to the insect enemies of other 
fruits. Our peach-growers are put to the expense of buying cost- 
ly machines for spraying their trees, and insecticides with which 
to spray them. Insecticides cost money, and spraying costs time 
and labor. If the wash is strong enough to kill the scale, it is apt 
to kill the new wood of the tree a very serious matter in the case 
of the peach, whose fruit is all on its last year's growth of wood. 
Still, the spraying must be done every year, and may even be en- 
forced by law in California. All this trouble and expense are 
saved to the almond-grower, whose only insect enemy is the red 
spider, a semi-occasional visitor easily got rid of, and not formid- 
able if left unhindered in his work. 

First to bloom in the spring, the almond is last to mature in 
the fall. The whole spring and summer long it hangs there, a 
green peach for all the world, and after the first few weeks never 
increasing in size or changing in appearance. The seam is deeper 
than in most peaches, but not deeper than in the ripe apricot. 
Late in August this seam will be seen to have opened in a few of 
the earliest. The grower's anxiety now reaches its climax. Will 
his almonds open and remain open until harvested, or will the 
drupe remain closed, or only partially open and then close tight 
again ? The whole profit of the crop may depend on this ques- 
tion. It may cost half they are worth to pick and husk them. 



* The writer in the Encyclopaedia Britannica combats the ancient tradition that almond 
blossoms are white. He says they are pink. As I have seen them it is more proper to call 
them white than pink, though the whitest contain a suggestion of pink, and some varieties 
show it so plainly as to be distinguishable at considerable distances. 



332 THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

Just that thing happened this year to my nearest neighbor, and 
to several neighbors ; while the nuts on this ranch opened better 
and husked easier than ever before in the whole course of its 
thirty years of almond-growing. The result was, that our pickers 
earned a dollar and a half a day picking at half the cost per pound 
incurred by our neighbors, whose men earned a dollar and a quar- 
ter a day. 

The nuts are knocked off the trees with long poles. Where they 
have opened nicely they are allowed to drop on the bare ground, 
and are husked as they are picked up. The picker's delight, 
if he is working by the bushel or box, is to see the ground cov- 
ered with nuts that the stroke of the pole and the impact against 
the clods have completely husked, so that he has nothing to do 
but throw them into his basket. He is lucky indeed if half of 
them come out that way. Those that do not are husked with the 
fingers. The new paper-shell above described is one of the freest, 
and its drupe often falls off spontaneously before the picking sea- 
son, leaving the naked nut hanging to the tree. But the nut so 
free from its drupe clings tightest of all to its tree, and is often 
quite hard to knock down without injury to the branches. Other- 
wise the saving in its harvest expense would be quite an impor- 
tant point in its favor. 

In the best of seasons there will be a large part of the crop so 
badly opened as to require a different process. A canvas is 
spread under the tree for the nuts to fall on. When all are 
knocked down, the canvas is rolled up and with its load of nuts 
carried to any spot near by where it is convenient to heap to- 
gether the harvest of several trees. A simple table of loose 
boards is made, and around it gather the pickers. One of the 
party rubs the nuts to loosen the drupes, and the others husk. 
The rubber is an extremely simple machine, exactly like a wash- 
ing machine in principle. Practically it is two old-fashioned 
wash-boards rubbed together. In appearance it is a flat-bottomed 
pig-trough, six or eight feet long and open at one end. Across 
the bottom inside, pieces of lath are tacked an inch apart, and 
thus the lower wash-board is formed. The nuts are scooped into 
it, a few pounds at a time, and a shorter board, likewise ribbed 
crosswise with lath, handled like a flatiron or a plasterer's trowel, 
is rubbed over them by hand, loosening their husks and pushing 
them along to the open end of the trough, where they fall into a 
box and are heaped on the table, to be now easily husked. It is a 
cheerful thing to see the assembled pickers seated under the shade 
of a tree, making their fingers fly and heaping up their boxes with 
the precious harvest. The damper on the meeting is the fact that 
almost invariably the pickers are Chinamen. Their gay chatter 
might as well be that of monkeys, for all the sense you get of it. 



ALMOND CULTURE IN CALIFORNIA. 333 

At many kinds of work white men are more profitable to employ 
than Chinamen, though they demand much higher wages. At 
picking almonds the Chinaman is preferable at the same wages. 
Fewer nuts escape his keen eye to be left on the tree or under the 
clods. He can pick more in a day, and with less damage to the 
tree and the nuts. 

In large orchards a more complicated but still crude and un- 
satisfactory rubber is sometimes operated by horse or steam 
power. But the nuts and drupes must still be separated by hand, 
and probably always will be. The drupes are mostly only loos- 
ened by the machine, many of them not even that, and but few 
of them entirely rubbed off. This last might be done by machin- 
ery in the case of quite hard-shelled nuts. But more force is re- 
quired to remove the drupe than to break the shell of a large por- 
tion of the crop. In some orchards every year, and in many 
orchards this year, the only way to market the almond was to 
crack it with the drupe on and sell the kernel. Others who did 
not deliberately crack were obliged to rub so hard that many of 
the kernels came out, and at the close of the harvest they had 
barrels of them to sell as shelled almonds. The price per pound 
is greater than of unshelled almonds, but my neighbors say that 
the addition to the price does not make up for the weight of 
shells thrown away, to say nothing of the extra labor and expense 
of cracking. 

Where the picking was done by hand, and paid for by the box, 
it cost this year, in this vicinity, seventy to ninety cents a box. 
The box used is what is called the large-sized free apple-box. 
That is, it is the box which holds an honest bushel, and goes with 
the apples when they are sold in the market. The first boxes I 
got from the factory were free apple-boxes, and I supposed that 
was all right and sufficient, until the Chinese foreman of our band 
of pickers brought out the box he had used in former years, and I 
saw that mine were smaller just enough smaller not to arouse 
suspicion in the breast of the final consumer when he buys apples 
by the box, and at the same time to save the middle-man, who 
buys by the pound and sells by the box, a few pounds in each box 
he sells. He prefers that the producer should ship his fruit in 
these dishonest boxes, just as the San Francisco butter dealers, 
who buy by the pound and sell by the roll, caution the farmers 
not to put quite two pounds in a roll. So I found that my apple- 
boxes were short-weight boxes, and were losing me the cost of 
picking about three pounds out of every box of almonds picked ; 
and that this loss would in one season cover, several times over, 
the price of the boxes. I put this part of the story in for what- 
ever it may be scientifically worth, as a contribution to the study 
of commercial ethics. I bought the larger-sized bushel boxes as 



334 THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

quickly as possible. It cost me one dollar and fifty-six cents to 
find out the difference between a bushel of apples and a bushel 
of apples. 

Picking and husking the almonds cost us exactly fifty dollars 
a ton, and our neighbors all the way up to twice that. Outside of 
my own family we employed a varying number of Chinamen, up 
to nine. The task lasted from the 18th of September to the 28th 
of October. The boxes picked each day are gathered in the even- 
ing and conveyed to the drying-yard, where the nuts are sun-dried 
for a few days. Then comes the bleaching, which is done with 
the fumes of sulphur, and requires care and some experience. 

The bleaching-box is built in various fashions, but covered 
with tongued and grooved boards and in other ways made tight, 
so as to confine the sulphur-smoke as much as possible. In com- 
mon orchards it is about six feet square and six or seven high. It 
is a complete inverted box, and often movable. The drying-trays 
are slid in on cleats like the draws of a cabinet. Almonds, being 
dried before they are bleached, are sprinkled or sprayed with 
clean water just before sulphuring, the moisture being necessary 
to make the sulphur do its work of bleaching. The proper 
quantity of sulphur for one bleaching is put into a pan, ignited, 
and set inside the bleaching-box. The doors are closed tightly, 
and left so until the sulphur is all burned. The almonds are then 
taken out and dried again for a few hours, to remove the moisture 
sprayed upon them before bleaching. 

If they come out bright and evenly bleached, the grower's 
heart beats more quickly. He knows that it is the color that sells 
his almonds. Consumers may growl as much as they please, and 
preach on the sin of poisoning their fruit with sulphur-fumes, 
but they will always buy the poisoned ( ?) fruit and give a much 
higher price for it. They may pat the honest grower of unbleached 
fruit on the back, but trust them never to give him a penny's 
worth of encouragement in the market. To-day my paper quotes 
unbleached apricots at two to four cents a pound, and those that 
are bleached, or " sulphur-poisoned," at five to six and a half 
cents. All these prices preclude living profits. Who knows how 
many growers of unbleached fruit this year's ruinous prices will 
drive off their farms and out of business, to make room for a like 
number of sulphur-poisoners ? And, going back to the apple 
merchants and butter dealers, we must admit the full force of 
the same apology for their crookedness. 

But aside from the fact that the fruit-grower is held, much 
against his inclination, by his final consumers to his questionable 
trick of trade, the question is still open whether it really does 
them any harm. Sulphuric acid, like many poisons, is a medi- 
cine in proper doses. Does a tablespoonful or two of well- 



ALMOND CULTURE IN CALIFORNIA. 335 

bleached peaches, taken at meal-time, contain a poisonous or a 
medicinal dose of the acid ? Remember, they are "not sulphured 
ad lib. The consumer and the middle-man set the bounds. A 
distinctly susceptible sulphur taste hurts the peach in the mar- 
ket, and reacts on the grower. He is obliged to learn the art of 
securing a thorough bleach without the sulphur taste. To do 
this he must have the right kind of sulphur, and a very tight 
bleaching-box properly arranged inside ; and he must know how 
much sulphur to put in, and how long to leave his fruit exposed 
to its fumes. The most experienced of my neighbors still differ 
widely on all these details. But I am convinced that, with 
proper facilities and proper skill and care, the bleaching may be 
made to entirely satisfy the eye of the consumer without injuring 
the rest of his body. I confess I should like to be still better satis- 
fied on the point. But I console myself with the reflection that 
sulphur-smoke is a famous disinfectant, and must render the fruit- 
eater less liable to all those diseases originating in germs, either 
microscopic or otherwise. Who knows but that a thorough 
scientific investigation, bacteriological as well as chemical, would 
prove the sulphur-poisoner to be, on the contrary, a conservator 
of the public health? 

But whatever guilt the fumes of sulphur fasten upon the fruit- 
grower, the almond-grower is clear of ; for he does not sulphur 
his fruit at all. What he sulphurs is but the shell that is thrown 
away that is, if he does his work properly. If he sulphurs 
while the nuts are green, or wets them too much just before sul- 
phuring, the fumes may penetrate to the kernel; especially of 
very soft-shelled or paper-shelled almonds. But he gains nothing 
by it, not even in the appearance of his nuts, and does it from 
ignorance or inexperience rather than from policy. I tried this 
thoroughly, and by watching closely the result of each experi- 
ment was able to improve on the best advice my neighbors, old in 
the business, could give me. First, our old bleacher being too 
open, a new one was built. Then the almonds were made a little 
drier than they need be to go to market. Then the water was 
put on in the finest spray attainable, so that the nut was slightly 
but evenly dampened, but little if any more than enough to make 
up for the overdrying. Then the time of exposure to the fumes 
was regulated, not by the watch, but by the quantity of sulphur 
put into the pan, so that, whether we bleached in the daytime and 
took out one bleacherful to make room for another, or went to 
bed at night leaving the bleacher loaded and the sulphur burn- 
ing, the nuts always got the same dose and no more. We kept 
on until we found the minimum of moisture and the minimum of 
sulphur that would do the business. 

The nuts came out of the bleacher looking beautifully, all the 



336 THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY. 

more so by being laid out in the drying-yard in rows or squares 
alongside of the black, ugly things not yet bleached. They never 
look so pretty afterward, for the sunlight required to dry off the 
moisture artificially put on blackens them to a certain extent. 
Here we got the advantage of not moistening too much. Our 
overdried nuts absorbed part of this moisture, and they could 
soon be removed from the discoloring influence of sunlight, and 
the curing finished in the shade. Manipulated in this way, the 
kernel of the finest paper-shell can not be hurt by the sulphur. 

And this leads us to the observation that, as a rule, the harder 
the shell, the whiter the almond bleaches. This rule does not 
hold always and absolutely, for, while no paper-shell approaches 
the mere soft-shell in whiteness, the whitest of our paper-shells is 
also the softest-shelled narnelv, the new "California." But 
while the market pays more for the darkest paper-shell than for 
the whitest soft-shell, the tourists who visit our yards are always 
most attracted by the " Standard," the hardest of our soft-shells, 
because of its showy whiteness. In the market it brings about 
two thirds the price of our black, old-fashioned paper-shell that 
is, in the San Francisco market. But just here I had one of my 
most interesting experiences in almond-growing. I sent fair 
samples of each of our four varieties to San Francisco and also 
to Chicago. I was struck by the grotesque difference in the 
relative prices quoted from these samples. Thus, in cents per 
pound : 



Variety. 



California paper-shell. 
Common paper-shell. . 

Languedoc 

Standard 



San Francisco. 


Chicago. 


14 


18 


12* 


12 


10* 


15 


9 


15 



The tawny skin of the common paper-shell, easily cracked by 
twisting in the fingers and yielding a large weight of kernel in 
proportion to weight of shell, was too much for Chicago, and it 
was quoted away below the heavy-shelled, hard-shelled Stand- 
ard, requiring the use of the hammer, or the clumsy nut-cracker, 
and its weight consisting largely of waste shell. 

If any of these varieties had a kernel suitable for the confec- 
tioner or the baker, and he bought them unshelled, he could 
afford to pay considerably more for the paper-shells ; for he would 
be paying for little else but kernels, and these would be easily 
extracted. However, the kernel used in candies and cakes is that 
of the imported Jordan almond, in San Francisco as invariably as 
in Chicago or New York. It is imported shelled, and is longer 
and smoother than anything we have yet produced. It comes from 
Malaga. Those who buy nuts by the pound for the table, or to 



ALMOND CULTURE LN CALLFORNLA. 337 

carry in the pocket, would save money by paying a little more 
for paper-shells, to say nothing of convenience in cracking es- 
pecially as a pocket nut. Those who buy them for children in- 
clined to use their teeth as nut-crackers would save something 
worth more than money. The child who disobeys and clandes- 
tinely cracked his almonds that way would not be damaging his 
teeth as much as if chewing a hard crust of bread or a dry toast. 
On the other hand, many persons, after their attention has been 
called to the subject, like, or think they like, the flavor of the 
harder-shelled Standards and Languedocs better than of the 
paper-shells ; and de gustibus non est disputandum. The writer 
hereof has no preference. He never did eat almonds, nor any 
other imported nuts except Brazil-nuts, when he could get the 
native nuts of the Mississippi Valley. 

If this is due to early associations, the almond would by the 
same token be the favorite nut of the younger generation of Cali- 
fornia almond-growers. They had no eatable wild nuts, their na- 
tive walnut tree, transplanted to their homes for its beauty, bear- 
ing a worthless nut. The almond, of all their crops, was best 
adapted to cultivate and felicitate home life. They harvested it 
themselves, knocking the nuts off the tree in the daytime, husk- 
ing what they could, and carrying the rest into the house to be 
husked by all the nimble fingers of the large, old-fashioned fam- 
ilies at night. Prices were high then, and every pound husked 
meant twenty, twenty-five, or even thirty cents. With such 
prices, never-failing crops, and little or no cash expense, it is no 
wonder that almond-growing became popular, nor that the solid- 
est farmers attribute their present comfortable circumstances to 
almonds. Well may they turn from these degenerate dime-a- 
pound seasons of more than occasional failure, when the inevi- 
table Chinaman, whom the Exclusion Act has exalted into a grasp- 
ing monopolist of labor, takes half the proceeds of the harvest, 
and takes it b